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You are on page 1of 4

Figure 10.1

EQUIPMENT

Graduated Cylinder

Pipette

Cylinders: (2) Metal, (1) Wood

(Note: The cylinders have sharp hooks)

Overflow Container

Spouted Can

Digital Balance

(2) 123-Blocks

Wood Board/Block

Rod & Clamp

Paper Towels

Water

53

54 Experiment 10: Archimedes Principle

floating and sinking objects are used in this experi-

Text: Archimedes principle, buoyant force, density ment.

is floating in water. How much water does it

The objective of this lab is to investigate the buoyant displace? Does it displace its volume in water?

force acting on a variety of objects, the density of the Does it displace its weight in water?

objects, and the density of our tap water.

Sketch a free-body diagram for an object that

Theory

is submerged in water. How much water does it

Archimedes principle states that a body wholly or par- displace? Does it displace its volume in water?

tially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal Does it displace its weight in water?

in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the

body. The accepted value for the density of pure water at 4 C

and 1 atm is water = (1000 1) kg/m3 . We will use

It is the buoyant force that keeps ships afloat (ob-

this value for the density of water for Part 2 through

ject partially submerged in liquid) and hot air balloons

Part 5. That is, we assume a temperature in the lab

aloft (object wholly submerged in gas). We will inves-

of 4 C!

tigate the buoyant force using the following methods:

Direct Measurement of Mass We will then experimentally determine the density of

the tap water we used (Part 6) and compare it to the

Displacement Method density of water at 20 C. The density of pure water at

20 C is:

When an object is submerged in water, its weight

3

decreases by an amount equal to the buoyant force. water = (998.21 0.01) kg/m (10.3)

The direct measurement of mass will measure the

weight of an object first in air, then while it is sub- When comparing the experimental densities of your

merged in water. The buoyant force, FB , is equal objects or tap water, please use Table 1.1 provided at

to the weight in air (Fg ) minus the weight in water, the end of Experiment 1: Measurement & Analysis on

Fg = m g: Page 9.

FB = Fg Fg (10.1)

the volume of fluid displaced by the object. The weight

of the fluid displaced is equal to the buoyant force ex-

erted on the object. Thus, the buoyant force is given

by:

FB = gV (10.2)

displaced, V is the volume of fluid displaced by the

object, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Prelab 10: Archimedes Principle 55

Name:

3. Briefly explain the methods used in Part 1 through Part 3 of this experiment to determine buoyant force. (25 pts)

4. Draw a free-body diagram for an object of mass M , for the following two situations:

a. a submerged object suspended by a string; b. a floating object. Draw to scale. (30 pts)

56 Experiment 10: Archimedes Principle

PART 1: Overflow Method 17. Repeat Part 1 through Part 3 for the next object

(aluminum cylinder).

1. Measure the mass of the brass cylinder. Determine

its weight, Fg . 18. Draw a free-body diagram for this object submerged

in water.

2. Place the overflow container on the digital balance.

3. Fill the spouted can with water. Position it so that PART 5: Buoyant Force - Floating Object

its spigot pours into the overflow container.

19. Although you need to modify or omit certain steps,

4. Submerge the brass cylinder in the water, allowing repeat Part 1 through Part 3 for the wood cylinder:

displaced water to collect in the overflow container.

Omit Step 6, Step 11, and Step 16.

5. Measure the mass of the displaced water; calculate

its weight. This is the buoyant force, FB . Modify Step 9 and Step 13: Allow the wood

object to float.

6. Calculate obj (density of the object):

20. Draw a free-body-diagram for the wood object float-

W F g ing in water.

obj = (10.4)

FB

PART 6: Density of Tap Water

PART 2: Direct Measurement - Mass

21. For each metal object: Use Eq. 10.6 and the gradu-

7. Calibrate the triple beam balance. ated cylinder volume from Part 3 to determine the

density of our tap water.

8. Suspend the object (brass cylinder) from a string

attached to the balance. m m

= W (10.6)

V

9. Partially fill the overflow container with water, then

submerge the object. Do not allow the object to QUESTIONS

touch the container. Measure the apparent mass of

1. Consider situations A and B, below. Does one tub

the object in water, m . Calculate Fg .

weigh more than the other, or do they weigh the

10. Determine FB for the object. How much less does same? Draw a free body diagram for each case.

it weigh in water than in air? (Eq. 10.1) A. A tub filled to the brim with water.

11. Calculate obj using Eq. 10.4. B. A tub filled to the brim with water, with a

boat floating in it.

PART 3: Displacement Method - Volume 2. A 827 cm3 gold nugget and a 827 cm3 aluminum

block are immersed in water. Which object experi-

12. Partially fill the graduated cylinder with water; take

ences the greater buoyant force?

note of the water level. Use the pipette to fine-tune

the meniscus. 3. A ship made of steel (steel = 7.8 103 kg/m3 ) will

13. Carefully submerge the object in water and deter- float in water. Explain, in terms of densities, how

mine its volume. this is possible.

14. Remove and dry the object, then empty the gradu- 4. Verify that Eq. 10.4 is true for an object submerged

ated cylinder and invert it on a paper towel to dry. in water. (Start by writing the equations for each

force.)

15. Determine FB on the object with Eq. 10.2.

5. Consider a pirate boat in a pond with the anchor

16. Calculate obj using Eq. 10.5: on the boat. When the pirates throw the anchor

m overboard, what happens to the water level at the

obj = (10.5) shore? Does the water at the shore rise, fall, or stay

V

at the same level? Explain, in terms of Archimedes

Use the volume determined from the displacement

principle (density, volume, or weight), why this hap-

method and m, not m .

pens.

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