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# Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with

the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the
consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of
stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to
develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important
founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko.

The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and
strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to
predict the response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes
takes into account the properties of the materials such as its yield strength, ultimate
strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio; in addition the mechanical element's macroscopic
properties (geometric properties), such as its length, width, thickness, boundary constraints and
abrupt changes in geometry such as holes are considered.

Force are acting on design artifact can be significant. All bodies deform under applied force, they
can fail if the force are sufficient large. Usually, the structure or system must remain intact even
when subjected to force. If we know the forces under which failure would occur, we can design
to avoid failure. Further, a system often needs to remain close to its original shape to function
properly. If we can quantify deformations, we can design the system to avoid undesirably large
deformation.
A crack in structure, such as this support column, is
type of failure. This crack may be repairareble. A structure
that fractures completely into two part would clearly be
unacceptable.
To predict deformation and failure, mechanic of materials relies on a critical insight, its can be
viewed as an assemblage of tiny, in fact infinitesimal, cubic elements, This insight allow us to
separate out the effect of the bodys material from its shape. Since a tiny cube is standard shape,
the relations between the cubes deformation and the forces on it depend only on the materials,
for example, the particular type ceramic, metal, plastic or wood. These relations can be measured
and described for a given materials, and they relavent to a body of any shape and size composed
of the material.

Mechanic of materials defines stress and strain to describe force and deformation at the level of
an elemental cube. To determine a bodys overall deformation and potential for failure, we
combine the material, specific stress, strain relations for the cubic element, equilibirium relation
between force on the body as whole and the force on its elements, and geometric relations
between deformations of the whole body and of its element.
The strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or
plastic deformation. The field of strength of materials deals with forces and deformations that
result from their acting on a material. A load applied to a mechanical member will induce internal
forces within the member called stresses when those forces are expressed on a unit basis. The
stresses acting on the material cause deformation of the material in various manners including
breaking them completely. Deformation of the material is called strain when those deformations
too are placed on a unit basis. The applied loads may be axial (tensile or compressive), or
rotational (strength shear). The stresses and strains that develop within a mechanical member
must be calculated in order to assess the load capacity of that member. This requires a complete
description of the geometry of the member, its constraints, the loads applied to the member and
the properties of the material of which the member is composed. With a complete description of
the loading and the geometry of the member, the state of stress and of state of strain at any point
within the member can be calculated. Once the state of stress and strain within the member is
known, the strength (load carrying capacity) of that member, its deformations (stiffness qualities),
and its stability (ability to maintain its original configuration) can be calculated. The calculated
stresses may then be compared to some measure of the strength of the member such as its
material yield or ultimate strength. The calculated deflection of the member may be compared to
a deflection criteria that is based on the member's use. The calculated buckling load of the
member may be compared to the applied load. The calculated stiffness and mass distribution of
the member may be used to calculate the member's dynamic response and then compared to the
acoustic environment in which it will be used.
Material strength refers to the point on the engineering stressstrain curve (yield stress) beyond
which the material experiences deformations that will not be completely reversed upon removal
of the loading and as a result the member will have a permanent deflection. The ultimate strength
refers to the point on the engineering stressstrain curve corresponding to the stress that produces
fracture.

Engineer deals with deformation and failure in structure having a wide variety of shapes,
materials, and loadings. However, in mechanic of materials, we study deformation and failure
primarily, for simple patterns of deformation; stretching, twisting, bending.
We are student will be understand about the force react on the beam with the law of physique and
how to calculated and make a design for this. We also learn the force and deformations vary from
cubic element to another for each deformation pattern. With that information, we interrelate the
overall load and deformation pattern, and we find the load at which failure will occur. However
we must also learn to detect the presence of these simple deformation pattern in combination. We
typically analyze the deformations and stress in each pattern and then combine them
appropriately to find the total deformation and to determine if failure will occur. When after been
graduate we as an fresh civil engineer from University will be familiar with this profession and
will be more professional after have an experience in this scope. We can built confident level
with understand about the Mechanic of materials. We apply this knowledge in site and the
position.

After that we collect the data from the experiment so we can imagine how the real life will be
work. We can identify the problem and solve it using the calculation and law of physique.
Students come from a variety of disciplines including Civil Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, Materials Science & Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Physics, among others.
The mission of the MoM program is to provide students with a state-of-art education and
visionary research opportunities that will drive the future of multi-disciplinary engineering and
partnerships between the University, industry, and government. However from this experiment
we can produce new design and understand more how to solve the problem in real world.