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itech - 2011
12-16 Rue de Vincennes
93100 Montreuil
France
Tel : +33 1 48 70 47 41
Fax : +33 1 48 59 12 24
cesar-lcpc@itech-soft.com
www.cesar-lcpc.com

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Tutorial 14 - CESAR-LCPC version 5

1. PREVIEW
In this tutorial we will model a reinforced tunnel in a complex stratum. First we will create the soil mass.
Then we create a basic model of tunnel, input properties of soil, rock bolts and shotcrete, then divide
the tunnel and create a mesh. Finally we will perform construction stage analysis and analyse the
output results.
The main CAD tools for generation of the geometry are described. Also we use the generation of
reinforcement elements (rock bolts), linked to the tetrahedron mesh.
Notice: This tutorial has been fitted for an initiation to CESAR-LCLPC v5 principles and features.
Therefore the geometry of the project has been simplified and the density of mesh (number of nodes)
reduced for calculation speed. For the same purpose, the material parameters have been adapted.

## 1.1. Problem Specifications

General assumptions
- Static analysis,
- 3D geometry,
- The lining is modelled with shell elements.

Material properties
The model of Mohr-Coulomb is used as plasticity criterion for the rock, linear elasticity is used for the
concrete of the lining.

E c Ko
3
(kN/m ) (MPa) (kPa) () ()
Hard rock 24 800 0,3 250 30 0 1

E e
3
(kN/m ) (MPa) (m)
Shotcrete 25 15000 0,2 0,15

## Bolts are modeled as anchored bars with following properties.

E S
(MPa) (m)
-4
Bolts 200000 5.10

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Tutorial 14 - CESAR-LCPC version 5

Dimensions

l= 5m

R= 5m

z = -100m

55m 30m

Figure 1: Dimensions

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Tutorial 14 - CESAR-LCPC version 5

2. 3D MODELLING

## 2.1. General settings

1. Run CLEO3D, .
2. Set the units in the menu Preferences > Units.
3. In the tree, select the leaf General/Length and set the unit m in the bottom left combo box.
4. In the tree, select the leaf Mechanic/Force, set the unit MN in the bottom left combo box.
5. In the tree, select the leaf Mechanic/Displacement and set the unit mm.
6. In the tree, select the leaf Mechanic/Surface and set the display in scientific digits.
7. Click on Validate to close.

2.2. Geometry

CESAR-LCPC v5 integrates a complete set of CAD tools. Import of external files is possible (dxf files as
instance). We present hereafter the use of the integrated CAD tools.

Tunnel section
First we draw the geometry of the tunnel section.

## 1. Using Working plane, set the working plane to Oyz

2. Using the circle tool ( ), draw 1 circle with radius of 5m and 3m and centre (0 ; 0 ; 22).
- Click on . The point definition dialog is displayed.
- Define point E (0 ; 0 ; 22), Apply.
- Define point F (0 ; 5 ; 22), Apply.
- Define point G (0 ; -5 ; 22), Close.
- Click on . Click successively point E, point F and finally point D. Repeat from
point F to point E and finally point D.
3. Draw a line from points H (0 ; 5 ; 20) to point I (0 ; -5 ; 20).

## 4. Click on Partitions. Click on Edge/Edge partition.

- Select the lower half circle (E-> G). Define it as Cut objects using .
- Select the edge at z=20m. Define it as Cutter objects using .
- Activate Cut also the Cutter objects.
- Click on Apply.
5. Delete point F.

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Tutorial 14 - CESAR-LCPC version 5

E F G

H I

Bolts
Now we define the position of the 9 bolts.

1. Select the upper half circle (G-> E). Cut it in 8 equal segments with the cutting tool .
2. With the point definition tool, define point J (0 ; -8 ; 20). Apply.
3. Draw segment JE, with the Broken line tool.

## 4. Select it and open the tool Translation/Rotation/Symmetry.

- Select Rotation,
- Define the axis of rotation with 2 points: Point F is P1 (in the text box for P1, update
the coordinates by right click on the point F). Point P2 is at x= 100m.
- Angle of rotation is 22.5.
- Number of operations is 8.
5. Apply and Close.

User can set the edges in a specific color (red for example) using the right vertical toolbar. I t will help
their selection in next actions.

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Gallery
The next step consists in the generation of the gallery. For this purpose, we will define an initial pattern:
3m of extrusion with bolts. Next the gallery will be completed with 9 translations of this pattern.
1. Select the tunnel section (edges in red colour of the figure above). Generate the surface using
Surface region: plane .
2. Select this surface of the main tunnel. For this selection, deactivate all ( )in the Selection
toolbar and activate Select surfaces.

## 3. Click on , the Extrusion feature.

- Type of operation: Translation
- Operation data: Vx = 1 ; Vy = 0 ; Vz = 0
- Add to the list of operations.
- Apply and Close.

4. Select the generated volume. For this selection, deactivate all ( )in the Selection toolbar,
activate Select solids.

## 5. Open the tool Translation/Rotation/Symmetry.

- Type of operation: Translation
- Operation data: Vx = -1 ; Vy = 0 ; Vz = 0
- Number of operations: 1.
- Apply.

6. Select the 2 generated volumes (see figure above) and change the translation settings:
- Operation data: Vx = 2 ; Vy = 0 ; Vz = 0
- Number of operations: 14
- Apply.

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7. Select the edges for the bolts (see figure above). For this selection, deactivate all ( )in the
Selection toolbar, activate Select edges. Open the tool
Translation/Rotation/Symmetry.
- Type of operation: Translation
- Operation data: Vx = 2 ; Vy = 0 ; Vz = 0
- Number of operations: 14
- Apply.
8. The gallery (excavations + bolts) is completed.

Soil volume
First operation consists of importing of a base geometry contained in an existing cleo3D file (this file
can be a former CLEO3D study or a dxf file).
1. Go in the menu File>Import> Geometry.
2. Browse and find the file Terrain.cleo35, attached to this Tutorial.
3. Open.
Upper surface generation:
1. Select all the edges and vertices of the imported geometry.
2. Click Surface region: bspline through points.
3. The surface region is generated.

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## 1. Click on . The point definition dialog is displayed.

2. Define point A (28,5 ; -30 ; 0). Apply.
3. Define point B (28,5 ; 25 ; 0). Apply.
4. Define point C (-1,5 ; 25 ; 0). Apply.
5. Define point D (-1,5; -30 ; 0). Close.
6. Use the Broken line tool. Link successively point A, B, C, D and finally point A.

7. Select all lines and use the tool Surface region: plane . The surface at z= 0m is generated.
D

A C

## Complete the volume:

1. Draw the edges AA, BB, CC and DD.
2. Select all edges on each face of the volume and generate the surface using Surface region:
plane . Use isoparametric views to help for the selection.

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Volumes intersection
2 distinct volumes set have been defined: volume of the soil and volumes of the gallery. We will now
generate their intersection.

1. Click on Partitions

## 2. Click on Solid/solid partition.

3. For this selection, deactivate all ( ) in the Selection toolbar and activate Select solids.
4. Select the volume of the soil. Define it as Cut objects using .
5. Select the volumes of the gallery. Define them as Cutter objects using .

## 6. Activate Cut also the Cutter objects.

7. Click on Apply.

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2.3. 3D meshing

Mesh density
We will define dense mesh in the areas of high stresses, i.e. nearby the excavated galleries.

1. Go to the stage on the project flow bar to start the definition of divisions along edges.

2. Select all the edges of the tunnel gallery and the bolts. Click on Fixed length density. to
divide these segments with a fixed length. Set it to 1 m. Click on Validate.

The software algorithm will adjust the length for the best fit with the input value of
length.

3. Select all the external edges of the soil volume. Click on Fixed length density. to divide
these segments with a fixed length. Enter 5 m. in the dialog box. Click on Validate.

3D mesh generation
The mesh requires 3 types of elements:
- volume elements = soil,
- lineic elements = anchored bolts,
- shell elements = shotcrete.
For the modeling of the excavation process, we will also distinguish 10 excavations, each being
composed of:
- excavated soil (volume elements),
- bolts (lineic elements),
- shotcrete (shell elements).

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Bolts

Excavation Shotcrete

We start with the bolts generation as the tetrahedron mesher will connect to these elements.

## 1. Go to the stage Geometry on the project flow bar.

2. Select the bolts edges. Hide the volumes using Hide selection.
3. Show only these edges using Show selection only.

## 1. Go to the stage Mesh on the project flow bar.

2. Select a line of edges.

## 3. Open the tool Line elements on edges.

- Set the interpolation type to Linear interpolation
- Apply.
4. Repeat previous operation for the 9 other line of edges.

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## 1. Open the tool Anchored elements.

- Select a group of line elements.
- Apply.
2. Repeat previous operation for the 9 other groups of line elements.

## We can now mesh the volumes.

1. Select all the volumes.

## 2. Open the tool Volume meshing

- Select Linear interpolation as Interpolation type.
- Set Tetrahedron mesh as Mesh type.
- Set Density factor to 1.0
- Click on Validate.

CESAR-LCPC proposes 3 levels for the meshing procedure of external surfaces of the volume. It
enables to generate a coarse or dense mesh. The choice is made in Preferences>Program settings
(Linear = coarse, cubic = dense).

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Finally we can generate the shell elements, using the volumic mesh as support.

1. Isolate the 2 volumes of 1 excavation using Show selection only after their selection.
2. Select the external facets. For this selection:
- Deactivate all ( ) in the Selection toolbar and activate Select element facets.
- In Preferences>Accuracy, set Angle for selection to 30.
- Click on one facet. Result is shown in the figure below.

## 4. Select this group of shells. For this selection:

- Deactivate all ( ) in the Selection toolbar and activate Select mesh groups.
- In Selection options, tick Surface elements.

## 5. Open the tool Translation.

- Operation data: Vx = -2 ; Vy = 0 ; Vz = 0
- Number of operations: 14
- Validate.

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## 1. Click on , Mesh information.

2. The toolbox displays the number of nodes and elements and the type of elements.
3. Click on Element quality check. The toolbox is updated. If elements are deformed with
wrong Jacobian, they appear in the toolbox.

Groups definition:
This step is facultative but it eases the recognition of the group of elements if more than one has been
generated.

## 1. Click on Make groups.

2. Select the volume corresponding to the soil mass. Enter Soil as a name. Click on Validate.
st
3. Select the volume corresponding to the 1 excavated section of the main gallery. Enter
Section #1 as a name. Click on Validate.
st
4. Select the volume corresponding to the 1 shotcrete of the gallery. Enter Lining #1 as a
name. Click on Validate.
5. Repeat previous operations 3 and 4 and name groups Section #2 and Lining #2.
6. Continue operations at will.

## Excavation #15 Bolts #15

Shotcrete#15

Bolts #1

Excavation #1 Shotcrete#1

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## 3.1. Calculation properties for the initial stress field: stage #0

The staged construction process requires the definition of an initial stress field before applying loads.
For this project, we follow the procedure defined in the document Getting started with CESAR-LCPC
v5, Chapter Initial stress field.
The initial stress field is initialized with the Self-weight procedure.

Model definition:

## 1. Click on Model definition.

2. Enter Stage #0 as name.
3. Click Open.
- Chose Static as domain of application.
- Select MCNL as calculation module and Validate.
4. Select Staged analysis as initialization type. Click on Validate.

Ambiguous groups:
In CESAR-LCPC, line elements may have beam or bar properties. In this study, the bolts are working in
traction/compression. They are modeled as bars.

## 1. Click on Ambiguous groups.

2. Select all the groups of line elements listed in the toolbox.
3. Tick (F8) Bar elements.
4. Validate.

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Material properties:

## 1. Click on Properties. Click on Properties assignment.

2. In the Type of elements list, chose (F2) Isoparametric elements 3D displacements.
3. Select all the groups of volume elements for the soil mass.
4. Chose Mohr-Coulomb without hardening as material model. Enter the properties of the
rock (see table below).
5. Click on Apply.

E c
(kg/m3) (MN/m) (MN/m) () ()
Rock 2400 800 0,49 .25 30 0

In order to generate Ko = 1 in this rock mass, we will apply the self-weight and and a Poissons
coefficient equal to 0,49. Thus Ko = / (1-) 1

## 6. In the Type of elements list, chose (F5) Plate-Shell elements.

7. Select all the groups of surface elements for the shotcrete.
8. In Type or properties:
- Chose Mechanical, then Linear isotropic elasticity as material model. Enter the
properties of the shotcrete (see table below).
- Chose Geometry, enter the thickness of the lining, e = 0,15 m.
9. Click on Apply.

E
(kg/m3 (MN/m)
Shotcrete 2500 15000 0,2

## 10. In the Type of elements list, chose (F8) 3D bar elements.

11. Select all the groups of line elements for the bolts.
12. In Type or properties:
- Chose Mechanical, select Bar elasticity. Enter E = 30 000 MN/m.
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- Chose Geometry, enter the bar section, S = 5.10 m.
13. Click on Apply and Close.

## Inactive state of bolts and shotcrete elements

In this stage, all groups have soil properties. Bolts and shotcrete are not activated.

1. Click on Properties.
2. Select the groups of elements : Shotcrete and Bolts.

3. Click on Group selection is inactive. The elements are marked with the neutral colour.

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Boundary conditions:

## 1. Click on Boundary condition sets.

2. Enter Standard supports as a name. Click Open.

3. Click on to define side and bottom supports. Supports are automatically affected to the
limits of the mesh.

2. Enter Self-weight of the soil as a name. Click Open.
3. Click on Gravity forces.
- Select all the groups of volume elements.
- Click on Validate.

Analysis settings:
In the tab sheets of this dialog box, we define the calculation algorithm, the iteration process and the

## 1. Click on Analysis settings.

2. In the General parameter tab, enter the following values:
- Iteration process:
Max number of increments: 1
Max number of iterations per increment: 100
Tolerance: 0.01
- Method of resolution: 1- initial stresses
- Solver type: Multi frontal
3. Click on Validate.

The option Calculation with secondary storage is required when the matrix size of the model will be
larger than the random memory (RAM) of the computer.

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## In this stage, we excavate the full section of the gallery.

When creating a new analysis stage, it is handy to rely on the based on option that copies all model
items from the previous stage, including the loads. It should however be noted that loads applied in
previous stages are automatically active at the beginning of the current stage to ensure initial
equilibrium. The copied load items should consequently be deleted and replaced by the new loads of
the current stage.
Subsequently, we make modifications where necessary:
- In properties as groups are inactivated,

Model definition:

## 1. Click on Model definition.

- Enter Stage #1 as name.
- Select Based on, and chose Stage #0
2. Click Open.
3. Select Staged analysis as initialization type.
4. Click on Validate.

Active/inactive elements
The excavation of the full section leads to set at inactive state the groups Section #1.

1. Click on Properties.
2. Select the groups of elements : Section #1.

3. Click on Group selection is inactive. The elements are marked with the neutral colour.

Boundary conditions:
There is no change in the boundary conditions.

We generate the new loading set and then delete the copied ones from Stage #0, useless in Stage #1.

Another solution consists in affecting a coefficient equal to zero in the loading sets control tab, in
Analysis settings.

## Excavation forces in the section #1.

2. Enter Excavation forces #1 as name. Click Open.

5. Select Excavation forces #1. Click Open.

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6. Click on Excavation forces. This feature is described in the document Getting started
with CESAR-LCPC v5, Chapter General principles.
- Set the value of lambda to 1,
- Select Stage #0 as reference for the stress field (used for calculation of the
excavation forces)
- The button Automatic selection is active. Click on it, it will automatically select the
boundaries freed by the inactivation of groups.
7. Click on Apply. The excavation forces are applied.
8. Click on Close.

Calculation parameters:

## 1. Click on Analysis settings.

2. In the General parameter tag, enter the following values:
- Iteration process:
Max number of increments: 1
Max number of iterations per increment: 300
Tolerance: 0.01
- Method of resolution: 1- initial stresses
- Algorithm type: Multi frontal
3. Close using Validate.

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## 3.3. Calculation properties for the analysis of stage #2

In this stage, we excavate the second section of the gallery and set up the bolts and shotcrete of the
section #1.

Model definition:

## 1. Click on Model definition.

- Enter Stage #2 as name.
- Select Based on, and chose Stage #1
2. Click Open.
3. Select Staged analysis as initialization type.
4. Click on Validate.

Active/inactive elements
The excavation of the full section leads to set at inactive state the groups Section #2.
The drilling of the bolts leads to set as active state the group Bolts #1. Finally the Shotcrete #1 is also
activated.

1. Click on Properties.
2. Select the groups of elements : Section #2.

3. Click on Inactive group(s). The elements are now marked with the neutral colour.
4. Select the group of elements Bolts #1 And Shotcrete #1.

5. Click on Active group(s). The elements are now marked with their initial colour.

Boundary conditions:
There is no change in the boundary conditions.

We generate the new loading set and then delete the copied ones from Stage #1, useless in Stage #2.
Excavation forces in the section #2.

2. Enter Excavation forces #2 as a name. Click Open.

5. Select Excavation forces #2. Click Open.
6. Click on Excavation forces.
- Set the value of lambda to 1,
- Select Stage #1 as reference for the stress field (used for calculation of the
excavation forces)
- The button Automatic selection is active. Click on it, it will automatically select the
boundaries freed by the inactivation of groups.
7. Click on Apply. The excavation forces are applied.

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## Activation of the lining #1.

2. Enter Self-weight of lining #1 as name. Click Open.
3. Click on Gravity forces.
- Click on Automatic selection. This feature detects the groups activated in the
actual stage,
- Click on Validate.

Calculation parameters:
In the tab sheets of this toolbox, we define the calculation algorithm, the iteration process and the load
stepping.

## 1. Click on Calculation parameters.

2. In the General parameter tag, enter the following values:
- Iteration process:
Max number of increments: 1
Max number of iterations per increment: 100
Tolerance: 0.01
- Method of resolution: 1- initial stresses
- Solver type: Multi frontal
3. Close using Validate.

## 3.4. Calculation properties for the analysis of stage #3

In this stage, we excavate the third section of the gallery and set up the bolts and shotcrete of the
section #2.

Model definition:

## 1. Click on Model definition.

- Enter Stage #3 as name.
- Select Based on, and chose Stage #2
2. Click Open.
3. Select Staged analysis as initialization type.
4. Click on Validate.

Active/inactive elements
The excavation of the full section leads to set at inactive state the groups Section #3.
The drilling of the bolts leads to set as active state the group Bolts #2. Finally the Shotcrete #2 is also
activated.

1. Click on Properties.
2. Select the groups of elements : Section #3.

3. Click on Inactive group(s). The elements are now marked with the neutral colour.
4. Select the group of elements Bolts #2 And Shotcrete #2.

5. Click on Active group(s). The elements are now marked with their initial colour.

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Boundary conditions:
There is no change in the boundary conditions.

We generate the new loading set and then delete the copied ones from Stage #1, useless in Stage #2.
Excavation forces in the section #3.

2. Enter Excavation forces #3 as a name. Click Open.

4. Select the loading sets Excavation forces #2 and Self-weight of lining #1. Click Delete.
5. Select Excavation forces #3. Click Open.
6. Click on Excavation forces.
- Set the value of lambda to 1,
- Select Stage #2 as reference for the stress field,
- The button Automatic selection is active. Click on it, it will automatically select the
boundaries freed by the inactivation of groups.
7. Click on Apply. The excavation forces are applied.

## Activation of the lining #2.

9. Enter Self-weight of lining #2 as name. Click Open.
10. Click on Gravity forces.
- Click on Automatic selection. This feature detects the groups activated in the
actual stage,
- Click on Validate.

Calculation parameters:
In the tab sheets of this toolbox, we define the calculation algorithm, the iteration process and the load
stepping.

## 1. Click on Calculation parameters.

2. In the General parameter tag, enter the following values:
- Iteration process:
Max number of increments: 1
Max number of iterations per increment: 100
Tolerance: 0.01
- Method of resolution: 1- initial stresses
- Solver type: Multi frontal
3. Close using Validate.

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3.5. Solve

## 1. Click on Calculations launcher.

2. Select all calculations Stages #0, #1, #2 and #3.
3. Select Create input files for the solver and calculate. Click on Validate.

The computation will take few minutes depending on the computer configuration.

If Stage #0 is not displayed in the list, it means that the model is not ready for calculation. Click on
Model definition. Select Stage #0 . Click on Info. The model status is displayed, all steps should
be validated with a tick mark.

All the messages during the analysis will be shown in an Output Window. Especially, one needs to be
very cautious about warning messages, because these messages indicate that the analysis results
may not be correct. The result is saved as a binary file (*.RSV4) in the temporary folder (/TMP/),
defined during setup. The detailed analysis information is also saved in a text file (*.LIST).

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4. RESULTS
We display the vertical stresses inside the model after analysis of Stage #3.

## 2. Click on Display options.

- Tick Contours, and select Szz,
- Select Scalar as legend type,
- Validate.

## 3. Click on Scalar options.

- Select Contouring as isovalues type,
- Validate.

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## We now display simultaneously several results types:

- Szz in soil
- Bending moment tensor in shell (shotcrete)
- Normal forces in bolts

## 1. Click on Cross section plane.

- Tick Active, Clipping cross section and Cross section,
- Set the position to the point (32; 0; 30),
- Set the direction of the cut plane following the vector (0; 1; 0).
2. Validate.

## 3. Click on Display options.

- Tick Tensors, and select 3D shell moment tensor,
- Tick Beam results, and select Beam normal force,
- Validate.

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## Finally, we show how to get accurate information in bolts.

1. Select groups Bolts #1 and Bolts #2. For this selection, select Mesh of Line elements in
Selection Options:

## 2. Click on Results info.

- Right click on a bar.
- The Information toolbox is updated with values in this bar (N1 and N2 for vales at
both ends, Nm for value at the middle.
- Optional : click Add to write the results in a text file.

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Edited by :

## 12-16 rue de Vincennes

F-93100 MONTREUIL

Tl. : +33 1 48 70 47 41
Fax : +33 1 48 59 12 24
cesar-lcpc@itech-soft.com
www.cesar-lcpc.com

itech - 2011