CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Nowadays livestock industry is a demanded industry in current countries. In this modern technology and scientific world, there are many ways and idea to make money and one of it is livestock. There are some of countries in this world depends on agricultural economy. Thus, there is several ways to improve the agricultural economy but main factor of improvement is livestock. In our country, leaf cutting machine used widely to grind the leaves to feed the livestock such as cow, bull, goat, and etc. The type of leaves been used to feed the live stock is µlalang¶, coconut leaf, banana leaf and etc. The leaf cutting machine needs to be upgraded due to the advanced of technology to increase the grinded leaf production for the livestock. In our country, the leaf cutting machine is very expensive because of the demand.

Since agricultural economy is one of the main source that attribute to the development of our country¶s economy. There are many ways that have been taken to increase and improve the usage of machine.

1

1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Living stock cannot eat larger size leaf so, they need smaller size to make it eat and digest easily. Therefore farmers need a cutting machine that cut the leaves to small size and save their time in cutting the leaves. Leaf cutting machine used to cut and grind the leaves to feed the live stock. The leaves will be grind to smaller size so, the live stock can eat easily. Leaf cutting machine is very expensive in Malaysia; this cannot affordable by small model farmers. Leaf cutting machines are imported from other countries. There is a machinery shop in Sungai Besi sell this leaf cutting machine. Besides that, from the shop owner, Mr. Yap there are also leaf cutting machine assemble in Malaysia. He said the imported machine from Taiwan and China is expensive then the Malaysia assemble machine. The price different between the two different machine is around RM 1,000. The Imported machine is more expensive then the local assemble machine. The cheapest local assembled leaf cutting machine cost about RM 1,500 and mostly affordable by the farmers but this local assembled machine made with low quality materials that easily breakdown that may cause high maintains

1.2 Problem statement There are many leaf cutting machines that available in the market but most of the machine are expensive and low quality. Farmers with low income can¶t afford to buy expensive leaf cutting machine. At the same time, the machines in market are hard to handle and also with less safety caution. Thus, the material that used to make the machines is with low quality that can cause breakdown. Nevertheless, there are low productions of leaf cutting machine in the market.

2

1.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are as follows: 1. To design a leaf cutting machine that gives benefit to the farmers. 2. To produce a leaf cutting machine that with more safety caution. 3. To make farmers work more easily and with less pressure.

This involve y y y Selection of the materials that used to make blade and machine. Design of a blade that can cut leaf more effectively. Suitable motor that used to operate the machine.

1.4 Significant of the study The main significant of the project is to gather more knowledge about leaf cutting machine because increase demand of leaf cutting machine in the agricultural industry. Thus, it can be reference for any individual that would like to study and do research about leaf cutting machine, there are less production of leaf cutting machine in our country. Most of the leaf cutting machines are imported from other country. This study on leaf cutting machine can help improve production of leaf cutting machine in our country.

3

1.5 Scope of study The scope of study in this case is the machine that used to cut leaf in smaller size that cans easy the work of farmers to feed the livestock. The design of material that used to make the cutting blade, the power that required to run the machine, type of power supply, the design with more safety caution.

1.6 Limitation of study The purpose of the project is to upgrade leaf cutting machine to cut the leaf into small piece: y y The study focus only on the material that used to made the machine. The study only on suitable design of cutting blade design and rotating speed.

4

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.11 Leaves and Grass Grass is the common word that generally describes monocotyledonous green plants. There are much type of grasses and leaves. Leaves can store food and waters, and are modified in some plants for other purposes. The comparable structures of ferns are correctly referred to as fronds. Furthermore, leaves are prominent in the human diet as leaf vegetable. A structurally complete leaf of an angiosperm consists of a Petiole (leaf stem), Lamina (leaf blade), and stipules (small processes located to either side of the base of the petiole).

2.12 Importance of leaves. Leaves are among the most versatile life forms. There is continued debate about whether the flatness of leaves evolved to expose the chloroplasts to more light or to increase the absorption of carbon dioxide after reaction oxygen will be realized. Leaves are also the sites in most plants where transpiration and guttation take place. Leaf also is a chief food-manufacturing organ of a plant, a lateral outgrowth of the growing point of stem. The typical leaf consists of a stalk (the petiole) and a blade. In many leaves, small processes called stipules occur at the base of the stalk and protect the bud. There are some foods be a source of food for the humans. The blade consists of an upper and a lower layer of closely fitted epidermal cells, including specialized pair cells that control the size of tiny pores, or stomata, for gaseous exchange and the release of water. There are several types of leaves that are main sources of food for some animals. These usually called ³herbivores´ , although certain herbivores are more inclined to eat leafy plants, and some omnivorous or primarily carnivorous animals have been observed eating leaves on occasion.
5

12 Palisade cells 6 .Figure 2.11 type and shape of leaf Figure 2.

Goat. this situation increase the price of meat. Figure 2. Hence the production of meat also increases drastically due of high demand of meat and increase of population.21 a boy transporting livestock food Figure 2.2 Livestock In Malaysia livestock increase drastically due to increase in price of meat.2.22 cows eating food 7 . chicken and cow become the favorable meats in this country.

are suitable for small residential lawns and gardens.3 a late 19th century reel mower SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA 8 . A lawn mower is a machine that uses revolving blades to cut a lawn at an even length. multigang mowers pulled behind a tractor. The smallest types. Most of the farmers use a machine call ³Lawn Mover´ to cut grass. and the largest. pushed by a human.2. ride-on mowers are suitable for large lawns. while larger. Figure 2.3 Grass and leaves cutting mechanism There are many machines that create to cut grass into small pieces. while those employing a blade assembly that rotates about a horizontal axis are known as cylinder or reel mowers. Lawn mowers employing a blade that rotates about a vertical axis are known as rotary mowers. each suited to a particular purpose. self-contained. The farmers cut grass to keep their garden clean. Many different designs have been made. are designed for large expanses of grass such as golf courses and municipal parks.

Amariah Hills went on to found the Archimedean Lawn Mower Co. John Burr patented an improved rotaryblade lawn mower in 1899. 9 . In an agreement between John Ferrabee and Edwin Budding dated May 18. The company they controlled was called the Leyland Steam Motor Company. 1830. In 1870. Ferrabee paid the costs of development. as a superior alternative to the scythe. After numerous advances. one of the best known English machines was the Ransomes' Automaton. Manufacture of lawn mowers began in the 1860s. About this time. with the wheel placement altered for better performance. produced a range of very popular chain driven mowers. It took ten more years and further innovations to create a machine that could be worked by animals.Thomas Green produced the first chain-driven mower in 1859. the machines were sold by the Stott Fertilizer and Insecticide Company of Manchester and later. and sixty years before a steampowered lawn mower was built. in 1871.31 History of Lawn Mover The first lawn mower was invented by Edwin Budding in 1827 in Thrupp. James Sumner of Lancashire patented the first steam-powered lawn mower in 1893. Budding's mower was designed primarily to cut the lawn on sports grounds and expensive gardens. Elwood McGuire of Richmond. founded after World War I. He manufactured over 5000 machines until production ceased in 1863. By 1862.or gear-driven models. obtained letters of patent and acquired rights to manufacture. Around 1900. His machine burned petrol and/or kerosene as fuel.2. and was patented in 1830. These were the first riding mowers. JP Engineering of Leicester. available in chain. Farrabee's company was making eight models in various roller sizes. an operator could ride behind animals that pulled the large machines. Indiana designed a human-pushed lawn mower. which was very lightweight and a commercial success. sell and license other manufacturers in the production of lawn mowers. the Sumner's took over sales.

thus able to cut up to 20 foot (6 metre) swaths.32 a rotary mover Figure 2. Some models are designed to be mounted in double and triple sets on a tractor. also called drum mowers.2. Mostly these are rear-mounted units and in some countries are called scrub cutters. When these mowers are tractor-mounted they are easily capable of mowing grass at up to 20 miles per hour (32 km/h) in good conditions. In rough cutting conditions the blades attached to the disks are swivelled to absorb blows from obstructions. or disks mounted on a bar.32 Rotary mover Figure 2. one in the front and one at each side. SOURCE: Wikipedia 10 . have a rapidly rotating bar.33 a Rotary cutter mounted on the windrower Rotary mowers. Self-powered mowers of this type are used for rougher grass in gardening and other land maintenance. with sharpened edges that cut the crop.

each of which in turn runs past a horizontal cutter-bar. When pulled by a tractor (or formerly by a horse). have a horizontally rotating cylindrical reel composed of helical blades. This type of mower is used to produce consistently short and even grass on bowling greens. producing a continuous scissor action. Figure 2. also called cylinder mowers (familiar as the hand-pushed or self-powered cylinder lawn mower). A well-designed reel mower can cut quite tangled and thick tall grass. these mowers are often ganged into sets of three. upright vegetation. to form a gang mower. lawns.34 a modern version of reel mover SOURCE: Wikipedia 11 .33 Reel mover Reel mowers. The bar is held at an adjustable level just above the ground and the reel runs at a speed dependent on the forward movement speed of the machine. five or more. parks and sports grounds. The cut grass may be gathered in a collection bin. but this type works best on fairly short. as taller vegetation tends to be rolled flat rather than cut.2. driven by wheels running on the ground (or in self-powered applications by a motor).

is the cumbersome usability in rough terrain or on the edges of lawns.34 Hover mover Figure 2. The operator can then easily move the mower as it floats over the grass. Hover mowers are necessarily light in order to achieve the air cushion and typically have plastic bodies with an electric motor.35 Hover mowers (underside view) SOURCE: Wikipedia Hover mowers are powered rotary push lawn mowers that use a turbine above the spinning blades to drive air downwards. as the lifting air-cushion is destroyed by wide gaps between the chassis and the ground. 12 . The most significant downside.2. thereby creating an air cushion that lifts the mower above the ground. however.

2. which stops the mower and may put users at risk of receiving a dangerous electric shock. with significantly higher reliability. 13 . 2.35. a corded electric mower from a respectable manufacturer costs about the same as an entry-level internal-combustion mower ($150±200).1 Corded electric Corded electric mowers are limited in range by their trailing power cord. Installing a residual-current device (GFCI) on the outlet may reduce the shock risk. Cordless mowers have the maneuverability of a gasoline powered mower and the environmental friendliness of a corded electric but are more expensive and come in fewer models (particularly self-propelling) than either. If on the outside the drained batteries can be replaced with recharged batteries. significantly lower cost of ownership. Typically more batteries mean more run time and/or power. There is the additional hazard with these machines of accidentally mowing over the power cable. which may limit their use with lawns extending outward more than 100-150 feet from the nearest available power outlet.2 Cordless electric Cordless electric mowers are powered by a variable number (typically 1-4) of 12 volt rechargeable batteries.35 Electric movers 2. and a significantly reduced carbon footprint. On the United States market as of summer 2008.35. Batteries can be in the interior of the lawn mower or on the outside.

2.000 m2) of grass. 14 . Multiple robotic mowers can be used to mow an even larger area. are usually self-docking and contain rain sensors. Robotic mowers are capable of maintaining up to 5 acres (20. Robotic lawn mowers are increasingly sophisticated. nearly eliminating human interaction for mowing grass.36 Robotic mover SOURCE: Wikipedia A robotic mower can mow up to 2 acres and is contained by a border wire around the lawn that defines the area to be mowed.36 Robotic movers Figure 2. The robot uses this wire to locate the boundary of the area to be trimmed and in some cases to locate a recharging dock.

4 CURRENT TECHNOLOGY 2.alibaba.41 Leaf and Stem Various Cutting Machine Figure 2.com 15 .5 Kw 170 kg 1360 mm X 650mm X 1100mm 220 mm X 150 mm 500~1800 kg/ hour Table 2.41 Leaf and Stem Various Cutting Machine Specification Power Weight Height Area of mouth Abilities Unit 2.41 Specification of Leaf and Stem Various Cutting Machine.2. SOURCE: www.

42 Leaf Cutting Machine Figure 2.com 16 .42 Leaf Cutting Machine Specification Power Weight Height Area of mouth Abilities Table 2.alibaba. Unit 0.42 Specification of Leaf Cutting Machine.5 kW 80 kg 1070 mm X 800mm X 530 mm 125mm X150mm 600~ 800 kg/hour SOURCE: www.2.

43 High-efficiency Leaf Cutting Machine Specification Power Weight Dimension Area of mouth Abilities Unit 6 kW 550 kg 1515mm X 950mm X 1335mm 200mm X 50mm 200~1000 kg/h Table 2.alibaba.43 Specification of High-efficiency Leaf Cutting Machine.43 High-efficiency Leaf Cutting Machine Figure 2. SOURCE: www.2.com 17 .

1 kW 500 kg 1720mm X 935mm X 1260mm 90mm X 150mm 20~260 kg/h SOURCE: www. Unit 1.com 18 .44 Specification of multifunction Cutting Machine.alibaba.44 Multifunction Cutting machine Specification Power Weight Dimension Area of the mouth Abilities Table 2.2.44 Multifunction Cutting machine Figure 2.

45 Multifunctional cutting machine 2 Figure 2.2.45 Specification of multifuntion Cutting Machine 2.5 kW 700 kg 1720mm X 935mm 1260mm 120mm X 170mm 30~520 kg/h SOURCE: www.com 19 .45 Multifunctional cutting machine 2 Specification Power Weight Dimension Area of mouth Abilities Table 2. Unit 1.alibaba.

5 MOTORS 2. and the ball bearing motor. the rotor will rotate at a speed close to synchronous speed . and a rotating part (rotor).2. the stator windings set up a rotating magnetic field in the air-gap of the machine when the stator windings are energised. which is (so far) a novelty. The number of 'pole-pairs' are fixed when the stator is wound in the factory.52 AC MOTORS An AC motor has a stationary part (stator). In most AC machines. Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon).51 DC MOTORS A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. The field rotates at a speed that is fixed by the frequency of the supply used to establish the field and the number of 'pole-pairs'. In an asynchronous (or induction) machine. By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types. 20 . which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense. The speed the field rotates at what is known as the synchronous speed. 2. The synchronous speed determines the speed of the rotor.the difference between the actual rotor speed and the synchronous speed is referred to as the slip speed.

5 Shows type of motors 21 .Type Advantages Disadvantages Typical Application Typical Drive AC Induction (Shaded Pole) Least expensive Long life high power Rotation slips from frequency Low starting torque Fans Uni/Polyphase AC AC Induction (split-phase capacitor) High power high starting torque Rotation slips from frequency Appliances Uni/Polyphase AC Rotation in-sync with freq AC Synchronous long-life (alternator) More expensive Industrial motors Clocks Audio turntables tape drives Uni/Polyphase AC Brushless DC Long lifespan low maintenance High efficiency Hard drives High initial cost CD/DVD DC Requires a controller players electric vehicles Table 2.

1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the method of the whole study was carried out and the process of designing the blade of grass leaf cutting machine will be explained.0 shows the diagram of flow methodologies that have been used in redesign process.CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH AND METHOLOGY 3. Figure 3. This chapter will illustrate the flow of design process and method that has been used in developing this project.2 Nature of the project The natures of this project are described in three chapters: I. There are several stages thought which the target is achieved and each stage may involve several activities or tasks to be performed. Major phases of the design process involve in this project outlined as a flowchart. 3. Theoretical analysis Experimental Design Experimental Procedure 22 . II. III. After that the plan is produce in order to meet the need. The design process begins with the identification of a need.

START THE CONSTRUCTION WORK VI. COMPLETED SYSTEM Chart 3.3.1: Steps on how the project was developed.21 Steps of Project Constructions and Flow Chart I. LIST OF NEEDED MATERIALS III. BRAINSTORMING AND GENERATE IDEAS II. TROUBLESHOOTING AND TOUCH UP VIII. CIRCUIT LAYOUT AND MECHANICAL DESIGN IV. GET PARTS AND COMPONENTS V. DESIGN ANALYSIS & EVALUATION VII. 23 .

2: Flow Chart 24 .START Project Research Data Collecting Materials Search Get Materials Specification Produce First Drawing Process Materials Machine Assemble Wiring No Test Run Yes End Chart 3.

there have 4 targets for implement.3 Gantt Chart 3.final report & slides Final testing and commissioning Project presentation Submission of results by supervisor PROPOSED WORKING SCHEDULE Table 3. There are several things thought which the target is achieved and each thing may involve several activities or tasks to be performed. In design methodology.4 Design Methodology The design process begins with the identification of a need.report draft & slides Do corrections proposed by supervisor Submission .3 Project Gantt Chart NO TASK TO COMPLETE 1 2 3 DURATION TO COMPLETE (WEEKS) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Group formation Project proposal Meeting with project supervisor Project development Preparing the specific tools and materials Building the structure Submission .3. the plan is produce in order to meet the need. After that. a) Blade types b) Cutting speed c) Output length of the leaf d) Theory of failure e) Fatigue 25 .

005625m²) 26 .16mm²) @ (0.61 AREA OF MOUTH INPUT FORMULA: Area of input mouth = (t)(w) Prototype model Area of input mouth = (25.3.5 PROJECT SCHEDULE In order to complete and achieve the objective of the project.6 THREOTICAL ANALYSIS 3.4mm)(25. 3.00064516m²) Real model Area of input mouth= (75mm)(75mm) = (5625mm²) @ (0.4mm) = (645. the activities or tasks involved in the project been scheduled.

030m Min.62 VOLUME OF INPUT ENTER PER SECOND Volume per second = A= Area of input mouth (m²) h = Height (m) T = Time (s) Prototype model h = 0. Volume per second = = 0.00001935 27 .00000645 Max.010m to 0. Volume per second = =0.3.

63 Ability of leaf cutting machine (kg/h) FORMULA: Ability ( ) = Volume per second ×Density of input ×   Density of input = 288 Prototype model Min. volume per second = =0.Real model h = 0.00000645 × 288 ×   =6.00005625 Max. Ability = 0. volume per second = =0.0001688 3.030 Min.010m to 0.687 28 .

Ability = 0.00001935 × 288 ×   =20.32 Max.Max.06 Real model Min. ability = 0.00005625 × 288 ×   =58.0001688 × 288 ×   =175.01 29 . ability =0.

71 CAD DESIGN 3.3.71.7 Shows drafting for blade in CAD ideas SOURCE: illustrate by own 30 .7 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 3.1 BLADE DESIGN Figure 3.

8 Shows blade designed in CAD Ideas SOURCE: Illustrate by own 31 .Figure 3.

2 BODY DESIGN DRAFTING OF THE BODY 32 .3.71.

BODY STRUCTURE DESIGN 33 .

At the same time we also can know how helpful and important the leaf cutting machine to the farmers.8 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 3. formal visit has been made to small goat farm at Pulau Pinang. 3. 34 . but it must be ensure that the stresses induce in the design cross section are reasonably safe.81 LEAF CUTTING MACHINE STRUCTURE The structure must be form in the right size with a right material. equipments and photographs or the can leaf cutting machine at small farm and internet. Bukit Mertajam.82 OBSERVATION This method is implementing to examine and to record the actual problem that be produced by the leaf cutting machine.3. The smallest possible size may be used. To develop some understanding. This method were applied by taking photographs of work workplace.

Modern steel is generally identified by various grades of steel defined by various standards organizations. iron metal will choose as material in design because it is a ductility material. ships. the blade can easily damage and must be change frequently.83. tools.2% and 2. 35 . ductility and tensile stress. The blade must use the material that can afford of high speed because if we used the material that cannot afford the high speed.1% by weight. and weapons.1. machines. automobiles. with more than 1300 million tons produced annually.83 Material selection Material selection for this project was done by considering the mechanical strength. Today. It is a major component in buildings. appliances.1 Material use for body 3. 3.3. infrastructure.83. depending on the grade. steel is one of the most common materials in the world. Steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron. with a Carbon content between 0. For the body we can use iron steel.1 Mild Steel We prefer to use mild steel as the body structure of the machine because of it has a suitable hardness. flexibility of blade and the application of it. Most of machine world use iron steel to design most of the machine parts because of its advantages than other materials. In most designing of a machine they will use ductile material not the brittle because we can spot the damage before it failure.

Figure 3.81 A typical tensile test curve for the mild steel Source : www.wikipedia 36 .

Figure 3.wikipedia.82 Steel balls Source: www.com 37 .

83. High speed steel must use to do the blade because of it high hardness and a high abrasion resistance. At the same time it also can be applied in low speed cutting.wikipedia.1 High speed steel High speed steel (often abbreviated HSS. This property allows HSS to cut faster than high carbon steel.9 Example of blade and tools with high speed steel Source : www.com 38 . It is often used in power saw blades and drill bits.2.2 Material use for blade 3. sometimes HS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and other cutters.3. It is superior to the older high carbon steel tools used extensively through the 1940s in that it can withstand higher temperatures without losing its temper (hardness). hence the name high speed steel. Figure 3.83.

83.00 Paint 1 Unit= RM 15.00 Mild steel L bar = RM 5.00 Operational cost - - RM 35.50  = RM 3.00 1 Unit RM 15.00  = RM 3.00  =  X 1 pieces RM 3.50 Table 3.00  =  X 1 pieces RM 9.00   =  X 2 pieces RM 6.00 Total - - RM 168.3.00  =  1 Unit  1 Unit RM 3.00 AC motor 1 Unit= RM 30.00  =  X 1 pieces RM 4.00 Units X 4 pieces Price RM 18.3 Price list of material and components and cost PROTOTYPE Material Mild steel plate (sides) Mild steel plate (top and bottom) Mild steel plate (cone) Mild steel plate (cylinder) Mild steel plate (output slope) Blade 1 Unit = RM 3.84 Price list for prototype model 39 .00 Price of one unit  = Rm 3.00  = RM 3.00 RM 30.00   = RM 3.00 RM 45.

00  =  X 1 pieces RM 27.50 Table 3.00 RM 300.00 Price of one unit  = Rm 3.00  =  1 Unit  1 Unit RM 100.85 Price list for real model 40 .00 Operational cost - - RM 130.00  = RM 3.00 Units X 4 pieces Price RM 72.00   = RM 3.00  =  X 1 pieces RM 9.00 Mild steel L bar = RM 5.00 Total - - RM 849.00 RM 120.00  =  X 1 pieces RM 13.00 Paint 1 Unit= RM 15.00 Petrol motor 1 Unit= RM 300.00  = RM 3.00 2 Unit RM 30.00   =  X 2 pieces RM 18.REAL MODEL Material Mild steel plate (sides) Mild steel plate (top and bottom) Mild steel plate (cone) Mild steel plate (cylinder) Mild steel plate (output slope) Blade 1 Unit = RM 100.50  = RM 3.

3 Concept of machining method SOURCE: illustrated by own 41 . The mechanical work happen (the blade will cut the leaf) Output will be in small form Finished 3rd 4th 5th 6th Chart 3.3.84 Concept of Machining Method Select leaf to be cut 1st 2nd Switch on the suis Put the leaf inside the input face of the machine.

3.1 Comparing Table Current Design Leaf Cutting Machine Own Design Leaf cutting Machine y y y y y y Larger scale processing Massive in size Hard to work with High maintenance Expensive Complex mechanism y y y y y y Small scale processing Compatible and portable in size Easy to work with Low maintenance Affordable Simple mechanism Table 3. SOURCE: illustrated by own 42 .9 Comparison tables of the current Design Leaf Cutting Machine and Own Design Leaf cutting Machine.84.

com 43 .wikipedia.85 COMPONENT ANALYSIS 3.10 welding process Source: www. which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the work pieces to form a bond between them. We use welding to join the steel with each and other.1 Welding Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials.85. by causing coalescence. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing. Specification. usually metals or thermoplastics. without melting the work pieces. 1018 HR Steel E6010 Electrode Figure 3.3.

CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1: Mechanical Product Process 44 .1 Mechanical Product Process Start Failure Designing the Frame work Produce Frame work Success Design the mechanical structure Failure Success Produce the Mechanical structure Mechanical Segment is completed Chart 4.

8 kW Weight 170 kg 550 kg 500 kg 700 kg 80 kg Dimension Area of mouth 1360 mm X 650mm X 1100mm 220 mm X 150 mm 500~1800 kg/ hour RM 2500.00 1720mm X 935mm X 1260mm 90mm X 150mm 20~260 kg/h RM 1350.8 kW High efficiency leaf cutting machine 6 kW Multifunction leaf cutting machine 1.21 Comparison table Specification Power Leaf and stem cutting machine 2.00 1720mm X 935mm X 1260mm 120mm X 170mm 30~520 kg/h RM 1550.00 1515mm X 950mm X 1335mm 200mm X 50mm 200~1000 kg/h RM 1850.5 kW Own design leaf cutting machine 0.00 1250mm X 850mm X 850mm X 75mm X 75mm 60~ 175 kg/h RM 850. 45 .1 kW Multifunction leaf cutting machine 2 1.1 Comparison table between current exist leaf cutting machines and own designed leaf cutting machine.4.2 Result 4.00 Abilities Price Table 4.

4.15 kW Real model DC motor 1000 1250mm X 850mm X 850mm 60~ 175 kg/h 0.2 shows product specification of prototype and real model. 4. The model we did is cheaper than the machine that in the market.8 kW Table 4. Survey also shows that there are lacks of this machine because of the high price of the machine. 46 . material and the blade that we use not same as the real model because of lack of financial. There are calculation had been done to calculate the ability of the machine that we design. The connection of the blade and motor is with rod. The size is small and portable than other leaf cutting machine.3 Discussion From the table we can see there are many benefit in the machine that we design.8mm 6. The prototype machine we done is just not really worked as the real machine because of the size.7~ 20.22 Product specification Specification Motor Rpm Size(dimension) Ability Power Prototype DC motor 600 457mm X 304.8mm X304.1 kg/h 0.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. the are some ways to improve the performance of the machine.1 Conclusion The conclusion for the project that we have done is lost cost leaf cutting machine that had been fabricate make small scale farmers affordable. However the connection between the motor and blade directly may be give high efficiency than connecting by gear or belt that may cause slip that effect the efficiency of the machine. However this machine can still due to excellent design. 47 . High speed steel suitable for make blade because of its suitable physical properties. if not the output may defect. At last we conclude that that the machine will be useful for small scale farmers. The material that used to make blade must take the high speed blade rotation. The objective of the project is to satisfy the customer needs. We just done this project by our diploma knowledge and it might be lack in machining skill. After doing overall study about the leaf cutting machine. A suitable motor must be apply for effective leaf cutting. thus recommendation is to improve the ability and structure of the machine. Such as reasonable price and portable. 5.2 Recommendation Overall study focused on design and fabricate the leaf cutting machine.

5.2.5.3 Improve power of the machine The power that used currently is 700 rpm.2.1 Size of machine If the size of the machine bigger. thus this can make the performance of the machine double than the machine that we made. This also can provide better output than currently design. Moreover stainless steel may avoid corrosion. Thus. hence the performance of the machine can be increase by increasing the power of the motor by 1000 rpm motor. 48 . I recommend to increase the size of the machine ratio of 1:2.2 Material of machine The material that we use to do the body is mild steel. 5.2. it may reduce the time to cut leaf. to make the machine weight more light we recommend to use stainless steel for the machine appearance look better.

APPENDIX 1 49 .

gharexpert. Selangor 2.BIBLIOGRAPHY Visit place 1.wikipedia.com/products http://en. Pulau Pinang Webpage http://en. Small goat farms in Batang Berjuntai . Small goat farms in Bukit Mertajam .com 50 .wikipedia.alibaba.org/wiki/steel http://www.org/wiki/blade http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/highspeedsteel http://en.

APPENDIX 2 51 .

PHOTOS CAPTURED 52 .

EXAMPLE OF LEAF CUTTING MACHINE USED BY FARMERS 53 .

OWN DESIGNED LEAF CUTTING MACHINE 54 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful