You are on page 1of 12

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS (REVISED 2016

)
Journal of Animal Science
The Instructions for Authors, Journal of Animal www.wava-amav.org/Downloads/nav_2012.pdf
Science (JAS) is divided into 2 sections: • For bacterial nomenclature, consult
Approved Lists of Bacterial Names.
I. Manuscript Preparation, which describes the http://www.bacterio.net/alintro.html
Style and Form that authors must follow in the Manuscripts should be prepared double-spaced in
preparation of manuscripts; and Microsoft Word, with lines and pages numbered con-
secutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points
II. Policies and Procedures of JAS, which describes and no less than 2.54-cm (1 inch) margins all around.
the mission of JAS, contact information, care and Special characters (e.g., Greek and symbols) should
use of animals, protection of human subjects, con- be inserted using the symbols palette available in this
flict of interest, types of articles published in JAS, font. Complex equations should be entered using Math-
manuscript submission, copyright policies, review Type (http://www.dessci.com/en/products/mathtype/).
procedures and policies, papers in press, author Tables and figures should be placed in separate sec-
proofs, and publication charges. tions at the end of the manuscript, and not placed in
the text. Manuscripts should be uploaded to Thomson
I. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION Reuters ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly called
(STYLE AND FORM) Manuscript Central) using the fewest files possible to
facilitate the review and editing processes.
The most important thing authors can do as Manuscripts should contain the following sections
they prepare their manuscripts is to consult a recent in this order.
issue of JAS to see the acceptable format for headings, Title Page. The title page includes a running
title page, ABSTRACT, Key words, INTRODUCTION, head (the first word only and any proper nouns capi-
MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUS- talized and no more than 45 keystrokes [i.e., charac-
SION (or combined RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), ters and spaces; a space is counted as a keystroke]);
LITERATURE CITED, and tables and figures (includ- the title (only the first word and any proper nouns
ing figure captions). Each of these topics is described in capitalized, as brief as possible, and including the spe-
this document. The headings are shown in uppercase cies involved); names of authors (e.g., T. E. Smith; no
letters to illustrate how they should appear in manu- title, positions, or degrees) and institutions, including
scripts. A basic manuscript template in Microsoft Word the department, city, state or country (all with first
is available at http://www.animalsciencepublications. letters capitalized), and ZIP or postal code. Author af-
org/publications/jas/infora. Manuscripts that are not filiations are footnoted using the symbols *, †, ‡, §, #,
consistent with the Instructions for Authors will ║, and ¶ and are placed below the author names. If a
be immediately rejected. consortium is listed in the byline, a footnoted refer-
General. Manuscripts must be written in English ence to a website showing the names and affiliations
and must use American spelling and usage, as well as of each member of the consortium should be included
standard scientific usage. The following online resources in acknowledgements; names and affiliations of each
provide detailed information. member of the consortium will not be listed on the
title page. Superscript numbers are used to reference
• For general style and form, authors should fol- footnotes on the first page. Acknowledgments, includ-
low that recommended in Scientific Style and ing acknowledgements of consortia, grants, experi-
Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Edi- ment station, or journal series number, are given as
tors, and Publishers. 7th ed. Council of Science a footnote to the title. Authors disclosing poten-
Editors, Reston, VA. tial or actual conflicts of interest related to the
• For American English spelling and us- research presented in the manuscript should
age, consult Merriam-Webster Online. describe this in a footnote with other acknowl-
http://www.m-w.com/ edgements (for details, see Conflict of Interest).
• For how to use numbers, refer to Policies Re- Abstract. ABSTRACT consists of no more than
garding Number Usage later in this document. 2,500 keystrokes (characters and spaces) in one para-
• For SI units, the National Institute of Standards graph and contains a summary of the pertinent re-
and Technology provides a comprehensive guide. sults, with statistical evidence (i.e., P-values), in a
http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/index.html brief but understandable form, beginning with a clear
• For capitalization and spelling of plants, statement of the objective and ending with the conclu-
consult the USDA Plants website. sions, with no references cited. Abbreviations in the
http://plants.usda.gov abstract that are not in Standard JAS Abbrevia-
• For anatomical nomenclature, consult the tions must be defined at first use.
current Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. Key words. List up to 6 key words or phrases
444

Refer to a recent issue mum amount or concentration detectable]). Results and Discussion. should be presented to ferences among means within a row or column and to allow readers to interpret the results of the experi. rpm. broad base on which to evaluate the author’s. must be consistent with the data from the research. or au- ume of JAS. Trait. Sufficient data. see Guidelines for Cre- Provide a validation for assays (e.e. Now that JAS is a fully electronic publication.g. and statistical procedures. kg) container used. Each column must have a heading (e. Measurements on the same experi. Author-defined abbreviations must be defined the interpretations and conclusions.pdf). the manuscript.000 keystrokes (characters and spaces) and stand-alone DISCUSSION should not refer to any ta- must contain a brief justification for conducting bles or figures. authors are encouraged to use color to enhance fig- 445 .pdf). All lication (“in press”). DISCUSSION contains the author’s. shall be placed on a separate page (separated with sec- P < 0. the hypotheses to be tested. interpretations and assertions. portrait layout) without running broadside (i. age. although the end of the manuscript. Reporting the P-value is preferred to the use of ters. with or without restriction of feed and Section of this document. Manufacturer unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treat. RESULTS are presented in the form of ta. which is published in the last issue of each vol. P-value). Fatty acid). The experimental (or redefined) in each table and figure. etary product appearing in a table or figure. Lowercase. information in a table or figure can be under- first mention of each proprietary product used in the stood without referring to information in the body of research (for details see. 10 μL of heparin).. sex. name and location must be provided for any propri- ment is imposed. mental unit over time are not independent and should Tables must be created using the table feature in not be considered as independent experimental units. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science including the species. pro. and amount of preservative or antico. er than being shown in parentheses. authors have TRODUCTION. superscript letters are used to indicate significant dif- nificance level (i. Manufacturer information must be provided at the that is.05) for significance should be stated. (http://www. papers must be published or accepted for pub- biological. with some index of variation attached. key words are The presentation should be clear and concise. The discussion objective(s). trends in the data)... and the citing a P-value from another work. mean and CV ating Tables Using Microsoft Word (http://www. and sta. appropriate words from the title should thors’. for repeated analysis of a sample [both between and animalsciencepublications.. Commercial Products). variables tested. of JAS for examples of table construction. Personal communications and modifications of procedures must be explained. should be separated from headings by a comma. statements are speculative. which are Figures should follow the Quality Guidelines more editorial than quantitative descriptions..e. Limit the data Results. be prepared so they meet the stand-alone criterion. METHODS is a required section and must contain a Literature Cited. the option of combining the results and discussion into Materials and Methods.animalsciencepublications. reference footnotes explaining how to interpret the let- ment. not be repeated within the text. Centrifugal force should be provided in × g. surgical techniques. Di. Other probability (alpha) levels may be discussed captions should be typed double-spaced on a separate if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled page. not in IN. Each table and each figure the biology should be emphasized. ture should be included in DISCUSSION. Because tegrate the research findings with the body of previ- major words in the title are not used for the subject ously published literature to provide readers with a index.org/files/pub- sented. not (i. INTRODUCTION must not ex. Units (e. and major Discussion. TURE CITED. Extensive discussion of relevant litera. wordtableguidelines-jas.. Thus. A statement tion breaks) and identified with table and figure num- of the results of the statistical analysis should justify bers.e.org/files/publications/jas/ within-assay if available] and the sensitivity [mini. unless the research. for Journal of Animal Science (JAS) Figures the P-value (e.. Also. MS Word (for instructions. A ceed 2. tables should be organized to fit across the page kits.g. unless it is a proper noun. all Each footnote should begin on a new line. and weighing and citations are described in the Literature Cited conditions [i. and duration and temperature of centrifugation landscape). unpublished data must not be included in LITERA- ets. Guidelines and formats for references animals (breed. Figure ject.042 or P < 0.g. Authors may be listed as key words. Ap. lications/jas/infora-guidelines-for-figures. MATERIALS AND one section. In JAS. nor should it include P-values. The threshold (e.. When pos- vide a publication reference for the methods used in sible. water]). and in- order..g. Tables and figures must tistical models should be described clearly and fully. thereby allowing readers to decide what to re. lowercase. including sig. address separated by commas and presented in alphabetical biological mechanisms and their significance. response criteria.e. rath- agulant (e. speculate. interpretations of the results of the study. In the body or elaborate on the tabular data.g. numerals are used to reference footnotes. The first letter of each key word is or authors’. must be included.. body weight. dates of experimental activities if appropriate. the terms significant and highly significant. but they should make it clear that their Introduction.g. measurements. but numbers should of the table. and no abbreviations should be used. rather than factual. analytical.g. P = 0. field to the minimum needed for meaningful compari- bles or figures when feasible. Item.05) should be pre. The text should explain son within the accuracy of the methods. Tables and Figures. (e. Include volume of blood collected. To be listed in LITERATURE clear description or specific original reference for all CITED.. Ingredient. Tables and figures shall be placed at propriate statistical methods should be used.

.ebi.tsp@sheri. always be used. Authors of papers that contain tional and used to provide numerical examples or give original quantitative trait loci (QTL) or DNA marker- extensive detail of analytical procedures. be used. [(2 + 3) × (12 ÷ 2)] × 2 = 60. temperature. http://www. A note will appear in croarray data analysis in their research submit a the JAS article that more material can be found on. city.. units of time address must be given parenthetically at first mention should only be abbreviated when used with a num.animalgenome.” tions listed in STANDARD JAS ABBREVIATIONS Gender is more appropriate for describing a or standard international abbreviations cannot be role in society than for describing biological sex. Material in an e-supplement must undergo peer sion of a manuscript: the NCBI Gene Expression review and.ac. Animal Science. Because there is no •• Use italics to designate genus and species (e. complete data set to 1 of 3 databases before submis- line. erally not italicized).. and Publishers (7th ed. •• Abbreviations are not used to begin sentences. When a com- Numbers. Abbreviations in the text that are not listed in STANDARD JAS ABBREVIATIONS General Usage. paper is posted to the JAS-Papers in Press website the data may be included as an e-supplement to the may represent the official public disclosure date for manuscript (see E-Supplements). sume the responsibility of using the convention appro- Individuals may purchase print-on-demand copies priate for the particular species. state that supplemental in. amino acids. contact Sheridan the gene that codes for the protein p53 is TP53 in hu- at Journal of Animal Science or American Society of mans and Trp53 in mice (note that. if association results for livestock are strongly encour- the supplemental material is of interest only to a lim.g. tabases after the manuscript appears on the JAS First formation is available on request from the correspond. For example. The use of names of com- mercial products should be minimized.sapac. although newtons (N) may also be and redefined at first use in the body of the manuscript. fig. Look website (http://www.). •• Meat shear force should be expressed in kilo- defined abbreviations must be defined in the abstract grams (kg). If extensive. To purchase these. administrative region or district [e. but may not be limited to. Authors should avoid •• Report time using the 24-h system (e. the Number Usage for Journal of Animal Science manufacturer name and location (city and state if in later in this document. the EMBL-EBI ArrayExpress repository software that is not generally available) to most re. The date on which the supplemental information are acceptable. universally accepted style for gene and protein names Bos taurus) and botanical varieties (e. Similarly. Words must be spelled out. must be defined at first use. there are no additional fees for color figures and that applies to all species. as examples. the US. copies will contain gray-scale. and the Bovine QTL database (http://genomes. No ™.. •• The hierarchy for brackets and parentheses is Once defined. Except to begin a sentence and province].g. Appendices should the contents of the article.. for micro- cel files. Hanover. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science ures.. Microarray Data. or treatment. or the Center for viewers and readers. tables. 2006). edu. rather than 2:10 p. except to begin a sentence. For details.g. The generic name should ber). acceptable. represent total sample size. and figures. thus.. F: 717-633-8920. Ex.. Gene and Protein Names. ing author. QTL database (http://www.nlm. Instead. For example. APPENDIX 1: TITLE). rather than using “N” to time.g.nih. in each table. and video) that is more extensive or detailed array data we request that all authors using mi- than necessary for a JAS article. units of measure. Current QTL databases for follow LITERATURE CITED and be introduced with livestock include. addresses for websites with appropriate org/publications/jas/first-look). Print-on-demand lines can be found in the CSE Manual for Authors. Abbreviations. should be in a format that is easily Omnibus (GEO. not be used for Control).g. t = •• State total sample size (e. in text. the JAS asks authors to as- images in issues of JAS..m. ®. dan. aged to make their data available in an electronic ited number of JAS readers. Authors may present mate. or © symbols should listed in this document under STANDARD JAS AB. Additional Usage Notes Commercial Products.uk/arrayexpress). and country if outside the US) or a website when specifically contraindicated (e. Abbrevia. C = carbon and can.com. and chemicals. Medi- 446 .. tional abbreviations for elements. authors must use the abbreviations that are be used subsequently. see Policies Regarding mercial product is used as part of an experiment. 1410 h excessive use of author-defined abbreviations.e. (http://www. Quantitative Trait Loci and DNA Markers and Appendices. PA 17331 P: gene names are italicized. E: pubsvc.ncbi. it should not be included form to one of the publicly available livestock QTL da- as an appendix. •• “Sex” should be used.au/bovineqtl/index. Author. ures and images.g.animalsciencepublications. and protein names are gen- 717-632-3535.html). Some general guide- of JAS issues from Sheridan Press. BREVIATIONS. the Animal a major heading (e. An appendix or appendices are op..g. the study included metric ton and cannot be used as an abbreviation for a total of 600 animals). does not require dedicated software or ects/geo). rather than color.org/QTLdb) E-Supplements. by convention. and in each figure. PO Box 465. Information Biology Gene Expression (CIBEX) data- base. rial in an e-supplement (e. detailed data sets. used to create author-defined abbreviations (e. Editors.g.gov/proj- accessible (i. However. unless they are interna.g. author-defined abbreviations should [ ( ) ]. rather than “gender.

. The and postoperative procedures.org..g. which an author is affiliated. Animal Products. accepts manuscripts presenting informa. subjects/guidance/45cfr46. The capitalized. Authors are responsible for ensuring enclosed in single quotes (e. Animal Nutrition: Nonruminant Nutri. Designations for bo. Instead. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES OF JAS dards were followed (e. gain:feed. justi- ly by ASAS. respectively. Do not use the term “head” to refer search that involves animals has followed established to an animal or group of animals. Exp.e. The manuscript should describe anesthetics. experiment and equation should be abbreviated to Exp.” or Editor-in-Chief. In the United States. Potomac). fication for these conditions must be evident in papers tion for publication with this mission in mind. Man. the word “Figure” ily Mueller. use standards for the humane care and use of animals and animal. sheep). approval of all animal procedures. Animal Production. e-mail: as output divided by input (i. The JAS is divided into the following Sections: Ani- mal Genetics. ever. analgesics. Part 46 Protection of Human Subjects. not jsartin@asas..g. Only inves- •• Avoid bi. Title 45 Public uscripts that do not fit one of the JAS Sections will not Welfare. breviated. specify For information on the scientific content of the the basis for tissue composition data (e. wet journal.org. institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC). see http://www.html. Sartin. Primary Industries Ministerial Council.g. and care taken to minimize mals to enhance human life and well-being” pain and discomfort during preoperative.101(b) exempts some research The Editor-in-Chief. •• Calculations of efficiency should be expressed Box 7410.org/about-asas/history-and-mission). subject to review by the pub. mal Science (ASAS) is to “foster the discovery. P. contact the Editor-in-Chief. a ScholarOne Manuscripts.org. Kentucky 31 or Festuca arundinacea of data in manuscripts and ultimately for guarantee- ‘Kentucky 31’). when preceding a numeral (e. All authors submitting to JAS must complete the •• Avoid jargon unfamiliar to scientists from other Care and Use of Animals form certifying that any re- disciplines. and application of scientific knowl.. in JAS. cattle. For questions about submitting a manuscript and •• A diet is a feedstuff or a mixture of feedstuffs. which is published month. Submission Services Manager. but no ™ or ® symbols should be IACUC statement should appear as the first item in used. which contains invited research involving human subjects must comply with manuscripts from symposia at ASAS meetings.O.g.” encesocieties. ration is the daily allotment of the diet. (https://asas. contact Mr.. CFR 45 Part 46.hhs. •• Except to begin a sentence. tigations that have followed high standards for the biweekly means twice per week and once every humane care and use of animals in research will be 2 weeks. Brett Holte. or the JAS tanical cultivars should be preceded by “cv. published in JAS. Em- •• Except to begin a sentence. MATERIALS AND METHODS and should specify which publically available animal care and use stan- II.e. How- be considered for publication. •• Trademarked or registered names should be or equivalent. e-mail: bholte@sci- •• The word “Table” is capitalized and never ab. Animal Nutrition: Ruminant Nutrition. heifer. Managing Editor. and Symposia. James or dry basis). Festuca arundi. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Model code of practice for the welfare of animals: the sharing. the manuscript must include a statement of (e. Champaign. contact Ms. edge concerning the responsible use of ani. the accuracy of collection.. sow. The includes that in which the only involvement of human views expressed in articles published in JAS repre. etc. Associate Editor-in-Chief. subjects is for “taste and food quality evaluation and sent the opinions of the author(s) and do not neces. tranquilizers. Teaching. operative. For assistance with author proofs. the ASAS. Illinois 61826-7410. e-mail: emueller@sci- should be abbreviated to “Fig. Animal Physiology. and interpretation nacea cv. Dr.. feed:gain). ing the veracity of the contents of articles published •• Names of muscles are not italicized. discomfort to the animals or stressful conditions. Exempted research lications committee and ASAS Board of Directors. •• Breed and variety names should be capitalized Also..gov/ohrp/human- editorial policies of JAS. 1). must specify which standards were used. encesocieties. as-fed or dry matter) for dietary ingredient and chemical composition Contact Information data listed in text or in tables.g. Protection of Human Subjects tion. Landrace and Hereford). from these regulations. and Care and Use of Animals Eq.as a prefix because of its ambiguity. American Society of Animal Science. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science cago sativa var. ewe. analysis. •• Specify the basis (i. consumer acceptance if 1) wholesome foods without sarily reflect the official policy of the institution with additives are consumed or 2) a food is consumed that contains a food ingredient at or below the level and for 447 . If research requires Journal of Animal Science. Similarly. reported in JAS. For all exempted research and Managing Editor. steer. and Section Editors establish the other details. federally funded or regulated Special Topics. ADSA-ASAS-PSA Guide for Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and The mission of the American Society of Ani.

or relationship with. and various “newsworthy” scientific issues. or agricultural chemical or en. in consultation tion decisions. abstracts. Previous presentation All JAS editors.animalsciencepublications. including performance and recreational or the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the U. report research with cattle.g. business ownership. rather. Research Articles. systems ogy. The JAS may use Review Articles. and sheep. The journal publishes invited such information as a basis for editorial and publica- review articles. ronmental concerns. aquatic. uscript will be prevented from gaining access to the the authors may be responsible for a portion of the manuscript and associated documents. consulting fees. This Section includes Biographi- ing Author Center. and submitting authors must disclose any actual reports or similar documents. intellectual property rights. ucts.. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science a use found to be safe. political. and wildlife species will be consid- Department of Agriculture. The Editor-in-Chief. Even though Contemporary Issues manuscripts do not be conveniently categorized. Unsolicited are an author or coauthor. Manuscripts will limit their access to the Correspond- Special Topics. and investments. after con- their ability to objectively evaluate or manage a man- sultation with and approval by the Editor-in-Chief. and preparation and utilization of animal prod. Section Editors may solicit proposals for actual or potential conflicts of interest that may affect review articles to be published in JAS. vironmental contaminant at or below the level found However. ASAS staff. cal or Historical Sketches and Contemporary Issues for example. see Title Page). and lations where the research was conducted. that is deemed relevant and sufficient. Articles ence. Because JAS holds the than diversified mutual funds or the equivalent. is a clarification of the focus human subjects were used in research that was not of JAS. (for instructions. However. site and in the Association News section of JAS. Financial relationships JAS should carry a disclaimer on the website that generally refer to financial benefits accrued to authors this version of the paper has not undergone JAS peer- through avenues such as salary. or finan- field-day reports. on the conduct and publica- simultaneously posted to websites and submitted to tion of the research or data. identifies invited tors. Many articles are multidisciplinary and can. ASAS Board of Direc- at a scientific meeting or the use of data in field-day tors. Studies with laboratory animal used in exempted research and the research was in species that address fundamental questions related compliance with CFR 45 Part 46. including press publi- or potential conflicts of interest that may affect their cations or postings to personal or departmental web- ability to objectively present or review research or sites.S. For more information. authors must whether the topic of a manuscript is appropriate for certify that the research received a priori approval JAS. nutrition. religious. Associate Editor-in-Chief if there are questions about tions where the research was conducted. Articles typically not have to include original data. analysis. ASAS staff. range of research topics in animal production and Contemporary Issues include topics such as envi- fundamental aspects of genetics. authors other managed animals may be considered. or similar presentations that are cial interest in. personal.org/publica- Articles published in JAS encompass a broad tions/jas/infora. posting altered JAS Disclosures for JAS authors are to be provided as articles that are represented as exact duplicates of an acknowledgement on the title page of a manuscript the published version constitutes copyright violation. and other nonmonetary in JAS. Authors may contact the Editor-in-Chief or exempted in CFR 45 Part 46. they will be published on the ASAS web- for that manuscript. intellectual. roy- citation so that proper credit can be given to JAS as alties. legislative proposals. The JAS edi- and the ASAS Board of Directors. use of vacation prop- form of the article. Section Editors. The frequency of publication depends on the availability Types of Articles of the prepared sketches. studies involving other farm animals (e. unless they publication charges for invited reviews. goats. Results of research contained in manuscripts submitted to JAS must not have Conflict of Interest been published in or submitted previously to a peer- reviewed scientific journal. al. This generally includes any relevant profession- in JAS. proceedings papers. If the article has been published erty. pigs. from an appropriate Institutional Review Board. or equivalent regula. other the publisher of the article. and ASAS Board of Directors with reviews. to the biology of livestock. or equivalent regu. to be safe. companion animals. positive or negative. has an actual or potential conflict of in- in the animal sciences. do not preclude the publication of such data data. in which case ScholarOne review articles will not be considered. must state in MATERIALS AND METHODS or ac.” If human subjects were ered for publication. by the Food and Drug Administration or poultry and meat and working horses) and compan- approved by the Environmental Protection Agency ion animals. The preceding paragraph is not meant to exclude knowledgements that they were in full compliance. and may publish such disclosures if with the Associate Editor-in-Chief. see http://www. horses. copyright to articles it publishes. country club privileges. When the current Editor-in-Chief. hono- review and is not to be considered the final published raria (including paid holidays. If manuscripts but. physiol. a former Editor-in-Chief or Historical Sketches are part of the Special Top- will assume the responsibilities of the Editor-in-Chief ics Section. authors’ assertions 448 . an individual or expanded to produce full-length manuscripts should business that could have an actual or perceived influ- be referenced and cited in JAS manuscripts. the author should include the complete JAS rewards for service).. Even though Biographical terest with a manuscript.

are un- handles the review and outcome is to accept or reject able to submit manuscripts electronically may contact the paper. who are and disadvantages of the new procedure should be unable to grant copyright to ASAS must indicate the discussed. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science should be substantiated with references to estab. and (usually tables or figures) taken from other copyrighted similar types of articles will not be considered for sources must secure permission from the copyright hold- publication in JAS. The form is completed during the submis- the new method with those from previous methods. The review process for published in JAS. Brett Holte (bholte@sciencesocieties. A JAS Section Editor mission system or. although ABSTRACT and INTRODUCTION keystrokes and should contain no more than 5 cita- must be consistent with keystroke (characters and tions.org). their relates to information published in JAS will be con- format may vary from that of standard scientific ar. The advantages such as United States government employees.com/jas. provide a forum for scientific exchange relating to ar- lished information from credible published sources. or data tor” section of JAS. The fundable if the article is rejected. added to the First Look Please note: beginning in 2016. the and highlight teaching techniques. sion process through ScholarOne Manuscripts.S. using appropriate statistical tests. a letter must adhere to the following guidelines. brief communications. 4) All letters will be subject be accessed at a single location. https://www.000 (members) and $2. The purpose of this section is to extracted from the work of others and used to construct 449 . ter and determine whether a letter is appropriate for ties. Ms. including the ASAS. Like- presented in an e-supplement (see E-Supplements). Copyright Agreement Technical Notes. In general. based on published data for the points made or must Teaching articles should be submitted to Natu. which is a joint venture of on conjecture or unsubstantiated claims will not nor- several professional societies. Manuscripts should be submitted electroni- lines. industry. Submitted papers should follow JAS guide. To be acceptable for publica- Special Topics papers will be subject to peer re. or procedure of in. Persons who wish to reproduce mate- a technical note will be the same as that for other rial in JAS must request written permission to reprint manuscripts.manuscriptcentral.000 ticles. technique. Authors. Government em- crosoft Word document pages).org). see editing by a technical editor. Normally both letters will a portfolio of teaching-related articles that can be published together. authors of JAS manuscripts who include material Short communications. but will be a new submission. If a letter is considered appropriate. Authors shall complete the Manuscript Submission terest to JAS readers. administration. ideas. wise. For detailed in. When possible. and grades K–12” publication. The reviews will generally be complete Mr. 2) A letter should provide supporting evidence spaces) limitations defined earlier in this document. Tables publication will be printed in a “Letters to the Edi. A letter judged suitable for the manuscript is submitted to JAS for review. to acceptance and editing by the Editor-in-Chief and formation about Natural Sciences Education. view in a manner similar to other JAS submissions. The submission fee Section Editor will reject the manuscript and require must be paid at the time of publication. Rapid Communications.agronomy. JAS is now consider- ing rapid publication of short communications that SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS are considered novel and highly significant to animal science. credited towards total page charge fee if the article is sion. The goal is build write a letter of response. produced as an official duty of a U. questions about using the electronic manuscript sub- mately 15 Word file pages). When typeset for publication. No new data may be presented in Articles in Natural Sciences Education are “writ. 3) The Editor-in-Chief will evaluate each let- ten by and for educators in extension. tion. by 2 weeks and if accepted. Generally there will not be a revi. universi. including tables and ployee is considered public domain. but are restricted to 2 figures or tables or a cally through ScholarOne Manuscripts at combination of 1 figure/1 table. author(s) of original JAS article(s) will be invited to and other teaching-related issues. Please note: the submission fee is not re- fee (applied towards publication if accepted).org/publications/nse. If significant revisions are needed. A letter based ral Sciences Education. for technological reasons. detailed than necessary for a Technical note may be Emily Mueller (emueller@sciencesocieties. 1) Only a letter that addresses matters of science and Because of the nature of these manuscripts. a letter should not exceed 5. material that was note shall not exceed 10 pages (approximately 18 Mi. a technical and Copyright Release form for each new manuscript note should include a comparison of results from submission. The final published http://mc. mally be published. A technical note is used to re- port a new method. The American So- figures. “Technical note:” shall be the first portion of ciety of Animal Science holds the copyright to material the title of such manuscripts. manuscript will be published Open Access and the fee for publication of this rapid format will be $1. or figures reproduced from the work of others. a technical reason for exemption on the form. All papers are subject to the $100 submission published. JAS will institue page within 2 days and placed in the next available a submission fee equivalent to the page charges for journal issue. ticles published in JAS. sidered. develop logical scientific hypotheses. concepts. a letter.000 (nonmembers). the one page at the membership rate. Authors with paper will be no more than 5 printed pages (approxi. Information that is more extensive or copyrighted information from the Managing Editor. ers and provide evidence of this permission at the time Letters to the Editor.

all documents related to the manuscript. Correspondence concern- ter with the Section Editor responsible for the manu. Manuscripts that exceed the revision-option dead- line will be withdrawn. figures processed. spondence with the peer reviewers and corresponding author and promptly decide whether a manuscript should be accepted. or they are not consistent with guidelines in ents and disclosure dates. consult with the Section Editor responsible for by fax if necessasry. to revise and return manuscripts classified as Minor lication in any book of which he or she is author or editor. Manuscripts are rejected for 3 general this site have not been professionally edited and type- reasons. Extenuating circumstances REVIEW OF MANUSCRIPTS may justify the need to extend the revision-option deadline. such as pat- herently.pdf). Decisions must be appealed to the Editor-in. However.animalsciencepubli- manuscript files are forwarded to the technical edi. (http://www. Revision and permitted 35 days to revise and return subject only to his or her giving proper credit in the book manuscripts classified as Major Revision. Asso. The Editor-in-Chief will then decide to the proof should be made neatly and clearly in the whether to accept or deny the appeal. Queries are course of action the author should discuss the mat. Manuscripts prompts reviewers to classify manu- scripts as Minor Revision or Major Revision. Authors whose first language is not English ed to the editorial office for technical editing and type- are urged to have an editing service review their man.animalsciencepublications. All communications about a submitted manu. Corrections may be returned by e-mail (preferred). Authors con- Manuscripts are not written clearly. To facilitate earlier disclosure Editor’s own review of the manuscript. A Section PAPERS IN PRESS. Accuracy of the The Editor-in-Chief will review the author’s reasons. If a manuscript is rejected. Notes created with Adobe edit- Revisions. margins of the proof. cations. Managing Editor. Requests for extensions must be communi- General Procedures.org/publications/jas/first-look) in the form in tors. changes the manuscript. to clarify points. must accepted for publication are returned to the author(s) include an acknowledgement of the original source in at least once for revision. evidence may not support the conclusions. JAS First Look site (http://www. invite revision. or to update figures. The ASAS. AND Editor’s decision to accept. they do not represent the final. 2) Even though the on which a manuscript is posted to the JAS-Papers in work may be sound and the results valid. After acceptance. The Revision whether manuscripts are suitable for publication in Checklist for Authors is sent with requests for revision JAS. or rejected. add queries to ask the authors for missing informa- JAS considers the authors. author proof is the sole responsibility of the author(s). tion. ScholarOne to the original JAS publication of the article by ASAS. or reject a PUBLICATION CHARGES manuscript after peer review is based on peer-review- er comments and recommendations and the Section Papers in Press. accepted manuscripts will be as- tors forward document files for accepted and rejected signed a digital object identifier (doi) and posted to the manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief. Journal of Animal before submitting manuscripts to a scientific journal. of research results. Authors should Editor-in-Cheif and Section Editors handle corre. The authors bear the prima- ing acceptance or rejection of manuscripts submitted ry responsibility for the content of manuscripts posted for publication. and Section Editors determine script before the revision-option expires. All revised manuscripts a footnote or legend and. revised. The date a complete mental approach may be poorly conceived. included in the galley proofs. Most manuscripts that are eventually ing tools and pointing to specific locations for correc- 450 . the tions from editors. and author Appeals. cated to the Section Editor responsible for the manu- ciate Editor-in-Chief. Section Edi. Accepted manuscripts are forward- review. Chief if the author(s) believe(s) that the judgment was Proofs of all manuscripts will be provided to the cor- erroneous or biased. cerned about intellectual property issues. The Associate cations/jas/jas-revision-checklist. For faxed corrections. to the Papers in Press site. should seek legal counsel the 2016 Instructions for Authors. One Manuscripts. when appropriate. which they are accepted. A letter presenting the reasons responding author and should be read carefully and for the appeal should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief. closely follow the Checklist. Because articles posted to Rejections. publication date for JAS articles. the technical editor may uscripts before they are submitted to JAS. if neces. or sary. as a first proofs (also called galley proofs) prepared.org/files/publi- script should maintain confidentiality. However. Authors will be permitted 15 days grants to the author(s) of JAS articles the right of repub. These manuscripts may be rejected without Author Proofs. During this process. 3) sure date for the contents of the article. and are frequently changed in response to ques- meet JAS standards. a complete must be returned to Section Editors via JAS Scholar- citation in LITERATURE CITED. and not an editing service. ing the accepted manuscript should be directed to the script. The Editor-in-Chief. 1) The substance of the manuscript may not set. however. The Editor-in-Chief is the final arbiter concern. the date ment of the existing knowledge. setting. concisely. Science. or the work monthly issue of JAS is posted online is the official may repeat established fact or represent no advance. and co. the paper Press website may represent the official public disclo- may be better suited for publication elsewhere. checked against the typed manuscript. AUTHOR PROOFS. the work may be incomplete. script is then typeset. published form of the manuscript. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science summary tables (or figures) or for meta-analyses. the experi. and. The manu- responsible for the content of manuscripts.

P and S) is acceptable in JAS. Com. Except for N (not italicized).. mol/L) Professional membership in ASAS is available to mol mole any person who has research.. Item Unit aging Editor. Item Unit s second STANDARD JAS ABBREVIATIONS min minute The following abbreviations should be used without h hour definition in JAS. Use of the standard 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids (e.g. the author is asked cate centrifugal force) to complete a reprint order form requesting the num- ber of reprints desired and the name of the institu. Washington. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science tions are preferred. g gram authors will pay the open access fee when proofs are ha hectare returned to the editorial office so that their article will become freely available upon publication in an online Hz hertz issue of JAS. W watt tion. Editor queries °C degree Celsius should be answered on the galley proofs. Publication Charges and Reprints. N normal (concentration) plete details are available at the following website: Pa pascal www. mo month ceptable in JAS. Reprints may M molar (concentration. CI confidence interval CV coefficient of variation Physical units df degree(s) of freedom (spell out if used without units) 451 . column.500 per article if at least one author is a current J joule professional member of ASAS. DC). which is the recognized abbreviation for nitrogen and Statistical symbols and abbreviations newton (unit of force).g. Charges for open access publication are IU international unit $2. The journal Eq equivalent (only can be used with a prefix. lx lux ed page in JAS if at least one author is a professional m meter ASAS member. ANOVA analysis of variance refer to the ACS Style Guide (published by the Ameri- can Chemical Society. commer. agency. mEq) conventional page charges.. the page charge is $200 when no au- thor is a professional member of ASAS. or administrative responsibilities or interests in the broad disciplines within animal science. if not noted directly on the Adobe PDF file.asas. Plural abbreviations do not contain a d day final “s” because the context of an abbreviation implies wk week whether it is singular or plural. preferred over be ordered at an additional charge. or individual responsible for publication V volt charges. t metric ton (1. For L liter conventional publication. However.g. without a prefix) turned to the Section Editor for additional scientific Da dalton review. Now that JAS is a fully electronic publica. rpm revolutions/minute (not to be used to indi- When the author proof is sent. Use of the internationally recognized yr year chemical symbols for chemical elements (e.. and they may be cM centimorgan (spell out morgan if used deemed so excessive that the manuscript will be re.org/membership-services/member-information. C is for carbon and nev. educational. N newton (N not italicized) cial. the charge is $3. Changes e-mailed to the Man. the charge is $100 per print. must indicate page. failure to do cal calorie so may delay or prevent publication. has 2 options available for publication: open access and e.000 kg) tion. Item Term er for control). For chemical units and abbreviations. Ala) is ac. authors who order reprints are responsible Units of time for paying any additional charges for printing reprints that contain color.250 when no author is a professional ASAS member. and line numbers for Bq becquerel each correction to be made on the proof. chemical symbols for elements are reserved for elements (e. For the open access option. there are no additional charges for color figures and images that appear in electronic issues of JAS.g. Excessive author changes made at the proof stage may result in a $250 Ci curie surcharge for additional typesetting.

intraperitoneal BLUP best linear unbiased prediction i. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science F F-distribution (variance ratio) cDNA complementary deoxyribonucleic acid LSD least significant difference C/EBP CAAT-enhancer binding protein n sample size (used parenthetically or in cfu colony-forming unit footnotes. firm. experiment (always followed by a nu- ADF acid detergent fiber (assumed sequen. and dry (meat) α probability of Type I error DM dry matter β probability of Type II error DMI dry matter intake μ mean (population) DNA deoxyribonucleic acid σ standard deviation (population) EBV estimated breeding value(s) σ2 variance (population) eCG equine chorionic gonadotropin χ2 chi-squared distribution EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EFA essential fatty acid EIA enzymeimmunoassay Others ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Item Term EPD expected progeny difference(s) AA amino acid(s) Eq. intramuscular BLUE best linear unbiased estimate i. diameter SED standard error of the differences of DE digestible energy means DEAE (dimethylamino)ethyl (as in DEAE- SEM standard error of the mean cellulose) t t-(or Student) distribution DFD dark. meral) tial unless designated otherwise) FFA free fatty acid(s) ADFI average daily feed intake (not to be FSH follicle-stimulating hormone confused with DMI) GEBV genomic estimated breeding value(s) ADG average daily gain g gravity ADIN acid detergent insoluble nitrogen GE gross energy ADL acid detergent lignin G:F gain-to-feed ratio ADP adenosine diphosphate GLC gas-liquid chromatography AI artificial insemination GLM general linear model AIA acid insoluble ash GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone ARS Agricultural Research Service GH growth hormone ATP adenosine triphosphate GHRH growth hormone-releasing hormone avg average (use only in tables.m. note italics) CIE International Commission on Illumi- P probability nation (Commission Internationale r simple correlation coefficient d’Eclairage) r2 simple coefficient of determination CLA conjugated linoleic acid R multiple correlation coefficient CoA coenzyme A R2 multiple coefficient of determination Co-EDTA cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetate s2 variance (sample) CP crude protein (N × 6. Equation(s) ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone Exp.p. not in the text) h2 heritability BCS body condition score i.v.25) SD standard deviation (sample) D dextro- SE standard error diam. intravenous bp base pair hCG human chorionic gonadotropin BSA bovine serum albumin HCW hot carcass weight BTA Bos taurus chromosome HEPES N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N′-2- ethanesulfonic acid BW body weight (used for live weight) 452 .

b. subspecies ME metabolizable energy MP metabolizable protein SSC Sus scrofa chromosome mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid ST somatotropin MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid TDN total digestible nutrients NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide TLC thin layer chromatography NADH reduced form of NAD Tris tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane NDF neutral detergent fiber tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid NDIN neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen TSAA total sulfur amino acids NE net energy USDA US Department of Agriculture NEg net energy for gain UV ultraviolet NEl net energy for lactation VFA volatile fatty acid(s) NEm net energy for maintenance vol volume NEFA nonesterified fatty acid vol/vol volume/volume (used only in parenthe- ses) No. Jones. requires the authors’ names to be included in paren- ceptor theses. If the sentence structure PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated re. More than 453 . not in the text) NRC National Research Council wt/vol weight/volume (used only in parenthe- o. versus NPN nonprotein nitrogen wt weight (use only in tables.d. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science HPLC high-performance (pressure) liquid PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid(s) chromatography QTL quantitative trait locus (loci) i. 1993). and exudative (meat) are more than 2 authors of an article. 1988a. number (use only in tables. PGF2α prostaglandin F2α refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or PMSG pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin Smith and Jones (1990.c. 1992. the first author’s name is followed by the abbreviation et al. pelvic. 1982. not in the text) vs. subcutaneous LD50 lethal dose 50% SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate LH luteinizing hormone SFA saturated fatty acid LHRH luteinizing hormone-releasing hor- SNP single nucleotide polymorphism mone spp. species LM longissimus muscle ssp.. soft. 1992). heart fat Statistical Analysis System) L levo- s. outside diameter ses) OIE World Organisation for Animal Health wt/wt weight/weight (used only in parenthe- (Office International des Epizooties) ses) OM organic matter PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis PBS phosphate-buffered saline LITERATURE CITED GUIDELINES FOR JOUR- PCR polymerase chain reaction NAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE PG prostaglandin References in the Text.d. (no longer stands for KPH kidney. inside diameter RDP ruminally degradable protein Ig immunoglobulin (when used to identify REML restricted maximum likelihood a specific immunoglobulin) RFLP restriction fragment length polymor- phism IGF insulin-like growth factor RIA radioimmunoassay IGFBP insulin-like growth factor-binding RNA ribonucleic acid protein(s) RQ respiratory quotient IL interleukin RUP ruminally undegradable protein IVDMD in vitro dry matter disappearance rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid kb kilobase(s) SAS SAS Institute Inc. When there PSE pale. the proper format is (Smith and Jones. In the body of the manuscript. Jones et al.

ncbi. C. J. Meet. 15th ed. M.1167936 1. L. J. disinfections published since 1980. San on efficacy of premilking and postmilking teat Diego. 2000. and K. proceedings paper. editor. J. Summary of peer-reviewed publications nutrition and metabolism. page. be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the Southern. Sci. E. 1992. Arlington. 2011. No. Harrisburg. V. E.. With the exception of consortia. J. and L. Pettigrew. 1990. M. Pacheco. in the text as “(J. L. 2007. unpublished data). and then reference and cite cal. analyses (apparatus. Off. Klopfenstein. T. MO. field. 89:414–425. In-press citations Cleale. Sci. PhD Work that has not been accepted for publication Diss. Chem. Sigma Chemi- as a peer-reviewed article. Books and articles within edited books: AOAC. L. L. (Ab- Literature Cited Section. reagents. Forage fiber order for 2 publications in the same year. and T. after chemical treatment and anaerobic storage.2527/jas. as an acknowledge. Bailey. To be listed in LIT. Kennelly. the work was someone else’s and originally described MP94. 1984. L.2527/ ing the names and locations of the members of the jas. Landi Periati. 2. VA. field-day report. Academic Press.2014-7848 numbers must be provided. ellite markers. W..) doi:10. 2009. Smith. cited. C. sorption of soybean protein treated with xylose. of weaning method on welfare and performance Robinson. and then chronologi. E. M. Van Soest. A. A. A.. DC. 92:4823-4832. the authors should reference and cite those reports. If In: 2011 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report.) same author or set of authors in the same year shall Perez. Journal articles and abstracts The author’s own unpublished work should be listed Centon. J. performance and fecal microbiotia of pigs after ment on the title page.. personal communication). Induced non-enzymatic browning of soy- CITED..) cepted for publication (“in press”). V. colori- similar presentation. Pre- NRC. Ef- communications and unpublished data must not be fects of roughage source and level in finishing included in the Literature Cited section. West. Anim. of Nebraska. Anim. L. Jaeger. 2 or more publications by the published before circa 2005 may not have a doi. cations of the members of the consortium in an ap. G. 63:25-29. and J. Natl. Waggoner. D. As. DC. Jones (institution. Additivity of ef- authors must appear in LITERATURE CITED. T. theses.. Amer.nih. Science. A. 324:528- 532. and BioPig Consortium. Press. Acad. Fakler. doi: One-word titles must be spelled out. Proc. Mastitis Counc. A. shall be listed in the text as “J. 121–127. Louis. Erickson. Martínez. T. North Carolina State Univ. Sci. Bidner. Genetic characterization of local Criollo the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed pig breeds from the Americas using microsat- (http://www. 1995. Digestibility of crop residues the information to produce a full-length manuscript. now considered part of a citation. Nissen. the peer-reviewed article. Anim.. Total hemoglobin: Quantitative. E. Arlington. Tech. H. St. Genome- wide survey of SNP variation uncovers the ge- Sample references are as follows: netic structure of cattle breeds.2527/ jas. Satterlee. L. Ve- pendix. J. but not in an acknowledgement on the title ga-Pla. 4.gov/nlmcatalog/journals). M. D. or they may include the names and lo. Anim. 1995. The Bovine Hap Map Consortium. D. L. R. In: S. 85(Suppl.” 3. No. J. VA. J. work in a meeting abstract.nlm. J. of beef calves during receiving. weaning. Univ.2006-354 (NOTE: The doi is ERATURE CITED. Effect rev.. R. Raleigh. the names of all er.. Ginja. Ruminal escape and net portal ab- ing to author(s) last name(s). and not abstracts. Handbooks. CA. Ward. the authors should determine metric determination in whole blood at 530–550 whether the work has been expanded and published nm. Buckner. Vander Pol. Published. Anal. Ward. M. if authors originally described their ARS-USDA. K. Effects of copper deficiency on per- formance and immune function of cattle. p. However. Greenquist. T. a link to the website contain. and J. J. Harmon. p. Steiding- date... D. M. city. T. Rep. L. G. E. authors may include. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. Revidatti. Agric. J.” Personal J. G. Handbook No. Measurement of protein digestion in ruminants. and P. A. (NOTE: Articles As with text references. and peer-reviewed articles. 65:1319–1326. E. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science 1 article listed in the same sentence or parentheses and dissertations must be in chronological order first and alphabetical Goering. A. Lincoln. Reg. IV. J. 454 . citations are listed alphabetically accord. str. A. M. Anim. D. T. V. Inclusive page 10. Modern methods in protein NMC. revision or in the author proofs. Washington. Olson. should be updated with complete information during L. Delgado Bermejo. J. or similar presentation and then expanded Klopfenstein. ed. 1970. procedures. PA. technical bulletins. In LITERATURE 1987a. G. K. K. Bull. Britton. Proc. Sci. diets containing wet distillers grains on feedlot performance. should be some applications). Conference proceedings soc. and state or country. 379. bean meal. 2011.2010-2839 consortium. proceedings paper. articles must be published or ac. For fects from dietary copper and zinc on growth consortia. J. 2):76.1126/science. P. R. Gama. Bauer. W. p. day report. ed. A. The year of publication follows author names. C.. Mastitis Counc. J. Okine. II. Official methods of analysis. 2012. Washington. 7th edy. Erickson. Klopfenstein. H. rev. Natl. doi 10. cally. R. and M. or Sigma. Journal names shall be abbreviated according to 2014. In: Natl. in an abstract. Sec. 525. Soc. Sci. Waguespark. Alvarez. doi:10. 35–36. Shreck.

in joules. W. and multiplication factors (e. •• A comma separator is used in numbers greater •• Hyphenate units of measure used as preceding than 999 (e. 2):E8–E16. J. .. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55490. Genetic testing for TMEM154 muta. although joule is the standard SI unit ing (leading) zero (e.htm (Accessed 26 December 2014. Monin.nist. use 5 mg/(g except when they begin a sentence or appear ∙ d) or 5 mg ∙ g–1 ∙ d–1 instead of 5 mg/g/d. nonmetric value in parentheses immediately nal.. such as mg/L or and the product of a positive number (multipli. not Ten μL of ditional models to estimate additive genetic vari. and http://physics.1371/jour. multiplied Number usage in JAS is consistent with the Scien. 5-kg sample).. and 20th). for example.g. it is unclear precisely what pressed in words. tific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors.g. 1990. Denmark. Electronic Publications parenthetically.. series (e. M. Harhay. occur consecutively. 81(E. ance in selected populations..). Copenhagen. vivo sampling. Chitko. J. see McKown.234. and Publishers. Genet.g. 1 to 10). Edinburgh. •• When a term must be expressed in nonmetric tions associated with lentivirus susceptibility in units for clarity (e. or already have been. P. the International Sheep Genomics Consortium. J. Kalbfleisch. 2003. 2014..) in numeric form.”.g.. Meat •• If a number is spelled out at the beginning of Sci.234 and 1.. Fernandez. for example.. Approved animal drug products online diet) was measured. show the sheep. . as “lysine content (mg/kg of FDA.g..567).. M.. its associated unit is also spelled out Van der Werf. lines) of operation when these signs occur be- •• Statements such as “5 times less” should be tween 2 values (e. •• Avoid ambiguity by stating units (e. 4th World •• Units of measurement not associated with a Congr.. B. T. Leymaster. Suppl. Proc. 3rd.g. T.e. (Green Book). adjectives (e. Petrik. J.g. 
K.pone. is greater. numbers Editors. a sentence. true for a negative multiplicand. G. number should be spelled out rather than ab- Scotland XIII:476–479.g. A. not less. D. when a number is used as a figure of speech. •• Use “mol/100 mol” rather than “molar percent. bushel weight). •• Do not use more than one slant line (for “per”) •• All cardinal numbers are written as numerals in a single expression. 20th. and G. L.. may be muscle of Large White pigs as measured after in not be clear to readers. . G. H. when 2 “per” sentence (spell out the number most easily ex. mg/mL. larger ordinals are expressed default... •• Single-digit ordinals are spelled out (i. not first.0055490 after the metric value. × 10–6) in table columns or rows. Congr. Kijas. fluid . X. 1. p. millions/mL). tem (SI or Système International d’Unités. for energy. •• Measures must be presented in the metric sys- son. 1st. P. •• Convert “mg %” to other units. L. Math- in a title. or in figure axis labels POLICIES REGARDING NUMBER USAGE FOR because of the uncertainty about whether the JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE data are to be. by the factor. In: Proc. Defoor. The opposite is Talmant. Sellier. M. 0. Appl.. •• Dietary energy may be expressed in calories or •• Numbers less than 1 are written with a preced. 35th Int. e.g.gov/AnimalVeteri.fda. “per” implies division. two 10-kg samples). expressed numerically when they form part of a age source and level on intake by feedlot cattle. A. breviated (e. Prod. than the multiplicand. Heaton. Sci. Simp. 10th. Glycolytic potential in longissimus dorsi of “5 times less than –5. lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogram of diet) unless used 5.g. P. Hyphens are not •• Numerals should be used to designate ratios used with percent or degree signs. http://www. cand) multiplied by 5. of spermatozoa. Instructions for Authors of Journal of Animal Science 82–92.. •• Use “to” instead of a hyphen to indicate a nu- merical range in text (e.” or in tables and figures. Single-digit ordinals may be Galyean.75). Livest. and P. C. first nary/Products/ApprovedAnimalDrugProducts/ through ninth). •• Avoid the use of multiplying factors (e. (e. or is being divided by what.. S. when 2 numerals are adjacent in a ematically. J. 2013. doi:10. html. third. avoided because “times” means multiplied by. 1129. 2:1 and 3-fold •• Insert spaces around all signs (except slant increase). 10 ± 1. Clawson. Technol.g. Ten microliters of fluid . 10th. A note on the use of con.g. Effects of rough. Anim. 2 + 2 = 4).g.gov/cuu/Units/introduction. 5 < 10.” for example. but the notion 1989. 455 . .