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Solution of System of Linear Equations

GATE Study Material in PDF

When looking for the Solution of System of Linear Equations, we can easily solve this
using Matrix Algebra. This method of solving a system of linear equations will help you
save time during GATE 2017. Use these free study notes for all streams of GATE (EC, EE,
ME, CS, CE etc.) and ace your GATE Preparation. Download in PDF for revision. Also
useful for Engineering Mathematics section of IES, BSNL, DRDO, BARC and other
competitive exams.
Consider,
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a1n xn = b1
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a2n xn = b2
am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . amn xn = b3
The above equation are represented as AX = B
Where A = Coefficient matrix of the system
X = Variable matrix of the system
B = Constant matrix
:
i. If matrix B 0 then AX = B is said to be non homogenious system of linear
equations.
ii. If matrix B = 0 AX = 0 is homogenious system of linear equations
iii. If AX = B has a solution Consistent
vi. If AX = B does not have a solution In consistent
v. Homogenous system of linear equations is always consistent as it has trivial solution.

:
AX = B and B 0
The matrix obtained by forming the coefficient matrix A and Constant matrix B is called
an augmented matrix and it is denoted by [A: B]
:
i) If (A: B) (A) then AX = B does not have any solutions and system is inconsistent
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ii) If [A: ] = (A) then AX = B is consistent and have solutions
iii) If [A: B] = [A] = n (number of variables in system) then AX = B has a unique
solution.
iv) If [A: B] = [A] < n (number of variables in system) then AX = B has infinite
number of solutions. To obtain these solutions (n r) variables are chosen as orbitary
constants.

v) If system of equations has infinite number of solutions then (n r) solutions will be


linearly independent.
vi) Always rank of matrix A is less than augmented matrix i. e. (A) (A B)
:
Find the solutions of the system of linear equations
x + 2y + 3z = 6
x + 3y + 4z = 8
2x + 2y + 3z = 12
:
Obtain matrix representation for the given system i. e. AX = B
1 2 3 x 6
[1 3 4] [y] = [ 8 ]
2 2 3 z 12
1 2 3 6
[A: B] = [1 3 4 8]
2 2 3 12
R 2 R 2 R1

R 3 R 3 2R1
1 2 3 6
[A: B] = [0 1 1 2]
0 2 3 0
R 3 R 3 + 2R 2
1 2 3 6
[A: B] = [0 1 1 2]
0 0 1 4
(A: B) = 3 and (A) = 3 also n = 3

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System has unique solutions

i. e. z = 4 z = 4
y + z = 2 y = 2z = 2 +4 = 6
x + 2y + 3z = 6
x + 12 12 = 6 x = 6
x 6
[y] = [ 6 ]
z 4

:
System of linear equations of the form AX = 0 is said to be homogenous system of
linear equations.
i. e. a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a1n xn = 0
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a2n xn = 0
am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . amn xn = 0
So we can say that always x1 = 0, x2 = 0 xn = 0 satisfies the given system of linear
equations which is also known as trivial solution.
:
i) If (A) = n then AX = 0 has only trivial solution ie X = 0
ii) If (A) < n then AX = 0 has infinite number of non trivial (or) non zero
solutions.
:
Consider
x1 + 3x2 4x3 = 0
2x1 5x2 = 0
2x1 6x2 + 8x3 = 0
Find the solutions of above system of Linear equations
:

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Here AX = 0 Homogenous system of Linear Equations
Where,
1 3 4
A=[ 2 5 0]
2 6 8
R 2 R 2 2R1
R 3 R 3 + 2R1
1 3 4
A = [0 11 8]
0 0 0
Rank of matrix A, (A) = 2 < 3 (Number of variables)
System has infinite number of solutions
i. e. 11x2 + 8x3 = 0
x1 + 3x2 4x3 = 0
let , x3 = r then 11x2 + 8r = 0
8
x2 = r
11

x1 = 3x2 + 4x3
8 20
= 3 (11) r + 4r = 11 r
20r
x1 11
X = [x 2 ] = [ 8 ]
r
x3 11
r
For different value of r we will get different solutions. Hence, system has infinite number
of solutions.

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