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G V Raghu
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala 695547, India
D Paavani
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala 695547, India
Dubey Vijay K.
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala 695547, India

The free shear layer formed by a subsonic circular jet through a nozzle exit is
investigated. Stagnation pressure along the centerline as well as in radial direc-
tion is measured. Velocity variations are calculated using the pressure readings.
Non dimensional velocity is plotted against distance. Results are consistent with
theoretical understanding and agrees with literature.


V velocity
P Reference pressure
P0 Stagnation Pressure at a point
Free-Stream density
Density of ethanol
D Diameter of nozzle exit

I. Introduction

When two parallel streams of fluids meet at an interface with a velocity difference a free shear
layer is formed. By definition a shear layer is a layer of flow where a shear or velocity gradient
exists. Boundary layer is also a form of shear layer. But in boundary layer the momentum transport
is affected by a solid interface and viscous forces are dominant up to some distance. In case of a
shear layer forming at a parallel fluid flow interface the viscous forces are not dominant and the
flow is dominated by turbulent transport of momentum.

II. Theory

A free jet is a fluid mass that discharges into an infinitely large environment of ambient fluid.
The flow structure in a free jet has been studied and four distinct zones have been identified.

Zone 1: The convergent zone: This region is called the potential core of the jet where the

B.Tech student, Aerospace Engineering Department.

B.Tech student, Aerospace Engineering Department.

B.Tech student, Aerospace Engineering Department.

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Aerodynamics Lab Report, IIST

Figure 1. Flow structure of free jet

centreline velocity is equal to the nozzle outlet velocity. This region normally extends up to
4d to 6d, where d is the diameter of the nozzle exit.

Zone 2: This transition zone: This the region in which the centreline velocity starts to
decay. The velocity decay can be approximated as proportional to x0.5 , where x is the
axial distance. This usually corresponds to a region from 6d to 20d, and it is known as the
interaction region where shear layers from both sides merge.

Zone 3: The self similar zone: In this region transverse velocity profiles are similar at different
values of x and the centreline velocity decay is approximately proportional to x1 .

Zone 4: The termination zone: In this region the centreline velocity decays rapidly. Although
this zone has been studied , the actual mechanisms in this zone are not understood properly.

In the potential core, the velocity can chance if the external pressure changes. For example, for a
jet inside a duct of changing cross-section. Otherwise, there would be no change inside the potential
core. Beyond the potential core, the jet slows down through mixing and momentum exchange with
the outside flow: the influence of the jet spreads outwards, while the influence of the outside is felt
at the axis. In the mixing layer, there is a shear, which results in vorticity.3

Figure 2. flow at jet exit

III. Modelling

Vortcity is defined as the curl of velocity. In cylindrical coordinates vorticity is given by

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1 Vz V Vr Vz 1 rV Vr
= X V = ( )r + ( ) + ( )z (1)
r z z r r r
In jet flow through a nozzle exit at any particular axial distance Vr = 0; V = 0; Vz = F (r)
Vz Vz
= = (2)
r r

A. Experimental Setup
The experimental set up consists of a subsonic diffuser-type wind tunnel. The set up mainly consists
of fan, a settling chamber, converging duct, test section, RPM control system, a multi-tube variable
inclination manometer and a round nozzle at the outlet of test section. The fan of the wind tunnel
was operated by a motor whose speed could be adjusted by a potentiometer. The multi-tube
variable inclination manometer was inclined at an angle of 29o . A pitot tube was placed at the
nozzle exit whose position could be adjusted with the help of an external setup.

B. Procedure
1. The wind tunnel is started and rpm is adjusted to 807.

2. The centreline of the nozzle exit is found experimentally.

3. The pitot tube is moved along the centreline of nozzle exit and manometer readings are taken
in steps of 2mm upto 150mm.

4. At axial distance 0.1D, 10D, 20D and 60D the pitot reading along radial direction is taken
for every 1mm upto 60mm.


V. Results and discussion

1. As observed in Figure 3, the non dimentional velocity remains constant nearly upto 5D, which
is close to literature which says upto 6D potential core exists.

2. As the axial distance increases the slope of non dimensional velocity vs radial distance in-
creases. At regions near the nozzle in radial direction there is a large velocity gradient over
a small region. As we move along in axial direction it gets distributed due to entrainment.

3. As seen in Figure 5 along the radial direction in the initial region vorticity is zero (i.e. it
belongs to potential core region). As the axial distance increases the extent region over which

VI. Appendix

Sample Calculation

P = 100195.416N/m2 ; = 290 ; T = 303.6K; = 1.15kg/m3

At radial distance =4mm and axial distance =60mm
h0 = 16mm
P0 = P gHcos()

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Figure 3. V /V0 vs axial distance along centeline

Figure 4. V /V0 vs radial distance

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Figure 5. Vorticity variations along radial direction at different axial locations

P0 = p100195.416 789 9.81 (16 30.6)/100 0.8746 = 101183.76N/m2

V0 = p2(P0 P )/
V0 = 2(101183.76 100195.416)/1.15 = 41.45
V0 /V = 41.45/55.21272 = 0.751

VII. Questions

1. Free shear layers occur in jets for propulsive devices for rockets, aircrafts and pneumatic
control systems, wakes behind aeroplanes and submarines, volcanic plumes, dispersion in
rivers, jet streams in atmosphere etc.
2. The static pressure is constant throughout, the stagnation pressure decreases in radial as well
as axial directions. The static temperature increases in radial and axial directions???? and
stagnation temperature increases due to viscous effects.
3. Mass is conserved but it is dragged due to viscous effect. The mass flow at any cross section
of the jet progressively increases thereby the jet spreads along the downstream direction. In
order to conserve momentum, the jet centreline velocity decreases with downstream distance.

Herrmann Schlichting, Klaus Gersten, Boundary-Layer Theory(2003)
Jie-Zhi Wu, Hui-Yang Ma, Ming-De Zhou, Vorticity and Vortex Dynamics (2007)
3 locon3/f locon3.html
shodhganga.inf hapter

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