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CAREER DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE

Confidence, Fluency and Personality!


ACTION VERBS

Walk walks walked walked walking


Open opens opened opened opening
Close closes closed closed closing
Talk talks talked talked talking
Look looks looked looked looking
Listen listens listened listened listening
Wash washes washed washed washing
Watch watches watched watched watching
Clean cleans cleaned cleaned cleaning
Smell smells smelled smelled smelling
Smile smiles smiled smiled smiling
Laugh laughs laughed laughed laughing
Taste tastes tasted tasted tasting
Stop stops stopped stopped stopping
Cry cries cried cried crying
Try tries tried tried trying
Eat eats ate eaten eating
See sees saw seen seeing
Speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
Take takes took taken taking
Make makes made made making
Give gives gave given giving
Write writes wrote written writing
Do does did done doing
Go goes went gone going
Sing sings sang sung singing
Drink drinks drank drunk drinking
Sit sits sat sat sitting
Stand stands stood stood standing
Say says said said saying
Sleep sleeps slept slept sleeping
Keep keeps kept kept keeping
Feel feels felt felt feeling
Hear hears heard heard hearing
Cut cuts cut cut cutting
Hit hits hit hit hitting
Set sets set set setting
Put puts put put putting
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Come comes came come coming


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Run runs ran run running

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Read reads read read reading
Think thinks thought thought thinking
Bring brings brought brought bringing
Buy buys bought bought buying

BE VERBS

Be verbs

Be (used with modals, after "to") (imperative form)


Is, Are, Am (present tense)
's 're 'm (in contractions)
Was (past tense)
Were (past tense)
Been (past participle)
Being (-ing form, gerund)

Examples of usage:

Be

I will be there tomorrow. (use "be" after modals)


I might be late.
He wants to be an astronaut. (use "be" with "to" in the infinitive)
"To be or not to be;" that is the question.
Be nice now. (use "be" in the imperative)
Please be quiet.

Is/Am/Are

Bill is sick today. (use "is" with he/she/it in the present tense)
She is a doctor.
It is not time yet.
She is not here right now. (use 's as the contracted form of "is")
She isn't here right now.
She's not here right now.
Mr. Lee is eating dinner right now. (use "is" with he/she/it in the present continuous)
She's talking on the phone.
Maggie's leaving tomorrow.
The dog is running down the street. (use "is" with he/she/it in the present continuous)
I am a lawyer. (use "am" with I in the present tense)
I am not a liar.
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I'm happy to be here. (use 'm as the contracted form of "am")


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I'm not going anywhere.

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We are at the office. (Use "are" with they/we/you in the present tense.)
Jack and Jill are over the hill.
You are welcome anytime.
They're in the building. (Use 're as the contracted form of "are")
We're on the way.
You're kidding!
We are working hard. (Use "are" with you/we/they in the pres. continuous.)
They are hardly working.
The boys are waiting to see her.
We are not paying for the extra drink. (The negative "are not" can be contracted two ways)
We're not paying for the extra drink.
We aren't paying for the extra drink.

Was/Were

I was here yesterday, so was Tina. (Use "was" with I/ he/she and it in the past tense.)
It was a really nice trip.
Henry was at the dentist's for two hours.
We were in Spain last week. (Use "were" with you/we/they in the past tense.)
The Smiths were on vacation.
You were the only one here.
They weren't at work yesterday. (The only contracted forms are wasn't/weren't.)
Jared wasn't here either.
I wasn't aware of that.

Been

Rachel has been there before. (Use "been" after have/has/had.)


I've never been to Maine.
We have been living here since June.
You should have been paying attention.

Being

Being a good sport is important. (Use "being" when a gerund form of be is required.)
Being on time is essential.
I was being a jerk. (Use "being" when "be" is used in the continuous.)

COMMON ADJETIVES

big sad healthy hungry


large empty rich thirsty
short light soft tired
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fast serious easy busy


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hot boring clean free

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good expensive safe great
old low same friendly
pretty shallow early favorite
fat sick/ill strong little
happy poor top small
full hard beautiful tall/long
dark difficult handsome slow
funny dirty late cold
interesting dangerous weak
cheap different bottom
high thin/skinny bad
deep ugly new/young

COMMON ADVERBS

Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Frequency (How


(When?) Adverbs of Place (Where?) (How?) Often?)
(Note: Do not use these with
"to.")
yesterday here very always
today there quite frequently
tomorrow over there pretty usually
now everywhere really sometimes
then anywhere fast occasionally
later nowhere well seldom
tonight home* hard rarely
right now downtown* quickly never
last night back* slowly
this morning away carefully Related words
next week out hardly
already barely normally
recently mostly regularly
lately almost every day
soon absolutely once in a while
immediately together once a week
still alone twice a day
yet again

IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle


A
arise arose arisen
awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken

B
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backslide backslid backslidden / backslid

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be was, were been
bear bore born / borne
beat beat beaten / beat
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet / betted bet / betted
bid bid / bade bidden
bid bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted
build built built
burn burned / burnt burned / burnt
burst burst burst
bust busted / bust busted / bust
buy bought bought

C
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
clothe clothed / clad clothed / clad
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut

D
daydream daydreamed / daydreamt daydreamed / daydreamt
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
disprove disproved disproved / disproven
dive dove / dived dived
dive dived / dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt dreamed / dreamt
drink drank drunk
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drive drove driven


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dwell dwelt / dwelled dwelt / dwelled

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E
eat ate eaten

F
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit (tailor, change size) fitted / fit fitted / fit
fit (be right size) fit / fitted fit / fitted
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forego forewent foregone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten / forgot
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen

G
get got gotten / got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown

H
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hew hewed hewn / hewed
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt

K
keep kept kept
kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
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knit knitted / knit knitted / knit


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know knew known

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L
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned / leant leaned / leant
leap leaped / leapt leaped / leapt
learn learned / learnt learned / learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lie (not tell truth) lied lied
light lit / lighted lit / lighted
lose lost lost

M
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
mow mowed mowed / mown

P
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proven / proved
put put put

Q
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
quit quit / quitted quit / quitted

R
read read (sounds like "red") read (sounds like "red")
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run

S
saw sawed sawed / sawn
say said said
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see saw seen


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seek sought sought

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sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn / sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved / shaven
shear sheared sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shined / shone shined / shone
shit shit / shat / shitted shit/ shat / shitted
shoot shot shot
show showed shown / showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank / sunk sunk
sit sat sat
slay (kill) slew / slayed slain / slayed
slay (amuse) slayed slayed
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelled / smelt smelled / smelt
sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
sow sowed sown / sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
spell spelled / spelt spelled / spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt
spin spun spun
spit spit / spat spit / spat
split split split
spoil spoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang / sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stunk / stank stunk
strew strewed strewn / strewed
stride strode stridden
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strike (delete) struck stricken


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strike (hit) struck struck / stricken

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string strung strung
strive strove / strived striven / strived
sublet sublet sublet
sunburn sunburned / sunburnt sunburned / sunburnt
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen / swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung

T
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
telecast telecast telecast
tell told told
test-drive test-drove test-driven
test-fly test-flew test-flown
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden / trod

U
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
undo undid undone

W
wake woke / waked woken / waked
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove / weaved woven / weaved
wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
weep wept wept
wet wet / wetted wet / wetted
whet whetted whetted
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
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PRONOUNS

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Subjective: I You He/She It We They
Objective: Me You Him/Her It Us Them
Possessive: My Your His/Her Its Our Their

Examples of usage:

I like her. She likes me too.

We saw her yesterday. Where did you see her? We saw her at the library.

They don't like us. We don't like them either.

I saw him last night. Where was he? He was at the theatre.

SIMPLE CONJUNCTIONS

And (to show addition) Ronnie and Maureen


But (to show contrast) I can, but I won't.
Or (to indicate a choice) This one or that one?

These types of conjunctions can be used to combine various parts of a sentence. Nouns

These types of conjunctions can be used to combine various parts of a sentence. Nouns

Salt and pepper


Tim, Nick, and Barry

Verbs
Come and eat!
Eat, drink, and get married

Adjectives
Black and blue
Tall, dark, and handsome

Full sentences
She drinks coffee and tea.
He drinks (either) coffee or tea.
Kay and Jay drink coffee.
Kay drinks coffee, and Jay drinks tea.
Kay drinks coffee, but Jay drinks tea.

SIMPLE MODALS
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Will (in future tense) I will be there.


(in requests) Will you do it for me?
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Won't (negative of will) No, I won't.

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Can (to indicate ability) I can do it.
(in requests) Can you help me?
(informally to ask permission) Can I use your phone?
Can't (negative form of can) No, you can't.
May (to indicate possibility) I may go to New York.
(to ask permission) May I help you?
Could (to indicate past ability) He could play cards well.
(to indicate possibility) I could give you a ride.
(in requests) Could you open the door please?
(to ask permission) Could I use your restroom?
Couldn't (negative past tense) I couldn't help it.
Should (to express obligation) I should go to the wedding.
(to conjecture) He should be in Miami by now.
Shouldn't (negative suggestions) You shouldn't do that.

SIMPLE PREPOSITION

On At In the house
On the desk
At school
Above Below Above average
Below 100
Over Under Over the fireplace
Under the table
Around Through Around the building
Through the door
Before After Before lunch
After 10:00
To From (Go) to Colorado
(Come) from Arizona
About By A story about dogs
Written by me
With Without She wouldn't go with us.
So we went without her.
Between Among Just between you and me
There are no secrets among us (three).
Inside Outside Inside the room
Outside the box
In front of Behind In front of the house
Behind the tree
Next to Near Next to the bank
Near the library
On top of Underneath On top of the file cabinet
Underneath the refrigerator
Note:
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Most prepositions have many meanings and are often used in combination with other words. This is only a list of the
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most common prepositions and their simplest meanings.

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VERB LIST

REGULAR VERBS

base -s form past past participle -ing form

call calls called called calling


clean cleans cleaned cleaned cleaning

look looks looked looked looking


talk talks talked talked talking

end ends ended ended ending


wait waits waited waited waiting

kiss kisses kissed kissed kissing


wash washes washed washed washing

live lives lived lived living


love loves loved loved loving

beg begs begged begged begging


sin sins sinned sinned sinning

play plays played played playing


stay stays stayed stayed staying

cry cries cried cried crying


studies studied studied studying

die dies died died dying


tie ties tied tied tying

IRREGULAR VERBS

base -s form past past participle -ing form

cut cuts cut cut cutting


fit fits fit fit fitting
hit hits hit hit hitting
let lets let let letting
put puts put put putting
quit quits quit quit quitting
set sets set set setting
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shut shuts shut shut shutting


split splits split split splitting
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upset upsets upset upset upsetting


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burst bursts burst burst bursting


cast casts cast cast casting
cost costs cost cost costing*
hurt hurts hurt hurt hurting

spread spreads spread spread spreading

knit knits knit/knitted knit/knitted knitting

sit sits sat sat sitting


spit spits spat/spit spat/spit spitting

begin begins began begun beginning


swim swims swam swum swimming

ring rings rang rung ringing


sing sings sang sung singing
spring springs sprang sprung springing

cling clings clung clung clinging


fling flings flung flung flinging
sling slings slung slung slinging
sting stings stung stung stinging
swing swings swung swung swinging
wring wrings wrung wrung wringing

hang hangs hung/hanged** hung/hanged hanging

drink drinks drank drunk sinking


shrink shrinks shrank shrunk shrinking
stink stinks stank stunk stinking

think thinks thought thought thinking


bring brings brought brought bringing

buy buys bought bought buying


seek seeks sought sought seeking
fight fights fought fought fighting

catch catches caught caught catching


teach teaches taught taught teaching

creep creeps crept crept creeping


keep keeps kept kept keeping
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sleep sleeps slept slept sleeping


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sweep sweeps swept swept sweeping

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weep weeps wept wept weeping

bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding


breed breeds bred bred breeding
feed feeds fed fed feeding
flee flees fled fled fleeing
lead leads led led leading
speed speeds sped/speeded sped/speeded speeding

meet meets met met meeting

bend bends bent bent bending


lend lends lent lent lending
send sends sent sent sending
spend spends spent spent spending

deal deals dealt dealt dealing


feel feels felt felt feeling
kneel kneels knelt knelt kneeling

dream dreams dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed dreaming

mean means meant meant meaning

spill spills spilt/spilled spilt/spilled spilling

build builds built built building

burn burns burnt/burned burnt/burned burning

hold holds held held holding

sell sells sold sold selling


tell tells told told telling

find finds found found finding


grind grinds ground ground grinding
wind winds wound wound winding

break breaks broke broken breaking


choose chooses chose chosen choosing
freeze freezes froze frozen freezing
speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
steal steals stole stolen stealing
wake wakes woke woken waking
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weave weaves wove woven weaving


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arise arises arose arisen arising
drive drives drove driven driving
ride rides rode ridden riding
rise rises rose risen rising
write writes wrote written writing

bite bites bit bitten biting


hide hides hid hidden hiding
slide slides slid slid sliding

get gets got gotten getting


forget forgets forgot forgotten forgetting

give gives gave given giving


forgive forgives forgave forgiven forgiving
forbid forbids forbade/forbad forbidden forbidding

fall falls fell fallen falling

swell swells swelled swollen swelling

dive dives dove/dived dived diving

blow blows blew blown blowing


fly flies flew flown flying
grow grows grew grown growing
know knows knew known knowing
throw throws threw thrown throwing

draw draws drew drawn drawing


withdraw withdraws withdrew withdrawn withdrawing

show shows showed shown showing

eat eats ate eaten eating

beat beats beat beaten beating

take takes took taken taking


forsake forsakes forsook forsaken forsaking
mistake mistakes mistook mistaken mistaking
shake shakes shook shaken shaking

make makes making


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swear swears swore sworn swearing


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wear wears wore worn wearing

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tear tears tore torn tearing
bear bears bore born bearing

stand stands stood stood standing


understand understands understood understood understanding

become becomes became become becoming


come comes came come coming
run runs ran run running

dig digs dug dug digging


spin spins spun spun spinning
stick sticks stuck stuck sticking

strike strikes struck struck/stricken striking

do does did done doing


go goes went gone going

have has had had having

hear hears heard heard hearing

lay lays laid laid laying


pay pays paid paid paying
say says said said saying

lie lies lay lain lying

light lights lit/lighted lit/lighted lighting

lose loses lost lost losing

leave leaves left left leaving

prove proves proved proven/proved proving

read reads read read reading

see sees saw seen seeing

sew sews sewed sewn/sewed sewing

shave shaves shaved shaven/shaved shaving


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shine shines shined/shone shined/shone shining


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shoot shoots < td> shot shooting

win wins won won winning

be is/are/am was/were been being

PREFIXES

Prefix Meaning Examples


anti- against antibiotic
bi- two bicycle
contra- against contradict
di- two diameter, dichotomy
dis- apart, away from dissatisfied, disillusion
ex former ex-wife
ex-, e- go out from exit
extra- beyond extraterrestrial
hyper- extremely hyperactive
in-, im-, il-, ir- negative, not incapable, impossible, illogical, irresponsible
inter- between interaction, intermingle
intra- within intracoastal
intro- inward introduction
macro- large macroeconomics
micro- tiny, small microscope
mis- wrong misuse, misinform
mono- one monolingual
multi- many multinational
neo- new neophyte, neonatal
non- negative, not non-binding
omni- all omnipotent
poly- many polyglot
post- after postwar
pre- before previous
re- again reply, rearrange
retro- backwards retroactive
semi- half semiannual
sub- under submarine, subordinate
super- above supersede
tri- three tricycle, triplets
un- negative, not unidentified
uni- one unilateral
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SUFFIXES
Suffix Part of Speech Examples
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-er, -or noun teacher, director


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-ance, -ence noun difference, attendance
-ant, -ent noun deviant, President
-ee noun employee, trainee
-ess noun stewardess, waitress
-ian noun electrician, beautician
-ism noun Communism, theism
-ist noun chemist, artist
-ity noun rarity, velocity
-ment noun achievement, astonishment
-ness noun happiness, fondness
-ship noun relationship, friendship
-tion, -ation noun action, coronation
-ate verb deviate, create
-ify verb typify, solidify
-ize verb tenderize, authorize
-able, -ible adjective reliable, capable, sensible
-al adjective comical, radical
-ful adjective wonderful, helpful
-ish adjective impish, sheepish
-ive adjective creative, sensitive
-ous, ious adjective dangerous, impervious
-ly adverb quickly, happily

WORD FORMS

Common Endings

Verbs Adjectives
-ise advertise -ous humorous
-ize organize -ious hilarious
-ate communicate -al emotional
-ial influential
-ic generic
-ive creative
-y thrifty
-ing interesting
-ed embarrassed

Nouns (Person) Nouns (activity, field, characteristic)


-er teacher -tion reaction
-or actor -ation cooperation
-ess actress -ment advertisement
-ist artist -ing accounting
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-ian electrician -ance maintenance


-ant accountant -ence difference
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-ent resident -ness happiness


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-ee employee -ry dentistry
-ic mechanic -ty specialty
-man fisherman -y assembly
-woman policewoman -ism journalism
-person salesperson -ure architecture
-eur chauffeur

PHRASAL VERB LIST

Verb Meaning Example


Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a
ask someone out invite on a date
movie.
I asked around but nobody has seen my
ask around ask many people the same question
wallet.
add up to something equal Your purchases add up to $205.32.
You'll have to back up your car so that I
back something up reverse
can get out.
My wife backed me up over my decision to
back someone up support
quit my job.
The racing car blew up after it crashed into
blow up explode
the fence.
We have to blow 50 balloons up for the
blow something up add air
party.
Our car broke down at the side of the
break down stop functioning (vehicle, machine)
highway in the snowstorm.
The woman broke down when the police
break down get upset
told her that her son had died.
Our teacher broke the final project down
break something down divide into smaller parts
into three separate parts.
Somebody broke in last night and stole our
break in force entry to a building
stereo.
The firemen had to break into the room to
break into something enter forcibly
rescue the children.
wear something a few times so that it doesn't I need to break these shoes in before we
break something in
look/feel new run next week.
The TV station broke in to report the news
break in interrupt
of the president's death.
My boyfriend and I broke up before I
break up end a relationship
moved to America.
The kids just broke up as soon as the clown
break up start laughing (informal)
started talking.
The prisoners broke out of jail when the
break out escape
guards weren't looking.
19

break out in something develop a skin condition I broke out in a rash after our camping trip.
bring someone down make unhappy This sad music is bringing me down.
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My grandparents brought me up after my
bring someone up raise a child
parents died.
My mother walks out of the room when my
bring something up start talking about a subject
father brings up sports.
He drank so much that he brought his
bring something up vomit
dinner up in the toilet.
We called around but we weren't able to
call around phone many different places/people
find the car part we needed.
I called the company back but the offices
call someone back return a phone call
were closed for the weekend.
Jason called the wedding off because he
call something off cancel
wasn't in love with his fiancé.
call on someone ask for an answer or opinion The professor called on me for question 1.
We called on you last night but you
call on someone visit someone
weren't home.
Give me your phone number and I will call
call someone up phone
you up when we are in town.
You are still mad. You need to calm down
calm down relax after being angry
before you drive the car.
not care for
not like (formal) I don't care for his behaviour.
someone/something
You'll have to run faster than that if you
catch up get to the same point as someone else
want to catch up with Marty.
We will get the hotel keys when we check
check in arrive and register at a hotel or airport
in.
You have to check out of the hotel before
check out leave a hotel
11:00 AM.
check The company checks out all new
look at carefully, investigate
someone/something out employees.
check out
look at (informal) Check out the crazy hair on that guy!
someone/something
She cheered up when she heard the good
cheer up become happier
news.
I brought you some flowers to cheer you
cheer someone up make happier
up.
If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen
chip in help
painted by noon.
Please clean up your bedroom before you
clean something up tidy, clean
go outside.
I came across these old photos when I was
come across something find unexpectedly
tidying the closet.
The top and bottom come apart if you pull
come apart separate
hard enough.
20

come down with My nephew came down with chicken pox


become sick
Page

something this weekend.

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The woman came forward with her
come forward volunteer for a task or to give evidence
husband's finger prints.
come from
originate in The art of origami comes from Asia.
somewhere
count on I am counting on you to make dinner while
rely on
someone/something I am out.
Please cross out your old address and write
cross something out draw a line through
your new one.
My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets
cut back on something consume less
and fatty foods.
We had to cut the old tree in our yard
cut something down make something fall to the ground
down after the storm.
Your father cut in while I was dancing with
cut in interrupt
your uncle.
The bus driver got angry when that car cut
cut in pull in too closely in front of another vehicle
in.
start operating (of an engine or electrical The air conditioner cuts in when the
cut in
device) temperature gets to 22°C.
The doctors cut off his leg because it was
cut something off remove with something sharp
severely injured.
The phone company cut off our phone
cut something off stop providing
because we didn't pay the bill.
My grandparents cut my father off when
cut someone off take out of a will
he remarried.
remove part of something (usually with
cut something out I cut this ad out of the newspaper.
scissors and paper)
do someone/something He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done
beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal)
over over by a street gang.
My teacher wants me to do my essay over
do something over do again (N.Amer.)
because she doesn't like my topic.
do away with It's time to do away with all of these old tax
discard
something records.
Do your coat up before you go outside. It's
do something up fasten, close
snowing!
It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress
dress up wear nice clothing
up.
Andrea dropped back to third place when
drop back move back in a position/group
she fell off her bike.
I might drop in/by/over for tea some time
drop in/by/over come without an appointment
this week.
drop take someone/something somewhere and I have to drop my sister off at work before I
someone/something off leave them/it there come over.
I dropped out of Science because it was too
21

drop out quit a class, school etc


difficult.
Page

eat out eat at a restaurant I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat

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out.
We ended up renting a movie instead of
end up eventually reach/do/decide
going to the theatre.
My new dress fell apart in the washing
fall apart break into pieces
machine.
The picture that you hung up last night fell
fall down fall to the ground
down this morning.
The money must have fallen out of my
fall out separate from an interior
pocket.
His hair started to fall out when he was
fall out (of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached
only 35.
I need to figure out how to fit the piano
figure something out understand, find the answer
and the bookshelf in this room.
Please fill in the form with your name,
fill something in to write information in blanks (Br.E.)
address, and phone number.
The form must be filled out in capital
fill something out to write information in blanks (N.Amer.)
letters.
I always fill the water jug up when it is
fill something up fill to the top
empty.
We don't know where he lives. How can
find out discover
we find out?
We tried to keep the time of the party a
find something out discover
secret, but Samantha found it out.
get something I tried to get my point across/over to the
communicate, make understandable
across/over judge but she wouldn't listen.
I was surprised how well my new
get along/on like each other
girlfriend and my sister got along/on.
My grandfather can get around fine in his
get around have mobility
new wheelchair.
We worked so hard this year that we had to
get away go on a vacation
get away for a week.
get away with Jason always gets away with cheating in
do without being noticed or punished
something his maths tests.
get back return We got back from our vacation last week.
Liz finally got her Science notes back from
get something back receive something you had before
my room-mate.
My sister got back at me for stealing her
get back at someone retaliate, take revenge
shoes. She stole my favourite hat.
get back into I finally got back into my novel and
become interested in something again
something finished it.
We're going to freeze out here if you don't
get on something step onto a vehicle
let us get on the bus.
I just got over the flu and now my sister
22

get over something recover from an illness, loss, difficulty


has it.
Page

get over something overcome a problem The company will have to close if it can't

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get over the new regulations.
finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to I don't know when I am going to get round
get round to something
something) to writing the thank you cards.
get together meet (usually for social reasons) Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend.
get up get out of bed I got up early today to study for my exam.
You should get up and give the elderly
get up stand
man your seat.
give someone away reveal hidden information about someone His wife gave him away to the police.
give someone away take the bride to the altar My father gave me away at my wedding.
My little sister gave the surprise party
give something away ruin a secret
away by accident.
The library was giving away old books on
give something away give something to someone for free
Friday.
I have to give these skates back to Franz
give something back return a borrowed item
before his hockey game.
My boyfriend didn't want to go to the
give in reluctantly stop fighting or arguing
ballet, but he finally gave in.
They were giving out free perfume
give something out give to many people (usually at no cost)
samples at the department store.
give something up quit a habit I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.
My maths homework was too difficult so I
give up stop trying
gave up.
My brother tried to go after the thief in his
go after someone follow someone
car.
I went after my dream and now I am a
go after something try to achieve something
published writer.
We are going against the best soccer team
go against someone compete, oppose
in the city tonight.
Please go ahead and eat before the food
go ahead start, proceed
gets cold.
go back return to a place I have to go back home and get my lunch.
go out leave home to go on a social event We're going out for dinner tonight.
Jesse has been going out with Luke since
go out with someone date
they met last winter.
Please go over your answers before you
go over something review
submit your test.
I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think
go over visit someone nearby
I'll go over for an hour or two.
When I was young, we went without
go without something suffer lack or deprivation
winter boots.
My best friend and I grew apart after she
grow apart stop being friends over time
changed schools.
23

grow back regrow My roses grew back this summer.


When Jack grows up he wants to be a
Page

grow up become an adult


fireman.

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Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes
grow out of something get too big for
because she has grown out of her old ones.
This bike is too big for him now, but he
grow into something grow big enough to fit
should grow into it by next year.
I handed my old comic books down to my
hand something down give something used to someone else
little cousin.
hand something in submit I have to hand in my essay by Friday.
We will hand out the invitations at the
hand something out to distribute to a group of people
door.
The police asked the man to hand over his
hand something over give (usually unwillingly)
wallet and his weapons.
Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job
hang in stay positive (N.Amer., informal)
very soon.
hang on wait a short time (informal) Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!
Instead of going to the party we are just
hang out spend time relaxing (informal)
going to hang out at my place.
hang up end a phone call He didn't say goodbye before he hung up.
hold
I had to hold my dog back because there
someone/something prevent from doing/going
was a cat in the park.
back
Jamie held back his tears at his
hold something back hide an emotion
grandfather's funeral.
Please hold on while I transfer you to the
hold on wait a short time
Sales Department.
hold onto Hold onto your hat because it's very windy
hold firmly using your hands or arms
someone/something outside.
hold A man in a black mask held the bank up
rob
someone/somethingup this morning.
keep on doing Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a
continue doing
something boil.
keep something from We kept our relationship from our parents
not tell
someone for two years.
keep Try to keep the wet dog out of the living
stop from entering
someone/something out room.
If you keep those results up you will get
keep something up continue at the same rate
into a great college.
I need you to be on time. Don't let me
let someone down fail to support or help, disappoint
down this time.
Can you let the cat in before you go to
let someone in allow to enter
school?
look after
take care of I have to look after my sick grandmother.
someone/something
Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your
24

look down on someone think less of, consider inferior


dad has looked down on me.
Page

look for try to find I'm looking for a red dress for the

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someone/something wedding.
look forward to I'm looking forward to the Christmas
be excited about the future
something break.
We are going to look into the price of
look into something investigate
snowboards today.
look out be careful, vigilant, and take notice Look out! That car's going to hit you!
look out for Don't forget to look out for snakes on the
be especially vigilant for
someone/something hiking trail.
Can you look over my essay for spelling
look something over check, examine
mistakes?
search and find information in a reference We can look her phone number up on the
look something up
book or database Internet.
look up to someone have a lot of respect for My little sister has always looked up to me.
Josie made up a story about about why we
make something up invent, lie about something
were late.
We were angry last night, but we made up
make up forgive each other
at breakfast.
My sisters made me up for my graduation
make someone up apply cosmetics to
party.
mix something up confuse two or more things I mixed up the twins' names again!
His uncle passed away last night after a
pass away die
long illness.
It was so hot in the church that an elderly
pass out faint
lady passed out.
The professor passed the textbooks out
pass something out give the same thing to many people
before class.
I passed up the job because I am afraid of
pass something up decline (usually something good)
change.
Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you
pay someone back return owed money
back on Friday.
That bully will pay for being mean to my
pay for something be punished for doing something bad
little brother.
I picked out three sweaters for you to try
pick something out choose
on.
point I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs
indicate with your finger
someone/something out by.
You can put the groceries down on the
put something down put what you are holding on a surface or floor
kitchen counter.
The students put the substitute teacher
put someone down insult, make someone feel stupid
down because his pants were too short.
We are putting off our trip until January
put something off postpone
because of the hurricane.
25

The neighbours put the fire out before the


put something out extinguish
firemen arrived.
Page

put something assemble I have to put the crib together before the

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together baby arrives.
put up with I don't think I can put up with three small
tolerate
someone/something children in the car.
Don't forget to put on your new earrings
put something on put clothing/accessories on your body
for the party.
run into
meet unexpectedly I ran into an old school-friend at the mall.
someone/something
run over I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the
drive a vehicle over a person or thing
someone/something driveway.
run over/through Let's run over/through these lines one more
rehearse, review
something time before the show.
The child ran away from home and has
run away leave unexpectedly, escape
been missing for three days.
We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash
run out have none left
my hair with soap.
My letter got sent back to me because I
send something back return (usually by mail)
used the wrong stamp.
Our boss set a meeting up with the
set something up arrange, organize
president of the company.
The police set up the car thief by using a
set someone up trick, trap
hidden camera.
I want to shop around a little before I
shop around compare prices
decide on these boots.
act extra special for people watching (usually
show off He always shows off on his skateboard
boastfully)
You should sleep over tonight if the
sleep over stay somewhere for the night (informal)
weather is too bad to drive home.
We need to sort the bills out before the first
sort something out organize, resolve a problem
of the month.
continue doing something, limit yourself to
stick to something You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.
one particular thing
The light's too bright. Could you switch it
switch something off stop the energy flow, turn off
off.
We heard the news as soon as we switched
switch something on start the energy flow, turn on
on the car radio.
I take after my mother. We are both
take after someone resemble a family member
impatient.
He took the car brakes apart and found the
take something apart purposely break into pieces
problem.
I have to take our new TV back because it
take something back return an item
doesn't work.
take off start to fly My plane takes off in five minutes.
Take off your socks and shoes and come in
26

take something off remove something (usually clothing)


the lake!
Page

take something out remove from a place or thing Can you take the garbage out to the street

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for me?
My grandparents took us out for dinner
take someone out pay for someone to go somewhere with you
and a movie.
I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave
tear something up rip into pieces
them back to him.
When I think back on my youth, I wish I
think back remember (often + to, sometimes + on)
had studied harder.
I'll have to think this job offer over before I
think something over consider
make my final decision.
We threw our old furniture away when we
throw something away dispose of
won the lottery.
decrease the volume or strength (heat, light Please turn the TV down while the guests
turn something down
etc) are here.
I turned the job down because I don't want
turn something down refuse
to move.
Your mother wants you to turn the TV off
turn something off stop the energy flow, switch off
and come for dinner.
It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights
turn something on start the energy, switch on
on.
increase the volume or strength (heat, light Can you turn the music up? This is my
turn something up
etc) favourite song.
Our cat turned up after we put posters up
turn up appear suddenly
all over the neighbourhood.
I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't
try something on sample clothing
think they will fit.
I am going to try this new brand of
try something out test
detergent out.
The kids used all of the toothpaste up so
use something up finish the supply
we need to buy some more.
We have to wake up early for work on
wake up stop sleeping
Monday.
warm You can warm your feet up in front of the
increase the temperature
someone/something up fireplace.
I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I
warm up prepare body for exercise
go for a run.
Most of my make-up wore off before I got
wear off fade away
to the party.
work out exercise I work out at the gym three times a week.
work out be successful Our plan worked out fine.
We have to work out the total cost before
work something out make a calculation
we buy the house.
27
Page

INTERJECTION

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Hi! That's an interjection. :-)"Interjection" is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!,
Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in
writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An
interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.

Here are some interjections with examples:

Interjection Meaning Example


ah expressing pleasure "Ah, that feels good."
expressing realization "Ah, now I understand."
expressing resignation "Ah well, it can't be heped."
expressing surprise "Ah! I've won!"
alas expressing grief or pity "Alas, she's dead now."
dear expressing pity "Oh dear! Does it hurt?"
expressing surprise "Dear me! That's a surprise!"
eh asking for repetition "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today."
expressing enquiry "What do you think of that, eh?"
expressing surprise "Eh! Really?"
inviting agreement "Let's go, eh?"
er expressing hesitation "Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."
hello, hullo expressing greeting "Hello John. How are you today?"
expressing surprise "Hello! My car's gone!"
hey calling attention "Hey! look at that!"
expressing surprise, joy etc "Hey! What a good idea!"
hi expressing greeting "Hi! What's new?"
hmm expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement "Hmm. I'm not so sure."
oh, o expressing surprise "Oh! You're here!"
expressing pain "Oh! I've got a toothache."
expressing pleading "Oh, please say 'yes'!"
ouch expressing pain "Ouch! That hurts!"
uh expressing hesitation "Uh...I don't know the answer to that."
uh-huh expressing agreement "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."
um, umm expressing hesitation "85 divided by 5 is...um...17."
well expressing surprise "Well I never!"
introducing a remark "Well, what did he say?"

TOP 25

Top 25 Verbs Top 25 Nouns Top 25 Adjectives


1. be 1. time 1. good
2. have 2. person 2. new
3. do 3. year 3. first
4. say 4. way 4. last
5. get 5. day 5. long
6. make 6. thing 6. great
28

7. go 7. man 7. little
8. know 8. world 8. own
Page

9. take 9. life 9. other


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10. see 10. hand 10. old
11. come 11. part 11. right
12. think 12. child 12. big
13. look 13. eye 13. high
14. want 14. woman 14. different
15. give 15. place 15. small
16. use 16. work 16. large
17. find 17. week 17. next
18. tell 18. case 18. early
19. ask 19. point 19. young
20. work 20. government 20. important
21. seem 21. company 21. few
22. feel 22. number 22. public
23. try 23. group 23. bad
24. leave 24. problem 24. same
25. call 25. fact 25. able

SAY OR TELL?

Say and tell have similar meanings. They both mean to communicate verbally with someone. But we often use them
differently.

The simple way to think of say and tell is:

You say something


You tell someone something

You say something You tell someone something

Ram said that he was tired. Ram told Jane that he was tired.

Anthony says you have a new job. Anthony tells me you have a new job.

Tara said: "I love you." Tara told John that she loved him.

But, of course, it is not always so easy. Here are a few rules to help you.

Personal object
We usually follow tell with a personal object (the person that we are speaking to). We usually use say without a
personal object:

She told me that she loved John.


She said that she loved John.
He told everybody that he had to leave.
He said that he had to leave.

Say "to someone"


29

With say, we sometimes use "to someone":


Page

He said to me that he was tired.


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Tara said to Ram that he had done very well.
Anthony said to her, "I hope you come soon."
"I'd like to sleep," she said to him quietly.

Direct speech
We can use say with direct speech. We use tell only with direct speech that is an instruction or information:

Amanda said, "Hello John. How are you?"


"That's great'" she said.
He told her: "Open the door quietly."
She told me, "I have never been to England."

We can use say with direct questions, but we cannot use tell:

She said: "Do you love me?"


The policeman said to the prisoner, "Where were you at 8pm?"

Reported speech
We can use say and tell to talk about reported information:

She said that it was raining.


She told me that she would call at 2pm.

We cannot use say or tell to talk about reported questions. We must use ask (or a similar verb):

She asked if I had ever been there.


They asked what I wanted to eat.
She asked where he lived.
He asked if she wanted to go home.

Orders, advice
We use tell + object + infinitive for orders or advice:

She told him to sit down.


They told me not to wait.
Tell Neil to have a holiday and forget her.

Phrases
Here are a few fixed phrases with tell. We cannot use say with these phrases:

tell (someone) a story


tell (someone) a lie
tell (someone) the truth
tell the future (= to know what the future will bring)
tell the time (= know how to read a clock)

Right and wrong


Read these examples of correct and incorrect usage:
30

We cannot... These are NOT possible... These are possible...


Page

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say someone to do something Tara said Jo to go away. Tara told Jo to go away.

say someone something Panita said me that she was hungry. Panita told me that she was hungry.

tell something He told that he likes coffee. He said that he likes coffee.

Tookta told me that she was coming.


Tookta told to me that she was
tell to someone
coming. Tookta said to me that she was
coming.

say a lie Siriluck always says lies. Siriluck always tells lies.

Ram said to Nok: "Let's turn on the


TV."
tell somebody "direct speech"
(except instructions and Ram told Nok: "Let's turn on the TV."
(Ram told Nok, "Turn on the TV.")
information)
(Ram told Nok: "I was born in 1985.")

She said if I wanted to come. She asked if I wanted to come.


say or tell a reported question
Tookta told what I wanted to do. Took asked what I wanted to do.

WH QUESTIONS WORDS

We use question words to ask certain types of questions (question word questions). We often refer to them
as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHy, HoW).

Question Word Function Example

what asking for information about something What is your name?

asking for repetition or confirmation What? I can't hear you.


You did what?

what...for asking for a reason, asking why What did you do that for?

when asking about time When did he leave?

where asking in or at what place or position Where do they live?

which asking about choice Which colour do you want?

who asking what or which person or people (subject) Who opened the door?
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whom asking what or which person or people (object) Whom did you see?
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asking about ownership Whose are these keys?


whose
Whose turn is it?

why asking for reason, asking what...for Why do you say that?

why don't making a suggestion Why don't I help you?

how asking about manner How does this work?

asking about condition or quality How was your exam?

how + adj/adv asking about extent or degree see examples below

how far distance How far is Pattaya from Bangkok?

how long length (time or space) How long will it take?

how many quantity (countable) How many cars are there?

how much quantity (uncountable) How much money do you have?

how old age How old are you?

how come (informal) asking for reason, asking why How come I can't see her?

CONJUNCTIONS

As their name implies, conjunctions join together elements of thought: words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs.

Coordinating conjunctions are the simplest kind, and they denote equality of relationship between the ideas they
join. Coordinating conjunctions are sometimes called the fanboys because that is an acronym for them:

For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So

Their relatives, correlative conjunctions, not only denote equality, but they also make the joining tighter and more
emphatic.
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Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions


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and both . . . and


but not only . . . but also
or either . . . or
nor neither . . . nor
for whether . . . or
so just as . . . so too
yet

Examples:

John and Sally built a fish pond.


The train was late, and Tom was tired.
Just as the smell of baking brought back memories, so too did the taste of the cider.

Coordinating and correlative conjunctions are great when two ideas are of the same importance, but many times one
idea is more important than another. Subordinating conjunctions allow a writer to show which idea is more and
which is less important. The idea in the main clause is the more important, while the idea in the subordinate clause
(made subordinate by the subordinating conjunction) is less important. The subordinate clause supplies a time,
reason, and condition, and so on for the main clause.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Time Reason Concession Place Condition Manner

after because although where if as if


before since though wherever unless as though
since so that even though until how
when in order that while in case
whenever why provided that
while assuming that
until even if
as
as . . . as
once

Examples:

Sally steamed the corn while Fred fried the steaks.


After the rain stopped, the dog ran into the mud to play.
The snowman melted because the sun came out.
Even though John fell asleep, the telephone salesman kept talking.

Conjunctive adverbs make up an even stronger category of conjunctions. They show logical relationships between
two independent sentences, between sections of paragraphs, or between entire paragraphs. Conjunctive adverbs are
so emphatic that they should be used sparingly; however, when used appropriately, they can be quite effective.
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Conjunctive Adverbs
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also consequently

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hence furthermore
however nevertheless
still instead
likewise moreover
otherwise then
therefore thus
conversely meanwhile
rather accordingly

Examples:

If the salmon is grilled, I will have that; otherwise, I might have the chicken.
James has a garage full of wood working tools. He might, however, have some metric wrenches, too.
I do not recommend that you play with a stick of dynamite lit at both ends. Rather, a ham sandwich would be
better for you.

Relative pronouns and relative adjectives are also used to join ideas together by creating adjective or noun clauses,
which allow a writer to create smoother, more flowing and effective sentences by combining ideas.

Relative Pronouns and Relative Adjectives

who which
whom that
whose what
whoever whichever
whomever whatever

Examples:

This is the man who sells peanuts.


Tell me what you want.
Hers is an idea that I would like to think through.
The shirts, which are in the laundry, will need ironing.

Adverbs of time, place, and sequence are actually transitions of logic, but as such they also have conjunctive force,
because they connect ideas by showing a time relationship.

Adverbs of Time, Place, and Sequence

earlier then first


next now second
lastly soon third
later here fourth
before there eventually
after today tomorrow
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Examples:
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The twilight glides away. Soon night will awake.


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Sentential Adverbs are closely related to conjunctive adverbs. The "official" line on these words is that they convey no
meaning of their own but instead serve only to emphasize the statement to which they are attached. As such, then,
they technically do not show a logical relationship like time or cause between ideas, and that fact prevents them from
being true-blue conjunctive adverbs. But it could be argued that sentential adverbs create a relationship of emphasis
between ideas: this new idea is important in light of what preceded it. Indeed, that is why they are included here.

Sentential Adverbs

of course in fact to be sure


indeed I think without doubt
naturally it seems for all that
after all in brief on the whole
in short clearly in any event
I hope I suppose importantly
at least assuredly certainly
remarkably definitely naturally

Examples:

The flashlight hit the floor and broke into a hundred pieces. At least there was a candle in the room.
They all began to use appropriate sentential adverbs in their writing. They were convinced, I suppose, by the
excellent examples.
The conjunction list has left the building. On the whole, I hope you enjoyed it.

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