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Materials and Design 36 (2012) 597603

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Materials and Design


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Effect of ground bagasse ash on mechanical and durability properties


of recycled aggregate concrete
Rattapon Somna a, Chai Jaturapitakkul a,, Pokpong Rattanachu a, Wichian Chalee b
a
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
b
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, Cholburi 20131, Thailand

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this study, bagasse ash, which is a large disposal landll waste from sugar mill industries, is utilized as
Received 8 September 2011 a pozzolanic material to improve the mechanical properties and durability of recycled aggregate con-
Accepted 28 November 2011 crete. Ground bagasse ash (GBA) was used to replace Portland cement Type I at the percentages of 20,
Available online 8 December 2011
35, and 50 by weight of binder. Compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water permeability, and
chloride penetration depth of the concretes were determined.
Keywords: The results revealed that the modulus of elasticity of recycled aggregate concrete with and without
A. Concrete
GBA was lower than that of conventional concrete by approximately 19%. GBA can be used effectively
C. Recycling
E. Mechanical
to reduce the water permeability of recycled aggregate concrete. The increase of GBA content in recycled
aggregate concrete results in a signicant decrease in chloride penetration depths. In addition, the
mechanical properties and durability of recycled aggregate concrete were efciently improved by using
20% of GBA in the concrete mixtures.
2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction increasing of recycled aggregate as coarse aggregate in a concrete


mixture resulted in higher of oxygen permeability and chloride ion
In 2009, the total production of sugarcane in the world was esti- penetration than those of conventional concrete [9,10]. However,
mated to be approximately 1661 million tons. The largest producer recycled coarse aggregate could be used in structural concrete
of sugarcane is Brazil and Thailand is the fourth largest [1]. The to- [11,12] and it has been shown to be suitable for structural use when
tal sugarcane production in Thailand was about 68.5 million tons it was used to replace natural coarse aggregate not more than 25% by
[2]. Cordeiro et al. [3] suggested that the quantity of bagasse from weight [13]. In high strength concrete, the use of recycled coarse
the sugar production was approximately 26% of the sugarcane aggregate to replace natural coarse aggregate by not more than 30%
weight and the quantity of the bagasse ash from burning bagasse by weight had no effect on the ultimate strength of concrete [14].
for producing electricity in the sugar industry was approximately However, it is rarely found the study on the use of bagasse ash
0.62% of the sugarcane weight which amounts to approximately as a pozzolanic material in recycled aggregate concrete. Therefore,
424,700 tons per year in Thailand. in this research, recycled coarse aggregate was used to fully replace
Many researchers have reported that bagasse ash with high natural coarse aggregate to produce recycled aggregate concrete
neness was a good pozzolanic material and its reactivity depends and ground bagasse ash was used to partially replace cement to
on the degree of crystallinity of silica, the presence of impurities, improve the mechanical properties and durability of recycled
particle size, and neness [4,5]. In Thailand, most of the bagasse aggregate concrete. The novelty of this research is the utilization
ash has been disposed of to landlls and little of it is utilized then of the waste from sugarcane industries and waste from concrete
many landlls are required. works. Moreover, the results of this research are useful for concrete
Recycled coarse aggregate, the waste from construction activi- technology to select a suitable percent replacement of ground ba-
ties, has been used as a coarse aggregate in concrete. It has been gasse ash as well as recycled coarse aggregate to produce recycled
found that the concrete made with it had lower compressive aggregate concrete which has the good strength and durability.
strength and lower modulus of elasticity than those of conventional
concrete [6,7]. When the replacement was not more than 50% by 2. Experimental program
weight, the modulus of elasticity of recycled aggregate concrete
was slightly lower than that of conventional concrete [8]. Moreover, 2.1. Cement and bagasse ash

Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 2 470 9131; fax: +66 2 427 9063. This research used ordinary Portland cement Type I (OPC) and
E-mail address: chai.jat@kmutt.ac.th (C. Jaturapitakkul). bagasse ash which was a by-product from sugar industry in

0261-3069/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2011.11.065
598 R. Somna et al. / Materials and Design 36 (2012) 597603

Table 1
Physical properties of materials.

Sample Specic Retained on a sieve Median particle


gravity no. 325 (%) size, d50 (lm)
Cement Type I 3.14 14.7
(OPC)
Original bagasse 1.89 66.85
ash
Ground bagasse 2.27 0.42 5.6
ash (GBA)

Table 2
Strength activity index.

Sample Strength activity index at Strength activity index at


7 days (%) 28 days (%)
Original bagasse 62.0 74.0
ash
Fig. 1. Disposal landll of bagasse ash.
Ground bagasse 87.4 112.7
ash (GBA)
Lopburi province, Thailand. At this site, a large amount of bagasse
ash is disposed of in landll as shown in Fig. 1.
The particle morphologies of bagasse ash are shown in Fig. 2. The
Table 3
bagasse ash particles have irregular shape, large size, rough surface,
Chemical compositions of materials.
and have high porosity. The original bagasse ash (see Tables 1 and
2) has particles retaining on a 45-lm sieve of 66.85% by weight Chemical composition (%) Cement Type I Ground bagasse ash
and has strength activity indices at 7 and 28 days of 62% and 74%, Silicon dioxide (SiO2) 20.9 55.0
respectively. These results suggested that the original bagasse ash Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 4.8 5.1
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) 3.4 4.1
is not qualied to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete be-
Calcium oxide (CaO) 65.4 11.0
cause the physical requirements of ASTM C 618 [15] limit the poz- Magnesium oxide (MgO) 1.3 0.9
zolan particles retained on a 45-lm sieve to not exceed 34% and Sodium oxide (Na2O) 0.3 0.2
should have strength activity index at least 75% at 7 or 28 days. Potassium oxide (K2O) 0.4 1.2
Therefore, the original bagasse ash was ground to improve its Sulfur trioxide (SO3) 2.7 2.2
Loss on ignition (LOI) 1.0 19.6
reactivity because pozzolanic materials with high neness exhibit
high pozzolanic activity [16]. After grinding, the ground bagasse
ash (GBA) had higher neness and lower porosity than the original saturated surface dry (SSD) state of 2.62, water absorption of
bagasse ash. The amount of retained particles of GBA on a 45-lm 0.91%, and dry-rodded weight of 1725 kg/m3 while the natural
sieve was reduced to 0.42% by weight and the strength activity coarse aggregate was crushed limestone which had a maximum
indices at 7 and 28 days were 87.4% and 112.7%, respectively. Phys- size of 19 mm. It had neness modulus and specic gravity in
ical properties, strength activity index, and chemical composition SSD of 6.89 and 2.73, respectively. Additionally, the dry-rodded
of the materials are reported in Tables 13, respectively. It is noted weight, water absorption, and Los Angeles abrasion loss of the
that GBA had loss on ignition (LOI) of 19.6% which was higher than coarse aggregate are 1650 kg/m3, 0.45%, and 23%, respectively.
the limitation of natural pozzolan, which was 10% by weight as
specied by ASTM C618-00 [15]. However, Chusilp et al. [17] re- 2.3. Recycled coarse aggregate
ported that the high LOI content in bagasse ash which was up to
20% by weight slightly affected the compressive strength of mortar Recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) in this research was obtained
when the age of mortar was more than 28 days. from crushing 150  300 mm concrete cylinder samples after the
concretes were tested for compressive strength (2540 MPa) by a
2.2. Natural ne and coarse aggregates swing hammer crusher. These concrete cylinders were sent by con-
struction companies in Thailand to the Department of Civil Engi-
Table 4 shows the properties of aggregates used in this research. neering, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi to
Local river sand had neness modulus of 3.07, specic gravity in determine the compressive strength.

(a) Original bagasse ash (b) Ground bagasse ash


Fig. 2. Particle morphologies of bagasse ash.
R. Somna et al. / Materials and Design 36 (2012) 597603 599

Table 4 tested to obtain the average value of the compressive strength of


Physical properties of aggregates. all concrete mixes at 7 days and the value of the modulus of elas-
Properties River Crushed Recycled coarse ticity at 28 days of RB00 concrete while the rest results were ob-
sand limestone aggregate tained from the average of three concrete specimens. The
Fineness modulus 3.07 6.89 6.47 compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity of concrete
Bulk specic gravity 2.62 2.73 2.49 were determined at the ages of 7, 28, 60, 90 and 180 days and at
(SSD) 28, 60, and 90 days, respectively.
Absorption (%) 0.91 0.45 4.81
Dry-rodded weight 1725 1650 1480
(kg/m3) 2.6. Water permeability
Void (%) 33.9 39.3 40.4
Abrasion loss (%) 23 37 A concrete cylinder was cut to be 100 mm in diameter and
40 mm in thickness for using as a sample in the water permeability
test. Twenty specimens were used to determine the water perme-
Properties of the recycled coarse aggregate are shown in Table 4. ability of concrete. This research used the pressure of 0.5 MPa
Its maximum size, neness modulus, and specic gravity in SSD are which was recommended by the concrete society [19] and calcu-
19 mm, 6.47, and 2.49, respectively. Moreover, the dry-rodded lated the water permeability by equation (1) which was used by
weight, water absorption, and Los Angeles abrasion loss of the recy- many researchers [20,21].
cled coarse aggregate are 1480 kg/m3, 4.81%, and 37%, respectively.
qLgQ
K 1
PA
2.4. Concrete mix proportions and mixing method
where K is the water permeability coefcient (m/s), q is the density
Table 5 shows the mix proportion of concretes. The 28-day of water (kg/m3), g is an acceleration due to gravity (m/s2), Q is the
compressive strength of concrete with natural coarse aggregate ow rate (m3/s), L is the thickness of the concrete sample (m), P is
(CON) was designed to be 45 MPa. For the recycled aggregate con- the absolute water pressure (kg m/m2/s2), and A is the cross sec-
crete mixtures, recycled coarse aggregate was used to fully replace tional area of concrete sample (m2).
natural coarse aggregate and GBA was used to replace OPC at 20%,
35%, and 50% by weight of binder. In addition, the water to binder 2.7. Chloride penetration depth
ratio (W/B) was kept constant of 0.45 and the slump of fresh con-
crete was also controlled between 50 and 100 mm by varying the After 28 days of water curing, the concrete sample with
amount of superplasticizer. 100 mm in diameter and 200 mm in height was cut at the mid-
The two-stage mixing approach method was chosen to mix con- height to obtain two pieces of concrete samples. Non-shrinkage
cretes in this research because Tam et al. [18] suggested that this epoxy resin was cast around the surface of the 50 concrete samples
method can improve the interfacial zone between old aggregate prepared for determination the chloride penetration depths to con-
and attached mortar by forming a thin layer of cement slurry on trol chloride ions diffused into concrete along one dimension as
the surface of recycled aggregate and the cement slurry will per- shown in Fig. 3a. Then the concrete samples were immersed in
meate into the porous old cement mortar, lling up the old cracks 3% sodium chloride solution as shown in Fig. 3b.
and voids, resulting in recycled aggregate that is denser than be- After immersion in 3% sodium chloride solution for periods of 3,
fore. For the two-stage mixing approach method, the mixing pro- 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, the concrete samples were split (Fig. 3c)
cess is divided into two stages. In the rst stage of mixing, and sprayed with 0.1 N silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution as suggested
recycled aggregate and sand are mixed together for 60 s and half by Otsuki et al. [22] who indicated that it was a suitable concentra-
of the mixing water is added into mixer and then mixed for 60 s. tion for the measurement of chloride penetration. After spraying
Then cement is added into the mixer and then mixed for 30 s. In with 0.1 N AgNO3 solution, the white color of AgCl appeared on
the second stage, half of the remained mixing water is added to the matrix of the sample at the depth at which the free chloride
the mixture and mixed for 120 s to obtain fresh concrete. could penetrate into the concrete (Fig. 3d). The chloride penetra-
Concrete specimens were cast and removed from the molds tion depth was measured and the average value was obtained from
after casting for 24 h. All concretes were cured in water until the 10 measurements of two samples.
testing date.
3. Results and discussions
2.5. Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity
3.1. Fresh concrete
Eighty-one concrete cylinder samples of 100 mm in diameter
and 200 mm in height were used to determine the compressive To maintain the same slump of fresh concrete (50100 mm), the
strength and the modulus of elasticity. Four concrete samples were required superplasticizer of recycled coarse aggregate concrete

Table 5
Mix proportions of concretes.

Mix Mix proportion (kg/m3) W/B Slump (mm)


Cement GBA Crushed limestone RCAa Sand SPb
CON 424 979 767 0.45 70
RB00 424 936 733 0.45 65
RB20 339 85 922 719 2.5 0.45 60
RB35 276 148 908 708 4.6 0.45 75
RB50 212 212 893 697 8.5 0.45 80
a
Recycled coarse aggregate in the saturated surface dry (SSD) state.
b
Superplasticizer was assumed that it had water 50% by weight.
600 R. Somna et al. / Materials and Design 36 (2012) 597603

Epoxy Resin
3% NaCl

(a) (b)
RB35 RB35 CON RB00 RB20

(c) (d)
(a) Concretes were cast around with non-shrinkage epoxy resin
(b) Sample immersed in 3% NaCl solution
(c) Split sample for chloride penetration depth testing
(d) Samples were immersed in 3% NaCl 18 months, being split, and sprayed by 0.1N AgNO 3
solution

Fig. 3. Concrete samples for chloride penetration testing.

containing GBA is shown in Table 5. The results indicated that the 2450
superplasticizer was increased when the replacement of GBA in CON
RB00
recycled aggregate concrete was increased, similar to the results
Concrete Density (kg/m )

2400
3

RB20
of conventional concrete obtained by Chusilp et al. [23], due to
RB35
the angle, irregular shape, and high porosity of the GBA particles RB50
2350
resulting in increasing the friction between surface of cement par-
ticles and GBA particles. These results were the same as using
2300
ground palm oil fuel ash or ground rice husk-bark ash as pozzola-
nic materials in concrete [24].
2250
3.2. Density of recycled aggregate concrete
2200
25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0
As shown in Fig. 4, it was found that the densities of recycled
Compressive Strength (MPa)
aggregate concretes without ground bagasse ash (RB00) are lower
than those of CON concrete at all tested ages. Because the density Fig. 4. Density of concretes.
of recycled coarse aggregate was lower than that of natural coarse
aggregate due to the low density of the attached mortar on the
recycled coarse aggregates [25]. sive strength of concrete. Additionally, the bond between new
Recycled aggregate concretes with GBA of 0%, 20%, 35%, and 50% cement paste and recycled coarse aggregate was also obstructed
by weight of binder (RB00, RB20, RB35, and RB50 samples, respec- by the residual impurities on the surface of the recycled coarse
tively) had densities lower than that of CON concrete approxi- aggregate [27].
mately 4.2%, 4.7%, 6.5%, and 7.9%, respectively. In addition, the For recycled aggregate concrete with GBA, the compressive
results show that the density of recycled aggregate concrete in- strength decreased with the increasing GBA replacement. For in-
creased with the increasing of compressive strength and decreased stance, the CON, RB00, RB20, RB35, and RB50 concretes had the
with the increasing replacement of GBA because the specic grav- compressive strengths at 28 days of 44.4, 41.0, 41.2, 38.6 and
ity of recycled coarse aggregate and GBA are lower than that of 35.1 MPa, respectively. At 60 and 180 days, RB20 concrete devel-
crushed limestone and Portland cement, respectively (see Tables oped strength up to 47.1 and 51.3 MPa or 96% and 98% of CON con-
1 and 4). crete while the compressive strengths of RB00 concrete were 46.7
and 51.3 MPa or 95% and 97% of CON concrete, respectively.
3.3. Compressive strength The use of GBA at the rates of 35% and 50% by weight of binder in
recycled aggregate concrete (RB35 and RB50 concretes, respec-
Table 6 shows the compressive strength and percentage of com- tively) could not achieve strength as high as that of RB00 concrete.
pressive strength of concrete as compared to CON concrete. The For example, at 28 days, RB35 and RB50 concretes had the compres-
compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete without GBA sive strengths of 38.6 and 35.1 MPa or 87% and 79% of CON con-
(RB00) was lower than that of CON concrete at all tested ages. It crete, respectively. At 180 days, their compressive strengths were
is due to the use of recycled coarse aggregate which is weaker than 47.5 and 44.4 MPa or 89% and 84% of CON concrete, respectively.
natural coarse aggregate (crushed limestone) because the attached The results showed that the use of GBA to replace cement up to
mortar on the surface of recycled coarse aggregate had higher 35% and 50% by weight of binder could not produce strength of
porosity and greater weakness than natural coarse aggregate recycled aggregate concrete high enough to compensate the
(crushed limestone) [26,27] resulting in decreasing of the compres- strength of the hydration reaction of cement. Moreover, with the
R. Somna et al. / Materials and Design 36 (2012) 597603 601

Table 6 45
CON
Compressive strength of concretes.

Modulus of Elasticity (GPa)


Samples Compressive strength (MPa) (%) 40

7 days 28 days 60 days 90 days 180 days


35
CON 37.6 (100) 44.4 (100) 49.1 (100) 52.8 (100) 53.1 (100) RB00
RB00 34.1 (91) 41.0 (92) 46.7 (95) 50.7 (96) 51.3 (97) RB20
30
RB20 34.5 (92) 41.2 (93) 47.1 (96) 51.3 (97) 51.9 (98)
RB35
RB35 32.3 (86) 38.6 (87) 43.4 (88) 46.9 (89) 47.5 (89)
RB50 29.0 (77) 35.1 (79) 40.4 (82) 43.8 (83) 44.4 (84) 25 RB50

20
use of the high volume of GBA to replace cement in concrete, the ce- 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
ment content in the mixture was decreased and then the Ca(OH)2 Square Root of Compressive Strength (MPa)
from the hydration reaction was also decreased. Therefore, the Fig. 5. Relationship between modulus of elasticity and square root of compressive
quantity of Ca(OH)2 for the pozzolanic reaction was not sufcient strength of concretes.
[28] and resulted in the low compressive strength of recycled
aggregate concrete with GBA of 35% and 50% by weight of binder.
In conclusion, the suitable replacement of GBA for using to im- 28 days
prove the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete was 90 days
10
20% by weight of binder.
9

m/s)
8
3.4. Modulus of elasticity

-13
7

Water Permeability (10


Fig. 5 shows the modulus of elasticity of concretes that were 6
investigated at 28, 60, and 90 days. The results showed that the 5
modulus of elasticity of all concretes increased with the increase 4
of compressive strength. However, the elastic modulus of recycled 3
aggregate concrete with and without GBA was lower than that of 2
CON concrete by approximately 19% when the compressive 1
strengths of both concretes were the same. Some researchers re-
0
ported that the recycled aggregate concrete has the modulus of CON RB00 RB20 RB35 RB50
elasticity lower than that of the conventional concrete by approx-
imately 2526% [9,29]. The modulus of elasticity of concrete not Fig. 6. Water permeability of concretes.
only depends on the compressive strength of concrete but also
on the bonding between aggregates and cement pastes also has high as that of recycled aggregate concrete without GBA (RB00).
signicant inuenced on the modulus of elasticity of concrete, For example, at 90 days, the water permeability coefcient of
especially at the early age of concrete [30]. Therefore, the results RB50 concrete was 4.1  1013 m/s, while that of RB00 concrete
indicated that the use of GBA could not improve the modulus of was 3.8  1013 m/s. Thus the replacement of cement by high vol-
elasticity of recycled aggregate concrete. ume of GBA in recycled aggregate concrete (50%-GBA) is not effec-
tive in improving the durability of recycled aggregate concrete in
3.5. Water permeability terms of water permeability because the high replacement of
GBA will result in lower cement content in the concrete mixture.
Fig. 6 shows that the water permeability of CON concrete at 28 Thus, the amount of Ca(OH)2 released from cement is not sufcient
and 90 days are 7.2  1013 and 2.7  1013 m/s, respectively, to react with GBA to form additional calcium silicate hydrate (CSH)
while those of RB00 concretes at the same ages are 8.3  1013 resulting in the weak interface between the matrix and recycled
and 3.8  1013 m/s, respectively. Thus, the water permeability coarse aggregate where water can easily pass.
coefcient of natural aggregate concrete (CON) is lower than that Fig. 7 shows the relationship between the water permeability
of recycled aggregate concrete without GBA (RB00). This is due coefcient and compressive strength of concretes. The results re-
to attached mortar on the surface of recycled aggregate served as vealed that the water permeability of RB20 and RB35 concretes were
a conduct for water passing through higher than that of crushed much lower than that of CON and RB00 concretes when the compres-
limestone [31], especially at the interfacial zone between attached sive strength was approximately 45 MPa or lower. For the compres-
mortar and old crushed limestone on the surface of recycled aggre- sive strength of approximately 4050 MPa, the water permeability
gate. This weak point resulted in the higher of water permeability of RB20 and RB35 concretes decreased slightly, while those of CON,
of RB00 concrete compared to that of CON concrete. RB00, and RB50 concretes decreased greatly. These results indicate
When GBA was used to replace cement in recycled aggregate that the compressive strength had more inuence on the decrease
concrete at 20% and 35% by weight of binder, the water permeabil- of water permeability of concretes without GBA (CON and RB00)
ity coefcient of recycled aggregate concrete clearly decreased. For and recycled aggregate concrete with high volume of GBA (RB50)
example, the water permeabilities of RB20 and RB35 concretes at than that of recycled aggregate concretes with GBA at 20% and 35%.
28 days were 2.3  1013 and 2.9  1013 m/s, whereas that of Moreover, the results also showed that the use of GBA to replace ce-
RB00 concrete was 8.3  1013 m/s., which suggests that GBA ment at the rate of 20% and 35% (RB20 and RB35) could greatly reduce
could efciently improve the pore system, leading to the good per- the water permeability of recycled aggregate concrete.
formance of water permeability of recycled aggregate concrete
which could provide the low water permeability due to the ller 3.6. Chloride penetration depth
effect and pozzolanic reaction.
With the use of GBA to replace cement at 50% by weight of bin- Fig. 8 shows the chloride penetration depth of concretes im-
der, the water permeability coefcient of RB50 concrete was as mersed in 3% sodium chloride solution. The chloride penetration
602 R. Somna et al. / Materials and Design 36 (2012) 597603

10 4. Conclusions
m/s)

9 CON
RB00
-13

8
RB20 Based on the experimental results, the conclusions can be
Water Permeability (10

7
6
RB35 drawn as follows:
RB50
5
4 (1) To improve the compressive strength, water permeability,
3 and chloride resistance of recycled aggregate concrete, the
2 suitable replacement of Portland cement by ground bagasse
1
ash was 20% by weight of binder.
0
35 40 45 50 55 (2) Use of ground bagasse ash to partially replace cement could
Compressive Strength (MPa) not improve the modulus of elasticity of recycled aggregate
concrete. The modulus of elasticity of recycled aggregate
Fig. 7. Relationship between water permeability and compressive strength of concrete with and without ground bagasse ash was also
concretes.
lower than that of conventional concrete with the same
compressive strength by approximately 19%.
(3) Use of ground bagasse ash to replace cement at 2035% by
50 weight of binder could improve the water permeability of
Chloride Penetration Depth (mm)

RB00 recycled aggregate concrete so that it was much lower than


40 that of CON concrete. Moreover, the compressive strength
CON greatly affected the water permeability of concrete without
30 ground bagasse ash and recycled aggregate concrete with
high volume of GBA (up to 50%).
20
RB20 (4) The chloride penetration depth of recycled aggregate con-
RB35
10 RB50 crete decreased when ground bagasse ash was used to par-
tially replace Portland cement. In particular, the chloride
0 resistance was the greatest when the replacement was
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 increased up to 50% by weight of binder.
Immersed Time (months)

Fig. 8. Chloride penetration depth of concretes.


Acknowledgements

depths at the immersed time of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of RB00 We would like to thank the Ofce of the Higher Education Com-
concrete were 18.5, 29.5, 40.0, 43.3, and 45.6 mm, respectively, mission, Thailand for supporting this research by a Grant fund un-
while those of CON concrete were 14.5, 23.3, 30.5, 32.5, and der the program Strategic Scholarships for Frontier Research
35.0 mm, respectively. These results indicate that RB00 concrete Network for the Joint Ph.D. Program Thai Doctoral degree. Thanks
had chloride resistance lower than that of CON concrete because are also extended to the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) for the
the volume of pores in recycled aggregate concrete was higher nancial support under the TRF Senior Research Scholar, Grant
than that of CON concrete [32] which resulted from the attached No. RTA5380002.
mortar on the surface of recycled coarse aggregate that had higher
porosity than that of the crushed limestone. Moreover, the chloride
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