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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

LESSON-4

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Drilled cuttings have the tendency to fall down (slip) through the fluid
medium at a velocity referred to as the Cuttings slip velocity.

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

In the case of vertical annuli, the slip velocity is only one axial
component of slip velocity,
v s vas
In contrast. when an annulus is inclined at an angle from vertical, there
will be two components for the slip velocity.

vsa vs cos vsr vs sin


where vsa and vsr are the axial and radial components of the average slip
velocity, respectively,

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Inclination
radial v sr
Angle() component

vsr vs sin
Axial Component Of The
Slip Velocity v sa
vsa vs cos
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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Cuttings Transport in a Vertical Hole


Consider how a vertical hole cleans

1.Fluid is moving upwards


(100 units / min) called Annular
Velocity

2.But gravity is pulling downwards


(at 5 units / min) called slip velocity

3.So cutting moves slightly slower


than the fluid
Mud rheology controls efficiency of
this
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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Cuttings Transport in a Horizontal Hole

1. Everything is the same except flow is now horizontal, but gravity is


STILL pulling downwards
2. There is no longer any fluid velocity direction to combat slip velocity
Cutting falls to bottom within 1-2 stands (maximum)
In a laminar flow environment, the mud CANNOT carry the cutting out of the
hole
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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

1.In this case, the fluid velocity


is partly acting against gravity
Cuttings Transport
in a Inclined Hole

2.The cuttings still cannot be


carried out of the hole, but will
now travel further than before
Say, 3-4 stands, instead of 1-2
stands for high angle
So, a medium angle well is a more
efficient conveyor belt" than a
high angle hole

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Factors affecting cuttings transport in directional well


drilling
Effect of mud rheology:
Mud rheology has slight to no effect on the transport of drilled cuttings
at an annular fluid velocity greater than 120 ft/min, regardless of the
wellbore angle of inclination.
At high angles from vertical > 35clear water drilling is slightly more
effective in hole cleaning as compared to a mud having a ratio of YP to PV
of 7/7 or greater.
Effect of mud weight :
An increase in mud weight slightly enhances cuttings transport as long as
there is not an accompanying increase in viscosity. The effect that mud
weight has on hole cleaning is more pronounced for high angle-wells.
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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Eccentricity
Eccentricity, When pipe is not
precisely centered (or concentric,
as shown to the left) in the
wellbore, it may be described as
partially eccentric or fully eccentric
if in contact with the wellbore wall.
Eccentricity : Eccentricity has more
effect if the fluid is viscous. As
eccentricity goes from positive
(pipe is on the lower side of the
wellbore) to negative (pipe is on
the higher side of the wellbore),
the requirement of hydraulics for
hole cleaning decreases.

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Cuttings Size :
For high angle wellbores, larger sized cuttings are harder to transport
due to the higher lift force requirements.
At low angles of inclination, medium-sized cuttings are easier to
transport than the smallest or the largest cuttings

Rate of Penetration :
As ROP increases, the hydraulic requirement for effective cuttings
transport increases. Experiences showed that, the relation between the
increase in ROP and required critical transport fluid velocity is linear

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Pipe Rotation :
In a vertical well, the impact that drill pipe rotation has on
hole cleaning is relatively small
For inclined wells, rotating the drill pipe can dramatically
increase the rate at which cuttings are removed from high-
angle and horizontal wells.
The mechanism for this increase is not certain but may be
related to the redistribution of flow in an eccentric annulus,
together with mechanical agitation of the cuttings bed
created by the rotating drill pipe

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

The pipe movement itself


doesnt clean the hole
Pipe Rotation

Rotation is the key factor in hole


cleaning efficiency for high angle
holes
Active flow area is at top of hole
Pipe and cuttings lay along bottom
of hole
Mechanical agitation is required to
get cuttings into the fluid flow
Required rotary speed is dependent
upon hole size, ROP

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4223 DRILLING HYDRAULICS SEMESTER- JANUARY 2017
BY . ASIF ZAMIR