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Submitted towards the partial fulfilment of the course of Masters of Fashion Management

Geographical indication Bawanbuti of Nalanda

Submitted by:


Under the guidance of:

Mr. B.B Jena

(Asso. Professor. NIFT, Bhubaneswar)

Submitted to:

Department of Fashion Management Studies

National Institute of Fashion Technology

(Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India)

NIFT Campus, IDCO Plot No-24,

Bhubaneswar, Odisha-751024.

Name of the applicant Bawanbuti of Nalanda

Address Area : Bhaswanbigha
Block Name : Biharsharif
District :Nalanda
State : Bihar
Division : Patna
Pincode: 803118
List of association Copy attached
Type of Goods Weaving technique on sarees, curtains bedsheets and table cloth
Class 24, 25, 26
Specification Class 24- Textiles and substitutes for textiles; household linen; curtains
of textile.
Class 25- Clothing, bedsheets and curtains.
Class 26- Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and
eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers; hair decorations; false hair.
Name of the geographical Indication Bawanbuti
Description of the Goods Bawanbuti is the most famous weaving technique practiced by the
weavers of Baswanbigha, a village where this tradition blossomed. The
Bawan (fifty two). Buti sari has fifty-two different motifs along its
traditional length of six yards. Each buti or motif is unique yet
remains an inherent part of the larger canvas.
The art symbolizes capturing the beauty of universe through motifs of
Buddhist artefacts in a six-yardlength of saree and is generally referred
as Bawanbuti tradition.
The Bawanbuti sari, perhaps based on the iconic 52 bootis (miniature
motifs) woven on its body, was the favoured everyday wear in coarse
counts and in finer counts, for special occasions.
Geographical area of production and Bihar Sharif is the seventh largest city in the northern of Indian state
map and the headquarters of Bihar district Nalanda district Bihar Sharif has .
over two millennia of history.
The city has important Jain, Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim heritage and
landmarks. The city is a hub of education and trade in south Bihar and
the economy centres around agriculture, while also including tourism
and household manufacturing. The city is one of the hundred Indian
cities to be developed under Narendra Modi Smart Cities 's flagship
Mission, though it was not included in the first twenty cities to receive
Proof of origin Baavan Buti is a hand woven cotton sari with extra warp and weft.
Motifs are inspired by Buddhist era. This is a famous weaving technique
practised by the weavers of Baswan Bigha in the district of Nalanda, It
is the only place in whole Bihar where intricate Butis (motif) where
woven and handloom saris using counted thread technique. There was a
time when the weavers of Baswan Bigha supplied beautifully patterned
curtains and fabric to Rashtrapati Bhawan. The weavers still proudly
exhibit those design referring them as Rashtrapati Bhawan design.
So it is clearly mentioned in the above statement that this craft is
originated from Baswanbigha area of Bihar(Nalanda) and still it is there.
Method of production Warping:-
Threads are rolled on the winding machine which results in bobbins
(nalla). Bobbins are arranged on the frame (dadhri). The thread of the
bobbin is first passed through the ratch and after that from the reed of
the stand (baithki). After this process thread is wrapped on warp beam.
Warping is section wise on the warp beam i.e. sectional warping. Once
the warping is complete, loom is set. They use pit looms and frame
looms. First the warp is arranged crosswise on the lease rods to reduced
mesh. After that warp is passed through each heald eye and then passed
through reed and finally tied to the let off rod.
Weaving :-
Weaving is the process of passing a thread crosswise (the weft) through
alternate(the warp). On handloom, this is done by hand. A hand operated
looms can be a pit loom or a frame loom. In pit looms the support of the
loom are set into the floor facing a pit in which pedals are hang, while a
frame loom is self-supported and sits above the floor. To weave Baavan
Buti saree both type of looms is used. In Baavan Buti, extra warp and
weft techniques are used to weave the saree and motifs are embedded.
The 52 miniature motifs are embedded beautifully on the saree.
Generally half drop repeat is used to arrange the motifs. They insert the
weft threadone time and weave plain 4 times and continue the same
process till the motif is completed. In Baavan Busari these people
required some basic material like co on and silk threads,different types
of dyes and sizing agent. They get the raw materials from Bhagalpur,
Patna City and Bihar Sharif itself. Mostly they buy dyed yarns. Spinning
yarn from cocoon is also done in the village. Yarns- Co on and silk
threads are used for warp as well as we Dyes- Vat dye and Napthol dye
is used for dyeing. Sizing- Sizing agents is used to increase the weaving
performance of the yarn. Wax is used as a sizing agents.
1. Dye
2. Nylon Thread
3.Cotton Yarn
4.Tussah Silk Yarn
5.Boiled cocoon
6.Kaya silk Yarn
In the making full length of Baavan buti sari, both cotton and silk thread
are used. In Baswan Bigha only cotton threads are used in both warp and
weft,and in nepura village mostly silk threads is used but sometime they
also use cotton threads for weft. In 52 threads are normally thicker and
also durable. But when 120 threads are used in one inch, Fabric is
thinner and more flexible. They use different types of yarn with different
cotton counts used for different sari. Different number of cotton counts
like 100/2 s for sari, 20/2 s for bedsheet and curtains, 2 Number for mat,
20 s for bedsheet, table cloth, curtains, table runner and Noren, 10 s for
extra weft design In bedsheet, 120/2 s for curtains, and 100 s used for
weft and weft design in sari. In Baswan Bigha generally artisan are used
52 ends in 1 inch but for finer fabric they increase the number of thread
like 64 threads, 80 threads and 120 threads which is the highest thread in
Handloom. For silk saree there are 48 (yarns of tussah silk) are passed
through reed in 1 inch but in Korean silk 72 to 80 yarns are passed in 1
inch. Artisans used 180 s untwisted silk yarn for sari. Artisan also weave
fabric using Katiya tussah silk.
Cotton Spinning at Uparnawa village
Upnawan village which is near Baswan Bigha and 5 Km away from
Bihar Sharif railway station in east direction where 15 years ago all the
spinners of this Upnawan village were involved in the spinning of cotton
yarn on Charkha but due to the closing of Khadi Bhandar, Bihar Sharif.
Sinners were unemployed because the Khadi Bhandar give them raw
materials(cotton fibre) to the spinners and spinners spun fibre into yarn.
They worked since 1960 over there. Gram Khadi Bhandar also provide
passbook for that people who work for them in that passbook there
money were deposited or in exchange of yarn they got cotton sari from
Khadi Bhandar. Mostly women were involved in this process, whenever
they got free time they use to do yarn spinning on Charkha. They made
different types of yarn like 8 s, 10 s, 12 s, 16 s, 20 s which is finest yarn
on Charkha.Silk yarn spinning. He is praccing the process of dyeing for
35- 40 years and his ancestors were also praccing this same method of
dyeing.He is the only dyer in Bihar Sharif. His wife Shahnaj Khatun (52
yrs) and daughter Shabiha Praveen (19 yrs) also help him in this
work.They only dye co on hanks.They source the raw materials ( dye,
chemicals) from Patna City.He aslo knows the\ weaving technique.
When he don't get any order for dyeing he starts weaving with the
master weaver Kapil Dev for livelihood.They use vat dye and napthol
Uniqueness Saree having 52 motifs which was known as Bawanbuti.
Inspection Body The inspection body may consist of the experts from the industry of
textile weaving experts and from the people of government body to give
the GI certification

Graphs and design made bawanbuti

weaving process
Process and techniques

Machine used Raw material

Raw material Raw material

Cotton spinning Working with coocons

Tools used in the process

Yarn dyeing Design made from bawanbuti process