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Childrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment

Functional Health Toddler Preschool-Aged School-Aged

Pattern Assessment Ericksons Developmental Stage: Ericksons Developmental Stage: Ericksons Developmental Stage:


Pattern of Health Toddlers are normally Pre-schoolers start to School-aged children

Perception and Health current on their become more inquisitive participate in self-care
Management: immunizations. They are and want to know more such as personal hygiene,
able to perform tasks like about their body parts measures to take to
List two normal assessment findings brushing their teeth and and the function. They prevent injury, and
that would be characteristic for each
age group. washing their hands. become upset over minor importance of healthy
injuries and may view as eating habits. They
List two potential problems that a nurse punishment. understand the importance
may discover in an assessment of each of health and factors that
age group.
can cause illness.
Because they are There is an increased risk They begin to notice body
dependent on their parents for infections and defects like weight and
(Edelman, 2014) they may have dental contagious diseases height. This is the stage
cavities if good dental because their immune where the signs of vision
habits are not enforced by system is not fully and hearing impairment
the parents. They are at developed. There is an begin to show.
risk for nutritional increased risk for injury
deficiencies if parents due to the fact that they
dont encourage healthy do not fully comprehend
eating habits. prevention of injury.
Nutritional-Metabolic Toddlers are usually Pre-schoolers develop School-aged children are
Pattern: weaned from the breast or food preferences and able to prepare meals for
bottle. It is normal for a often refuse new foods. themselves. They
List two normal assessment findings toddler to become very They are able to eat on understand the difference
that would be characteristic for each
age group. picky and have their own. between a heathy and
fluctuations in their healthy meal.
List two potential problems that a nurse appetite.
may discover in an assessment of each
age group.
Tooth decay is a potential Nutritional deficiencies There are a lot of cases of
problem at this stage may be present due to obesity, diabetes and
because of the bottle preference of certain anorexia at this stage. The
drinking. Nutritional food groups. Dental average school-aged child
(Edelman, 2014) deficiency is also normal cavities and infections does not meet dietary
because of unhealthy may appear due to poor recommendations.
eating patterns. dental care habits.

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Pattern of Elimination: Toddlers begin toilet Pre-schoolers are capable School-aged children have
training and understand of independent toileting. able to control their
List two normal assessment findings the difference between They are able to control bladder and bowel
that would be characteristic for each
age group. voiding and bowel their bladder and bowel movements. They are
movements. Because of movements better. They able to communicate any
the increased bladder are able to express their bladder or bowel issues
List two potential problems that a nurse control they urinate less elimination discomforts. they may be experiencing.
may discover in an assessment of each
age group. frequently. They are more
independent when it
comes to elimination.
Constipation and diarrhea Bedwetting at nighttime Bedwetting may still be
(Edelman, 2014) may be present due to may continue to be a present. Because of this
transition from breast problem. Forgetting to the child may become
milk. Toilet training may flush the toilet and wash embarrassed. Complaints
be attempted before the their hands after going to of pain with urination and
child is ready. Level of the restroom is common. bowel movements may be
understanding must be present due to eating
assessed before toilet habits or poor personal
training. hygiene habits.
Pattern of Activity and Toddlers are very active Pre-schoolers are School-aged children
Exercise: when they are not primarily playing at this understand the benefits of
sleeping. They are able to stage. They tend to activity and exercise. It is
List two normal assessment findings coordinate their large mimic the activity and common for kids at this
that would be characteristic for each
age group. muscle groups better and exercise patterns of their age to be part of an extra-
are beginning to climb and parents or role models. curricular activity or sport.
run. Routines that include Active play should be
List two potential problems that a nurse exercise are normal. encouraged.
may discover in an assessment of each
age group. They do not like to share Hitting other children Because of technology
when playing. Tantrums and not sharing is advancements many kids
are present because of common during play at are stuck on the computer
frustration and lack of this stage. Many times for hours which leads to
rest. They are at increased kids are allowed to watch inactivity. Because they
(Edelman, 2014) risk for injury due to their too much television are not part of an extra-
increased amount of which is not good. curricular activity or sport
activity and exercise. they may be lacking social
Cognitive/Perceptual Toddlers often use Preschoolers are very School-age children are
Pattern: gestures to express inquisitive and ask a lot able to handle challenges
themselves because of of questions. It is and problems by
List two normal assessment findings their limited vocabulary. common for them to have reasoning. They are aware
that would be characteristic for each
age group. They are able to learn imaginary friends. They of others feelings. They
about objects and know the difference understand about morals
recognize them by name. between right and wrong. and ethics.

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Because of their Preschoolers Because of visual and
List two potential problems that a nurse
may discover in an assessment of each frustrations they tend to imaginations tend to run hearing problems their
age group. have frequent temper wild and often have a may be learning problems
tantrums. They are at risk difficult time making present. Because of lack
for developmental decisions. They tend to of guidance their may be
(Edelman, 2014) problems due to lie about bad behavior. issues with reading,
environmental factors and writing or studying skills.
Pattern of Sleep and Rest: Toddlers average sleep is Preschoolers average School-aged children
List two normal assessment findings
about 12 hours a day with sleep is about 8 12 average sleep is about 8
that would be characteristic for each 1 to 2 naps a day. Bedtime hours a day and they may 12 hours a day without
age group. and naptime routines are or may not nap. naps. Most do not have
extremely important at Disturbed sleep patterns issues with sleeping.
this stage. at night are common
List two potential problems that a nurse which may include
may discover in an assessment of each nightmares.
age group.
If the child does not get They may wake up Some children suffer from
the sleep he/she needs frequently at night due to sleep disturbances at night
they may become nightmares. It is normal such as nightmares due to
overtired and misbehave. for them to delay the tv programs and movies.
(Edelman, 2014) They may be unaware of bedtime routine. They Sleep walking is also a
how tired they actually are may become irritable due problem and safety
because they are so active. lack of sleep. measures must be
Pattern of Self-Perception Toddlers have a sense of Preschoolers are more School-aged children have
and Self-Concept: autonomy. They think aware of their actions and a desire to be accepted and
that they can do the results of their have an increased desire
List two normal assessment findings everything by themselves. actions. They begin to of competitiveness. They
that would be characteristic for each
age group. They are learning relate more to other view success as a way to
everyday through the use children. They begin to enhance their self-
List two potential problems that a nurse of smell, taste and touch. express their likes and perception in a positive
may discover in an assessment of each dislikes. way. How others portray
age group.
them will depend on how
they view themselves.
Because they think they They struggle with being If they are not encouraged
can do everything independent because they with positive thoughts
themselves they are at risk realize that they must still they will see themselves
(Edelman, 2014) for injury. Temper rely on their parents. in a negative way. Not
tantrums are a response to They are more sensitive being accepted creates
their frustration with their to criticism and/or issues with self-esteem
siblings, parents and other behaviors. and self-worth.

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Role-Relationship Pattern: Toddlers begin to Preschoolers begin to School-aged children
understand relationships. understand gender begin develop outside
List two normal assessment findings They fear strangers but are differences based on the relationships but the
that would be characteristic for each
age group. aware of who their family activities of their parents. family is where they feel a
members are. There is a They use play to sense of security. They
List 2 potential problems that a nurse desire to be like their experiment and understand their role in
may discover in an assessment of each siblings and to be able to understand others roles the household and their
age group.
do whatever they do. better. responsibilities.

Sibling rivalry is an issue Positive role models If there is not a strong

at this age. There is a fear should be surrounding relationship between the
of strangers or anyone the children in order for parents and child he/she
(Edelman, 2014) unfamiliar to them. positive child may become involved in a
development. Divorce gang or get in trouble. At
may cause regression, or this age discipline can be
irritability in the an issue and the
preschooler. relationship between the
child and parents can be
Sexuality Reproductive Toddlers become curious Preschoolers know the School-aged children
Pattern: about their bodies. They difference between males begin develop breasts and
begin to discover their and females. They are pubic hairs. They will be
List two normal assessment findings genital organs and may very inquisitive about the curious about sex and will
that would be characteristic for each
age group. touch themselves difference between males begin to ask questions.
List two potential problems that a nurse
frequently. Because they and females and what the
may discover in an assessment of each are exploring you might functions are of the
age group. see a toddler perform organs.
It is important not to Questions should be Sexual issues and
confuse the child and answered simply and curiosity may cause
(Edelman, 2014) name everything by its accurately to prevent inappropriate behaviors.
anatomical name. They confusion. He/she may They may go to their peers
may touch themselves play inappropriately with with questions about
inappropriately in front of toys. sexual practices which
others. puts them at risk for harm.
Pattern of Coping and Toddlers may regress at Preschoolers will School-aged children may
Stress Tolerance: times when they feel verbalize their talk with a friend or
List two normal assessment findings overwhelmed. They may frustrations. Play is very engage in sports or
that would be characteristic for each
age group. throw temper tantrums if important to reducing activities to cope with
List wo potential problems that a nurse
they feel a sense of fear. their stress. stress. The family
may discover in an assessment of each They tend to imitate their environment provides a
age group. parents coping sense of security for
mechanisms. coping with stress.

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Issues with the families They can sometimes Increased helplessness and
dynamics can develop struggle with their anxiety may be present
when the child has a emotions and feelings. due to their inability to
difficult temper. The child They may have temper deal with stress. Behavior
may develop aggressive tantrums to deal with problems may arise.
behaviors such as kicking, their frustrations. Depression can also occur.
biting or punching.
Pattern of Value and Toddlers feel rules are Preschoolers begin to School-aged children
Beliefs: absolute and they fear have thoughts of guilt develop values from
punishment. They will and conflict because of religion, cultural and
List two normal assessment findings learn rituals, songs and the values and beliefs parental values taught.
that would be characteristic for each
age group. prayers but they will not instilled. They often They are able to make
understand the meaning of express their values and decisions based on what
List two potential problems that a nurse them. beliefs with who they they have been taught
may discover in an assessment of each want to be like when they regarding morals and
age group.
grow up. ethics.
Child may feel confused Peers can influence their Peers can influence the
because adult is beliefs or values. It is childs thoughts and make
inconsistent with the rules important to surround the them believe that what
(Edelman, 2014) and rewards. Child may kids with positive role they were taught is not
feel behaving bad will get models so that they dont right. They might be
more attention from the influence negative caught cheating because
parent. Parents need to behaviors in the children. of a desire to be the best.
remember to reward
positive behavior.

Short Answer Questions

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Address the following based on the above assessment findings. Expected answers will be 1-2
paragraphs in length. Cite and reference outside sources used.

1) Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment

across the childhood age groups.

When comparing and contrasting the similarities and differences expected across the
childhood age groups it is safe to say that the biggest similarity would be the significant role the
parents play. Whether it be the guidance or dependency they are fundamental to the well being
and developmental of the child. Without the parents teaching, discipline, values and beliefs the
child is left to learn from others which may or may not display positive behaviors. Amongst all
groups the children are moving toward a state of autonomy. They all looked to their parents for
coping with stress and looking to them for comfort. The importance of structure was also seen in
all categories.
Differences were seen depending of the level of the child. One of the biggest differences was
the fact that toddlers and preschoolers are more susceptible to contagious diseases that the
school-aged child is. Also, as the children transitioned into school-aged they required less sleep.
Naturally, because of their ages a school aged child would most like learn better through
discussion or example rather than a preschooler whom might learn best through playtime or story
time. As they grow older they able to express themselves and communicate more effectively.

2) Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and
communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural
differences in your answer.

When dealing with children it is of the utmost importance to remember that you are not only
dealing with the child. The parent is part of the package. It is a completely different approach.
Children are often scared and look to their parents for comfort. You should allow the child to sit
with their parent first while asking the parent questions which would then allow the child time to
become a little more comfortable with the nurse. Naturally the health history would be provided
by the parent. When performing the health examination it is best to start with the lung sounds.
Before placing the stethoscope on the child you can allow the child to touch and listen to
his/herself before which will allow the child to feel like they are part of the assessment.
Education depends on the developmental level they are at. It is important to always take into
consideration the cultural beliefs of the family. Being culturally competent is extremely
important as a nurse because it prevents any unwarranted accusations.

2011. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.


Edelman, C.(2014). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span (8th ed.). Retrieved from Vital

Jarvis, C.(2014). Physical Examination and Health Assessment [VitalSource Bookshelf version].
Retrieved from

2011. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.