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# Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers - Simulation Description Page 1 of 9

## Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Simulation Description

This topic details the equations used by shell and tube heat exchanger types. The types covered
are shown in Table 1.

Show Table 1?

## To select a particular item, click on the required link below:

l Defining the Nusselt Number for the Shell and Tube Paths
l Defining the Heat Transfer Area
l Defining the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
l Defining the Number of Transfer Units, NTU
l Defining the Heat Capacity Rate Ratio, R
l Thermal Effectiveness Calculations

Defining the Nusselt Number for the Shell and Tube Paths

Tube and Shell Paths - Laminar Flow (Reynolds number < 2300)

Applicable for all types. For this condition, then Nu is defined as follows:

Equation 1

## Where, for the shell:

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Where:

The above equation is only applicable when the No. of Shell Passes > 1.

Tube and Shell Paths - Turbulent Flow (Reynolds number > 2300)

Tube Path

Equation 2

Shell Path

Equation 3

## Defining the Heat Transfer Area

Applicable to the Tube Path only for all types, it is defined as follows:

Equation 4

Where:

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## di = Tube inside diameter

do = Tube outside diameter
l = Length of tube per tube pass
NTP = Number of tube passes
N = Number of tubes per pass

## Defining the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Applicable to the Tube Path only for all types, it is defined as follows:

Equation 5

Where:

Equation 6

Where:

Applicability

## Applicable to both paths, it is defined as follows:

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Equation 7

Where:

## U = Overall heat transfer coefficient

fth = Tube side heat transfer shape coefficient
fsh = Shell side heat transfer shape coefficient

and

Applicability

Equation 8

## Thermal Effectiveness Calculations

The calculations for forward and reverse flow, are calculated as follows:

Types 17 and 18

## For these conditions, then Pi is calculated as follows:

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Equation 9

Equation 10

Type 19

Equation 11

Where:

Type 20

## For both these conditions, P is calculated as follows:

Equation 12

Type 64

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Equation 13

Equation 14

Where:

Types 21 and 65

Equation 15

Where:

and

## For Rs = 1, then P is calculated as follows:

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Equation 16

Types 22 and 62

Equation 17

Equation 18

Equation 19

Type 24

Equation 20

## For Rs = 2, then P is calculated as follows:

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Equation 21

Type 25

## Forward Flow and Reverse Flow

P is calculated as follows:

Equation 22

Where:

Types 26 and 63

Equation 23

Where:

and

## For Rs = 2, then P is calculated as follows:

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Equation 24

## For this condition, then P is calculated as follows:

Equation 25

Where:

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