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Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Edit File

Safety Symbols
The following safety symbols will appear in the instructions for labs and activities to
emphasize important notes of caution. Learn what they represent so that you can take
the appropriate precautions.

Eye Protection
• Wear approved safety goggles at all times in the lab as directed.
• If chemicals get into your eyes, flush your eyes immediately.
• Do not wear contact lenses in the lab.
• Do not look directly at the sun or any intense light source or laser.
Hand Safety
• Do not cut an object while holding the object in your hand.
• Wear appropriate protective gloves when working with an open flame, chemicals,
solutions, or wild or unknown plants.
• Use a heat-resistant mitt to handle equipment that may be hot.
Clothing Protection
• Wear an apron or lab coat at all times in the lab.
• Tie back long hair, secure loose clothing, and remove loose jewelry so that they do
not knock over equipment, get caught in moving parts, or come into contact with
hazardous materials or electrical connections.
• Do not wear open-toed shoes, sandals, or canvas shoes in the lab.
• When outside for lab, wear long sleeves, long pants, socks, and closed shoes.
Glassware Safety
• Inspect glassware before use; do not use chipped or cracked glassware.
• Use heat-resistant glassware for heating materials or storing hot liquids.
• Notify your teacher immediately if a piece of glassware or a light bulb breaks.

Sharp-Object Safety
• Use extreme care when handling all sharp and pointed instruments.
• Cut objects on a suitable surface, always in a direction away from your body.
• Be aware of sharp objects or edges on equipment or apparatus.

Chemical Safety
• If a chemical gets on your skin, on your clothing, or in your eyes, rinse it
immediately (shower, faucet or eyewash fountain) and alert your teacher.
• Do not clean up spilled chemicals yourself unless your teacher directs you to do so.
• Do not inhale any gas or vapor unless your teacher directs you to do so. When
directed, use your hand to gently waft fumes from the container to your nose.
• Handle materials that emit vapors or gases in a well-ventilated area.

ScienceFusion 6 Student Lab Safety
Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety Symbols
Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

• Wash your hands thoroughly before you leave the lab or after any activity. • Allow all equipment to cool before storing it. Heating Safety • Be aware of any source of flames. Plant Safety • Do not eat any part of a plant or plant seed. Animal Safety • Handle animals only as your teacher directs. • Hold the plug housing when you plug in or unplug equipment. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. • Do not use electrical equipment near water or when clothing or hands are wet. • Remove contaminated clothing immediately. • Know your school’s fire-evacuation routes. • Dispose of sharp objects (such as broken glass) in the appropriate sharps or broken glass container as directed by your teacher. • Avoid using open flames. • Never leave a hot plate unattended while it is turned on or while it is cooling. Proper Waste Disposal • Clean and sanitize all work surfaces and personal protective equipment after each lab period as directed by your teacher. ScienceFusion 7 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety Symbols Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. . heating coils. • Dispose of hazardous materials only as directed by your teacher. • When outside. • Wash your hands thoroughly after handling any part of a plant. • Know the location of lab fire extinguishers and fire-safety blankets. or heat (such as open flames. • Treat animals carefully and respectfully. Hygienic Care • Keep your hands away from your face while you are working on any activity. do not pick any wild plants unless your teacher instructs you to do so. sparks. • Wash your hands thoroughly after handling any animal. • Use tongs or appropriate insulated holders when handling heated objects. • Fasten electrical cords to work surfaces by using tape. or hot plates) before working with any flammable substances. • If your clothing catches on fire. walk to the lab shower to put out the fire. • Be aware that wire coils in electrical circuits may heat up rapidly.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety Symbols continued Electrical Safety • Do not use equipment with frayed electrical cords or loose plugs.

Goggles should fit closely to the face with no gaps at the sides. top. Work in the lab only while supervised by your teacher. or observing physical processes that could eject an object. . NEVER work alone in the laboratory. Ask your doctor or your teacher how to use this very important and special eye protection.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety in the Laboratory 1. or bottom and should have indirect ventilation so that substances cannot get into the eye area. No contact lenses in the lab. Eye wash stations are designed to immediately flush contaminants out of the eyes after exposure. when heating substances. Always wear a lab apron and goggles. working with dust or powders. In the event of an accident. not just when you are working on an experiment. Do the goggles fit correctly? Explain: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Eye wash stations can be either portable or built-in. chemicals can get behind contact lenses and cause serious damage before the lenses can be removed. Chemical splash goggles should be worn when conducting experiments. Wear these safety devices whenever you are in the lab. 4. Some goggles can be worn over prescription glasses. ScienceFusion 8 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety in the Laboratory Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. These should be worn with any chemical or chemical solution other than water. • Choose a partner and demonstrate the correct way to wear chemical splash goggles. If your doctor requires that you wear contact lenses instead of glasses. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. Do not leave equipment unattended while it is in operation. Immediately flush chemicals from eyes. using any mechanical device. • Briefly describe the type of eye wash station in your classroom and explain how to use it. Know where the eye/face wash station is. Contact lenses should not be worn during any investigations in which you are using chemicals (even if you are wearing goggles). you should wear eye-cup safety goggles in the lab.

• Examine a pair of protective gloves. ask your teacher about it. in handouts. accidentally contact electrical connections. Read the entire activity before entering the lab. such as pearls. nylon. Disposable latex or vinyl gloves are usually appropriate for handling most chemicals in a laboratory. chemicals. Only books and notebooks needed for the activity should be in the lab. If you are not sure of something. and very hot or very cold materials. Only the lab notebook or journal and perhaps the textbook should be used. Long hair should be tied back. Protective gloves should be worn when handling unknown materials. and bulky or loose-fitting clothing. and ruin them. • Does your classroom have both a fire blanket and a fire extinguisher? Record the date that the fire extinguisher was last inspected. In addition. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ScienceFusion 9 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety in the Laboratory Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. Loose. These gloves will offer protection from incidental splashes or contact. backpacks. Describe both their use and their condition. corrosive materials. or interfere with the investigation in some potentially hazardous manner. dangling bracelets. Oven mitts or neoprene gloves should be worn when working with very hot or very cold materials. Know the proper fire drill procedures and the locations of fire exits and emergency equipment. On lab days. 7. chemical fumes may react with some jewelry. punctures. Nitrile or leather gloves are resistant to cuts. bulky jewelry. 9. Keep other books. and abrasions. Make sure you know the procedures to follow in case of a fire or other emergency. Wear shoes that will protect your feet from chemical spills and falling objects—no open-toed shoes or sandals and no shoes with woven leather straps. and always heed cautions given verbally by your teacher. or polyesters. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. snags.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety in the Laboratory continued 6. Personal apparel should be appropriate for laboratory work. flopping. Use tongs to grab beakers and test tubes. . Wear the appropriate protective gloves for the activity. and on posters in the room. 11. avoid wearing long necklaces. rough or sharp-edged objects. or dangling items may get caught in moving parts. They are provided for your safety. purses. 10. Always heed safety symbols and cautions in the instructions for the experiments. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8. locker. or designated storage area. and similar items in your desk. Your teacher will review any applicable safety precautions before you begin the lab activity. Cotton clothing is preferable to wool.

14. If you are not sure of how to proceed. ScienceFusion 10 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety in the Laboratory Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. Remember that metal surfaces connected to the heated area will become hot by conduction. Laboratory equipment and apparatus are not toys. ask your teacher for help. 18. ceramic. never play in the lab or use lab time or equipment for anything other than their intended purpose. your teacher will know how the spill should be cleaned up safely. Report all spills to your teacher immediately. Horseplay in the lab is very dangerous. stop. and turn the water on. Make sure all heating devices and gas valves are turned off before leaving the laboratory. . Call your teacher. Keep your head. procedures must be approved by your teacher BEFORE you begin work. do not run. If a lab directs you to design your own experiments. Call to your teacher while you do this. NEVER taste chemicals. Never leave a hot plate or other heating device unattended when it is in use. hair. rather than cleaning a spill yourself. beverages. Be aware of others near you or your equipment when you are proceeding with the experiment. Use extreme CAUTION when working with hot plates or other heating devices. If it is not safe for you to clean up the spill. cover your face. 15. Gas burners should be lit only with a spark lighter. Allow all items to cool before storing them. and roll unit the fire is extinguished.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety in the Laboratory continued 12. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. and glass items do not always look hot when they are heated. 16. hands. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Your teacher will tell you if it is safe for you to clean up the spill. Use only materials and equipment listed in the activity equipment list or authorized by your teacher. Remember that many metal. If your laboratory is not equipped with a safety shower. WALK to the safety shower. drop to the floor. • Briefly explain how to operate a fire extinguisher. Confirm the location of the fire extinguisher before starting the activity. Do not touch chemicals or allow them to contact areas of bare skin. Your lab buddy should call to the teacher while retrieving a fire extinguisher or a fire blanket. and chewing gum are NEVER permitted in the laboratory. Food. and turn the devices off when they are not in use. stand under the showerhead. and clothing away from the flame or heating area. Stay alert while in the lab. If your clothing catches on fire. Let your teacher know immediately if a chemical or other substance gets in or near your mouth. DO NOT perform unauthorized experiments or use equipment or apparatus in a manner for which they were not intended. and proceed with caution. 17. Steps in a procedure should only be performed as described in the lab manual or as approved by your teacher.

Always hold chemicals over a sink or work station while pouring chemicals from one container to another. dangling cords can cause tripping or electrical shocks. Follow your lab procedure or your teacher’s specific directions for cleaning up after an experiment or lab activity. Report any broken or damaged equipment to your teacher. . Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Be sure your hands are dry before you use electrical equipment. Exercise caution when working with electrical equipment. 22. Report all accidents to the teacher IMMEDIATELY. draw a map of your classroom and identify the locations of all safety equipment and the fire evacuation routes. rearrange apparatus in an orderly manner. 24. no matter how minor. Follow directions for cleaning up materials and equipment. ScienceFusion 11 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety in the Laboratory Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. 21. Do not let electrical cords dangle from work stations. Always thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water at the conclusion of each investigation. tell your teacher immediately. Always clean up any clutter made during the course of lab work. Keep work areas and apparatus clean and neat. if you get a headache or feel ill or dizzy. and report any damaged or missing items. 23. Do not use electrical equipment that has frayed or twisted wires. In the space below. In addition. Your teacher will have specific storing and disposal information for all of the chemicals and substances used. 20.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety in the Laboratory continued 19. When appropriate. your teacher will recycle used or damaged materials and equipment.

Dress in a manner that will keep you warm.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety in the Field Activities conducted outdoors require some advance planning to ensure a safe environment. bite. It is important to know any allergies. Report all hazards or accidents to your teacher immediately. Determine whether poisonous plants or dangerous animals are likely to be present where you are going. • Do you have any known allergies that your teacher should be aware of? If so. or physical limitations of your buddy. scratch. Find out about on-site hazards before setting out. If you see a threatening animal. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Stay within an area where you can be seen or heard by your teacher or other responsible adult in case you run into trouble. such as steep or slippery terrain. Wear protective clothing. Find out about other hazards. The following general guidelines should be followed for fieldwork. Even if the incident seems unimportant. Sunscreen should be worn even on cloudy days. Decide in advance whether you will need sunglasses. 1. or rain gear to suit the terrain and local weather conditions. 7. Many wild plants can be irritating or toxic. boots. a hat. 6. and dry. Do not wander away from others. • Why is it important to wear sunscreen? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Do not approach or touch wild animals. and check to be sure that you have all necessary supplies for the day’s activity. list them below. Avoid any living thing that may sting. comfortable. Know your mission. 5. call your teacher immediately. or otherwise cause injury. Be sure to have your permission slip approved before the trip. Never taste any wild plant. special needs. Your teacher will tell you the goal of the field trip in advance. let your teacher know what happened. . Do not touch wild plants or pick wildflowers unless specifically instructed to do so by your teacher. Know how to identify these hazards. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. 2. ScienceFusion 12 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety in the Field Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. Travel with a partner at all times. gloves.

If a thunderstorm threatens. Lightning. Do not remove anything from the field site without your teacher’s permission. and tornadoes are hazards that are associated with thunderstorms. flash floods. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ScienceFusion 13 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Safety in the Field Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. Never leave garbage behind at a field site. • Identify any other members of your class that are certified in either first aid or CPR. Record the emergency response plan in the space below. Thunderstorms can occur quickly and without warning. Stay on trails. Be aware of the weather. The field first aid kit for hot weather trips should include specific directions for identifying and treating both heat exhaustion and heat stroke. 10. when possible. • As a class. The field first aid kit for cold weather trips should include specific directions for identifying and treating both frostbite and hypothermia. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 9.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Safety in the Field continued 8. discuss an emergency response plan to follow during field labs. the best response is to seek shelter. . Your teacher should be familiar with basic first aid and CPR. A small first-aid kit should be carried by the teacher. Follow your teacher’s directions quickly and quietly so that everyone can get to safety in a timely manner. hail. Leave natural areas as you found them. to avoid trampling delicate vegetation. Maintain the safety of the environment. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

If your glassware is chipped or broken. you should a. When pouring chemicals between containers. the floor or a waste basket b. If you have unused chemicals after finishing a procedure. find bandages or a first aid kit c. try an experiment of your own b. put them back into their original containers d. . use it only for solid materials b. give it to your teacher for recycling or disposal c. a fire blanket or an oven mitt c. go to the principal’s office d. 1.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Student Safety Quiz Circle the letter of the BEST answer. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. If you get hurt or injured in any way. you should a. handle all the equipment to become familiar with it 2. put it back into the storage cabinet d. a sink or your work area 3. get help after you finish the lab 4. open all containers and packages c. dispose of them as directed by your teacher ScienceFusion 14 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Student Safety Quiz Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. tell your teacher immediately b. Before starting an investigation or lab procedure. read all directions and make sure you understand them d. an eyewash station or a water fountain d. mix them all together in a bucket c. you should a. you should a. increase the damage so that it is obvious 5. pour them down a sink or drain b. you should hold the containers over a.

. goggles b. bring the container under your nose and inhale deeply c. wash your hands immediately b. unplug the equipment by pulling on the cord b. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. use the eyewash right away ScienceFusion 15 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Student Safety Quiz Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. you should wear a. When working with materials that might fly into the air and hurt someone’s eye. overhead lights 10. an apron c. Before doing experiments involving a heat source. gloves d. wait to see if your eye becomes irritated d. you should a. windows c. let the cord hang over the side of a counter or table c. you should a. wrap tape around the cord to repair it 7.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ 6. you should a. a hat 9. fire extinguisher d. use odor-sensing equipment 8. If you get a chemical in your eye. use your hand to bring fumes from the container to your nose b. If you need to determine the odor of a chemical or a solution. put the lid back on the chemical container c. tell your teacher immediately d. If electrical equipment has a frayed cord. door b. tell your teacher about the problem immediately d. you should know the location of the a.

cover your face with your hands ScienceFusion 16 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Student Safety Quiz Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. long lab coat and goggles b. tell your teacher about the accident d. long sleeves. . do not leave a hotplate unattended while it is switched on 15. When working with a flame or heat source. carefully pick up and dispose of the glass c. drop to the floor and roll over d. mop up the water 13. run to the safety shower as fast as you can c. touch an object with your bare hand to see how hot it is d. When carrying out a field investigation. continue working b. you should a. what is the preferred type of clothing to wear? a. Which of the following is an important step in maintaining lab and personal hygiene? a. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. throw hot objects into the trash when you are done with them 12. and sandals d. and closed-toe shoes 14. If a beaker of water falls to the floor and breaks. you should a. long pants. long. heat substances or objects inside a closed container c. tie back long hair or hair that hangs in front of your eyes b.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ 11. use tongs or protective gloves to handle heated objects d. notify your teacher immediately if glassware breaks c. long pants. Which of the following should you NOT do if your clothing catches fire a. call out for your teacher’s and lab partner’s attention b. warm coat and head protection c. long-sleeved top. wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the lab b.

Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. animals are not permitted in the lab b. .Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ 16. touch the surface to test the temperature before leaving the lab d. it gets very lonely working by yourself b. make sure they are switched off before leaving the lab c. an experiment that uses objects you collected during a field observation b. use a match to light a Bunsen burner 19. lab equipment can cause injury if misused. Why should you never work alone in the lab? a. there is no one to turn to for help c. Which of the following would be called an unauthorized experiment? a. an experiment that includes procedures not approved by your teacher d. science is a serious subject with no room for creativity c. free expression or experimentation are not a part of science 18. Which of the following should always be carried out when working with hot plates or other heating devices? a. if an accident happens. an experiment you designed yourself with the approval of your teacher c. look out for a color change to indicate the high temperature of glassware b. science discourages the creativity of individuals ScienceFusion 17 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Student Safety Quiz Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. and it is expensive to replace d. teachers do not like students to pursue independent inquiry d. Why is horseplay not allowed in the lab? a. an experiment found in your lab manual text 17.

Signature: ________________________________ Date: ________________________________ ScienceFusion 18 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Student Safety Contract Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Student Safety Contract Read carefully the Student Safety Contract below. Student Safety Contract I will • read the lab investigation before coming to class • wear personal protective equipment as directed to protect my eyes. have read and agree to abide by the safety regulations as set forth above and any additional printed instructions provided by my teacher or the school district. . _____________________________________. date the contract. and sign it. and body while conducting approved class activities • follow all instructions given by the teacher • conduct myself in a responsible manner at all times in a laboratory or field situation I. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. fill in your name in the first blank. I agree to follow all other written and oral instructions given in class. Then. face. hands.

Figure C shows the proper method of decanting a supernatant liquid from a beaker by using a stirring rod. The safest way to transfer a liquid from a graduated cylinder to a test tube is shown in Figure A. This position enables you to see what you are doing while maintaining steady control of the equipment. Hold the stirring rod against the lip of the beaker containing the supernatant. the liquid will not run down the side of the beaker from which you are pouring. liquids contain particles of insoluble solids that sink to the bottom of a test tube or beaker. When you use this method. with the elbows slightly bent. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The rod should touch the wall of the receiving container. 2. the liquid will run down the rod and fall into the beaker resting below. As you pour. Use one of the methods shown above to separate a supernatant (the clear fluid) from insoluble solids. Figure B shows the proper method of decanting a supernatant liquid from a test tube. a. The liquid is transferred at arm’s length. Sometimes.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Laboratory Techniques Figure A Figure B Figure C HOW TO DECANT AND TRANSFER LIQUIDS 1. b. . ScienceFusion 19 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Laboratory Techniques Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal.

Figure F shows the proper setup for evaporating a solution in a porcelain evaporating dish with a watch glass cover that prevents spattering. use a ceramic-centered wire gauze to protect glassware from direct contact with the flame. Figure D shows the proper setup for evaporating a solution over a water bath. The glassware should be heat resistant. Wire gauzes can withstand extremely high temperatures and will help prevent glassware from breaking. 4. Use care in selecting glassware for high-temperature heating. 3. you are required to heat a substance to high temperatures in a porcelain crucible. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Figure E shows the proper apparatus setup used to accomplish this task. In some experiments. When heating glassware by using a gas flame.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Laboratory Techniques continued HOW TO HEAT SUBSTANCES AND EVAPORATE SOLUTIONS FIGURE D FIGURE E FIGURE F 1. ScienceFusion 20 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Laboratory Techniques Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. 2. .

test-tube holders. Glassware. wire gauzes. Never pour reagents back into stock bottles. Allow plenty of time for the apparatus to cool before handling. You will be able to feel any energy as heat generated from the hot surfaces. or heat-resistant mitts and pads whenever you handle these pieces of apparatus. porcelain. Your teacher will show you the proper procedures for cleaning up a chemical spill. . You can test the temperature of beakers. 3. Read the label at least three times before using the contents of a reagent bottle. 6. Hold the stirring rod against the lip of the reagent bottle. or other pieces of apparatus that have been heated by holding the back of your hand close to their surfaces before grasping them. Use tongs. Examine the outside of the reagent bottle for any liquid that has dripped down the bottle or spilled on the counter top. FIGURE G HOW TO POUR LIQUID FROM A REAGENT BOTTLE 1. See Figure G.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Laboratory Techniques continued 5. and iron rings that have been heated may look cool after they are removed from a heat source. particularly sulfuric acid. DO NOT TOUCH THE APPARATUS. At the end of the experiment. 4. add the acid to water in small quantities while stirring slowly. 2. When pouring a caustic or corrosive liquid into a beaker. Extra precaution should be taken when handling a bottle of acid. Remember the following important rules: Never add water to any concentrated acid. into the beaker. but these items can still burn your skin even after several minutes of cooling. because the mixture can splash and will generate a lot of energy as heat. ScienceFusion 21 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Laboratory Techniques Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. and pour this amount along the rod. your teacher will tell you how to dispose of any excess chemicals. use a stirring rod to avoid drips and spills. ring stands. Hold the stopper between your fingers until the transfer of liquid is complete. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Estimate the amount of liquid you need. Remember the “triple A’s”—Always Add Acid to water. Never lay the stopper of a reagent bottle on the lab table. 5. 6. To dilute any acid.

DO NOT waft and sniff poisonous or irritating fumes. 2. Check to see that the test tube is heat resistant. FIGURE H FIGURE I FIGURE J ScienceFusion 22 Student Lab Safety Grade 8 Lab Manual Laboratory Techniques Original content Copyright © by Holt McDougal. 5. and continuously move the test tube. Heat the test tube from the upper portions of the tube downward. 2. HOW TO USE A MORTAR AND PESTLE 1. Use a fume hood whenever poisonous or irritating fumes are present. 3. Do not inhale any fumes directly. 2. and grind to pulverize. 3. Place the substance to be broken up into the mortar. HOW TO DETECT ODORS SAFELY 1. Remove the powdered substance with a porcelain spoon. 4. . Test for the odor of gases by wafting your hand over the test tube and cautiously sniffing the fumes as shown in Figure J. See Figure I. Do not heat any one spot on the test tube. as shown in Figure H. 4. A mortar and pestle should be used for grinding only one substance at a time. Alterations to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Pound the substance with the pestle. Otherwise. a pressure buildup may cause the bottom of the tube to blow out. 3. Never look down into the test tube while heating it. because the liquid may splash out of the test tube. Never use a mortar and pestle for simultaneously mixing different substances.Name ______________________________________Class ____________________ Date ______________________ Laboratory Techniques continued HOW TO HEAT MATERIAL IN A TEST TUBE 1. Always use a test tube holder or clamp when heating a test tube. Never point a heated test tube at anyone. 5.