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pumps should be gently lowered to the sampling depth heaving and site activities.

The schedules of these

desired, carefully avoiding lowering it to the bottom of activities are to be determined on a site-by-site basis
the well, and allowed to sit in order to allow any par- in consultation with regional geologists or hydrologists,
ticles mobilized by pump placement to settle. Dedi- but at a minimum, should be every five years.
cated sampling equipment installed in the well prior to
the commencement of the sampling activities is one CONCLUSION
of the recommended methods to reduce turbidity This document provides a brief summary of the state-
artifacts (Puls and Powell, 1992; Kearl et al., 1992; of-the-science to be used for Superfund and RCRA
Puls et al., 1992; Puls and Barcelona, 1996). ground-water studies. As additional research is
completed, additional sampling experience with other
SAMPLER DECONTAMINATION sampling devices and methods and/or additional
The specific decontamination protocol for sampling contaminants are identified, this paper may be revised
devices is dependent on site-specific conditions, types to include the new information/concerns. Clearly there
of equipment used and the types of contaminants is no one sampling method that is applicable for all
encountered. Once removed from the well, non- sampling objectives. As new methods and/or equip-
dedicated sampling equipment should be decontami- ment are developed, additional standard operating
nated to help ensure that there will be no cross- procedures (SOPs) should be developed and at-
contamination between wells. Disposable items such tached to this document. These SOPs for ground-
as rope and low-grade tubing should be properly water sampling should include, at a minimum: intro-
disposed between wells. Cleaning thoroughly that duction, scope and application, equipment, purging
portion of the equipment that is going to come into and sampling procedures, field quality control, decon-
contact with well water is especially important. In tamination procedures and references. Example
addition, a clean plastic sheet should be placed SOPs for the low-stress/minimal-drawdown and well-
adjacent to or around the well to prevent surface soils volume sampling procedures have been included as
from coming in contact with the purging and sampling Attachments 3 and 4. These example SOPs are to be
equipment. The effects of cross-contamination can be considered a pattern or starting point for site-specific
minimized by sampling the least contaminated well ground-water-sampling plans. A more detailed discus-
first and progressing to the more contaminated ones. sion of sampling procedures, devices, techniques,
Equipment blanks should be collected on a regular etc. is provided in various publications by the USEPA
basis from non-dedicated equipment, the frequency (Barcelona et al., 1985; U.S. Environmental Protection
depending on the sampling plan and regional proto- Agency, 1993) and the U.S. Geological Survey (Wilde
cols, to document the effectiveness of the decontami- et al., 1998).
nation procedures.
The preferred method is to use dedicated sampling Aller, L., T.W. Bennett, G. Hackett, R.J. Petty, J.H.
equipment whenever possible. Dedicated equipment Lehr, H. Sedoris, D.M. Nielson and J.E. Denne, 1991,
should still be cleaned on a regular basis to reduce Handbook of Suggested Practices for the Design and
biofouling, and to minimize adsorption effects. Dedi- Installation of Ground-Water Monitoring Wells; U.S.
cated equipment should have equipment blanks taken Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/4-89/034,
after every cleaning. 221 pp.
POST-SAMPLING ACTIVITIES Barcelona, M.J., J.P. Gibb, J.A. Hellfrich, and E.E.
Specific activities should be completed at monitoring Garske, 1985, Practical Guide for Ground-Water
wells at regular intervals to ensure the acquisition of Sampling; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
representative ground-water samples. Activities EPA/600/2-85/104, 169 pp.
include hydraulic conductivity testing to determine if a
monitoring well needs redeveloping and/or replacing.
Another activity that needs to be completed is regular
surveying of well measuring points impacted by frost