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MEANING OF RECRUITMENT

According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for
employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization‛. Recruitment is the
activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:

A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins
when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is
a pool of applications from which new employees are selected.
It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing
schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate
numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.

Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of
prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate
for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the
selection process.

Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified
applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist.
Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a
specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.

RECRUITMENT NEEDS ARE OF THREE TYPES

PLANNED - i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy.
ANTICIPATED - Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization
can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment.
UNEXPECTED - Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.

PURPOSE & IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT

Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under
qualified or overqualified job applicants.

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Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the
organization only after a short period of time.
Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its
workforce.
Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate
candidates.
Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and
sources for all types of job applicants
The Purpose and Importance of Recruitment are given below:
Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization.
Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the
organization.
Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its
personnel planning and job analysis activities.
Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.
Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

RECRUITMENT PROCESS

The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and
recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the recruitment
strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure
from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many
resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows:
Identifying the vacancy:

The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for
recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:

Posts to be filled
Number of persons
Duties to be performed
Qualifications required
Preparing the job description and person specification.
Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees
(Advertising etc).

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Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics.


Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates.
Conducting the interview and decision making
Identify vacancy
Prepare job description and person specification
Advertising the vacancy
Managing the response
Short-listing
Arrange interviews
Conducting interview and decision making

The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews
and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from
two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like
transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as
the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like
outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of the recruitment.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

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INTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

Some Internal Sources Of Recruitments are given below:

1. TRANSFERS
The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and
experience.

2. PROMOTIONS
The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater
responsibility based on efficiency and experience.

3. Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their performance.

4. Retired and Retrenched employees may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of
qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people save time and costs of
the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies
and procedures.

5. The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also done
by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of
others.

External Sources of Recruitment

1. PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS
Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of
recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach.

2. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES
various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good
source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide
facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus
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Recruitment.

3. PLACEMENT AGENCIES
Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client
companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of
executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing)

4. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES
Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These
exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying
suitable candidates.

5. LABOUR CONTRACTORS
Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the
sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labor for construction jobs.

6. UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS
Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are
considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the
talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization.

7. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS


many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the
organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organization.
Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates.
Recruitment Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations
these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended
by the trade union.

8. RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE


Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a
permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent
vacancies.

Factors Affecting Recruitment

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The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various
internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by
the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the
organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization
are:

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT

Internal Factors Affecting Recruitment

The internal factors or forces which affecting recruitment and can be controlled by the
organization are

1. RECRUITMENT POLICY

The recruitment policy of an organization specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a
framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system
to be developed for implementing recruitment programmes and procedures by filling up
vacancies with best qualified people.

2. FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY

Organizational objectives
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Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.

Government policies on reservations.


Preferred sources of recruitment.
Need of the organization.
Recruitment costs and financial implications.

2. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing
manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be
recruited and what qualification they must possess.

3. SIZE OF THE FIRM


The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is
planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more
personnel, which will handle its operations.

4. COST
Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source
of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each
candidate.

5. GROWTH AND EXPANSION


Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its
operations.

External Factors Affecting Recruitment

The external factors which affecting recruitment are the forces which cannot be controlled by the
organization. The major external forces are:

1. SUPPLY AND DEMAND


The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the
recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the
market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the company will have to depend upon
internal sources by providing them special training and development programs.

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2. LABOUR MARKET
Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence the recruiting
efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at the time of recruitment, even informal
attempts at the time of recruiting like notice boards display of the requisition or announcement in the
meeting etc will attract more than enough applicants.
3. IMAGE / GOODWILL
Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization
with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain
employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company is based on what
organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was taken up by fresher
MBA’s when many finance companies were coming up.

4. POLITICAL-SOCIAL- LEGAL ENVIRONMENT


Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have
direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced
legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, physically
handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts
management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best
performers. If the candidate can’t meet criteria stipulated by the union but union
regulations can restrict recruitment sources.

5. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy
(whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new
jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment.

6. COMPETITORS
The recruitment policies of the competitors also effect the recruitment function of the
organisations. To face the competition, many a times the organisations have to change their
recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

Recruitment Policy Of a Company


In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy is necessary for
organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a
clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best talent
pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment
policy is the first step in the efficient hiring process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a

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sound recruitment process.

It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment
programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment
programmes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.

COMPONENTS OF THE RECRUITMENT POLICY


The general recruitment policies and terms of the organisation

Recruitment services of consultants

Recruitment of temporary employees

Unique recruitment situations

The selection process

The job descriptions

The terms and conditions of the employment


A recruitment policy of an organisation should be such that:
It should focus on recruiting the best potential people.

To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and respect.

Unbiased policy.

To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential.

Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection.

Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs.

Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process.

Defining the competent authority to approve each selection.

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Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment relationship.

Integrates employee needs with the organisational needs.


FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY
Organizational objectives

Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.

Government policies on reservations.

Preferred sources of recruitment.

Need of the organization.

Recruitment costs and financial implications.

Recent Trends in Recruitment


The following trends are being seen in recruitment:
OUTSOURCING
In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A company may
draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the organisation by
the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organisation and creating a
suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organisation. Outsourcing firms develop their
human resource pool by employing people for them and make available personnel to various
companies as per their needs. In turn, the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the
organisations for their services.
Advantages of outsourcing are:
1. Company need not plan for human resources much in advance.

2. Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage

3. turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM

4. Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable resumes/candidates.

5. Company can save a lot of its resources and time

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POACHING/RAIDING
‚Buying talent‛ (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the
organisations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person
already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the
organisation might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from
another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better
than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not
openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most
severe brunt of poaching today. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to
face and tackle poaching, as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm.

E-RECRUITMENT
Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E-recruitment is the use of
technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through
worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through
e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web,
which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.

Advantages of recruitment are:


o Low cost.

o No intermediaries

o Reduction in time for recruitment.

o Recruitment of right type of people.

o Efficiency of recruitment process.

E-Recruitment
The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the ‚E-Recruitment‛. Also known as ‚Online
recruitment‛, it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist the recruitment processes. The tool
can be either a job website like naukri.com, the organisation’s corporate web site or its own intranet. Many
big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies
through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-
mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be drawn
by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.

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The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According to a study
by NASSCOM – ‚Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to the internet,
besides e-mail.‛ There are more than 18 million resume’s floating online across the world.

The two kinds of e-recruitment that an organisation can use is –


Job portals – i.e. posting the position with the job description and the job specification on the
job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the
opening in the organisation.
-
Companies have added an application system to its website, where the ‘passive’ job seekers can
submit their resumes into the database of the organisation for consideration in future, as and
when the roles become available.

Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to the
organisations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined
criteria’s and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.) of the job.

Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating the just-
in-time hiring by the organisations. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately
and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes companies can
get valuable references through the ‚passers-by‛ applicants. Online recruitment helps the
organisations to automate the recruitment process, save their time and costs on recruitments.

Online recruitment techniques


Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract
candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage.

E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the


organisation.

A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the
system should have a back-end support.

Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process job
applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.
Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the ‚Evolving face of recruitment.‛

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There are many benefits – both to the employers and the job seekers but the e-recruitment is not
free from a few shortcomings. Some of the advantages and the disadvantages of e-recruitment are
as follows:

Advantages of E-Recruitment are:


advertising in the
newspapers.

recruitment process.

automated way.

offered by the competitors etc. which helps the HR managers to take various HR decisions like
promotions, salary trends in industry etc

Disadvantages of E-Recruitment

Apart from the various benefits, e-recruitment has its own share of shortcomings and
disadvantages. Some of them are:
Screening and checking the skill mapping and authenticity of million of resumes is a
problem and time consuming exercise for organisations.

There is low Internet penetration and no access and lack of awareness of internet in many
locations across India.

Organisations cannot be dependant solely and totally on the online recruitment methods.

In India, the employers and the employees still prefer a face-to-face interaction rather than
sending e-mails

Recruitment Vs Selection
Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the
two are:

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1. The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to
apply for jobs in the organisation WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates
are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.

2. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best
candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organisation
WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various
positions in the organisation.

3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS
selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.

4. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned
with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.

5. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection results in a contract of


service between the employer and the selected employee.

Types Of Job Seekers


Types Of Job Seekers

1. Quid Pro Que


These are the people who say that ‚ I can do this for you, what can you give me‛ These people value high
responsibilities, higher risks, and expect higher rewards, personal development and company profiles
doesn’t matter to them.

2. I will be with you


These people like to be with big brands. Importance is given to brands. They are not bothered about work
ethic, culture mission etc.
3. I will do you what you want
These people are concerned about how meaningful the job is and they define meaning parameters criteria
known by previous job.

4. Where do you want me to come


These people observe things like where is your office, what atmosphere do you offer. Career prospects and
exciting projects don’t entice them as much. It is the responsibility of the recruiter to decide what the
employee might face in given job and thus take decision. A good decision will help cut down employee
retention costs and future recruitment costs.

Recruitment Management System


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Recruitment management system is the comprehensive tool to manage the entire recruitment processes of
an organisation. It is one of the technological tools facilitated by the information management systems to
the HR of organisations. Just like performance management, payroll and other systems, Recruitment
management system helps to contour the recruitment processes and effectively managing the ROI on
recruitment.
The features, functions and major benefits of the recruitment management system are explained
below:
Structure and systematically organize the entire recruitment processes.

Recruitment management system facilitates faster, unbiased, accurate and reliable


processing of applications from various applications.

Helps to reduce the time-per-hire and cost-per-hire.

Recruitment management system helps to incorporate and integrate the various links like
the application system on the official website of the company, the unsolicited applications,
outsourcing recruitment, the final decision making to the main recruitment process.

Recruitment management system maintains an automated active database of the applicants


facilitating the talent management and increasing the efficiency of the recruitment
processes.

Recruitment management system provides and a flexible, automated and interactive


interface between the online application system, the recruitment department of the
company and the job seeker.

Offers tolls and support to enhance productivity, solutions and optimizing the recruitment
processes to ensure improved ROI.

Recruitment management system helps to communicate and create healthy relationships


with the candidates through the entire recruitment process.

The Recruitment Management System (RMS) is an innovative information system tool which
helps to sane the time and costs of the recruiters and improving the recruitment processes.
Before making any investment, every organisation would want to evaluate the investment by
answering the following questions in quantifiable terms:

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pected returns of the investment?


-back period of the investment?

An organisation makes a tremendous amount of investment in its recruitment processes.


A lot of resources like time and money are spent on recruitment processes of an organisation. But
assessing or quantifying the returns on the recruitment process, or, calculating the return on
investment (ROI) on recruitment is a complicated task for an organisation. Indeed, it is difficult to
judge the success of their recruitment processes. Instead, recruitment is one activity that continues
in an organisation without anyone ever realizing its worth or measuring its impact on the
organisation’s business.

According to a survey, 38 % of organisations do not prepare or produce any kind of documents or


reports on their The recruitment processes, and there is no accountability of the HR department
for the costs incurred and the opportunities missed.

With the increasing strategic focus on the human resources, more and more organisations are
adopting one or the other way for calculating the ROI on its recruitments. Many organisations are
examining their HR functions and processes and are trying to quantify their results and returns.

A recruitment professional or manager can calculate and maximize the return on investments on
its organisation’s recruitment by
Clear definition of the results to be achieved from recruitment.

Developing methods and ways measuring the results like the time – to – hire, cost-Per-Hire
and effectiveness of the recruitment source etc.

Estimating the costs associated with the recruitment project

Estimating the tangible and intangible benefits to the organization including the payback
period of the recruitments.

Providing and ensuring proper training and development of the recruitment professionals.

Assessing the ROI on recruitments can assist an organisation to strengthen its HR processes,
improving its recruitment function and to build a strategic human resource advantage for the
organisation.

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Outsourcing Recruitment
Outsourcing Recruitment is the human resource (HR) processes is the latest practice being followed by
middle and large sized organizations. It is being witnessed across all the industries. In India, the HR
processes are being outsourced from nearly a decade now. Outsourcing industry is growing at a high rate.

Human Resource Outsourcing refers to the process in which an organisation uses the expert services of a
third party (generally professional consultants) to take care of its HR functions while HR management can
focus on the strategic dimension of their function. The functions that are typically outsourced are the
functions that need expertise, relevant experience, knowledge and best methods and practices. This has
given rise to outsourcing the various HR functions of an organisation. HR Consultancies such as Ma Foi
and Planman Consulting provide such services through expert professional consultants. Human resources
business process outsourcing (HR BPO) is a major component of the worldwide BPO market. Performance
management outsourcing involves all the performance monitoring, measurement, management being
outsourced from a third party or an external organisation.

Many organizations have started outsourcing its recruitment process i.e. transferring all or some part of its
recruitment process to an external consultant providing the recruitment services. It is commonly known as
RPO i.e. recruitment process outsourcing. More and more medium and large sized organizations are
outsourcing their recruitment process right from the entry level jobs to the C-level jobs.

The present value of the recruitment process outsourcing industry (RPO) in India is estimated to be $2.5
billion and it is expected to grow at the annual rate of 30-40 per cent for the next couple of years. According
to a recent survey, only 8-10 per cent of the Indian companies are complete recruitment processes.
However, the number of companies outsourcing their recruitment processes is increasing at a very fast rate
and so is the percentage of their total recruitment processes being outsourced.

Outsourcing organizations strive for providing cost saving benefits to their clients. One of the major
advantages to organizations, who outsource their recruitment process, is that it helps to save up to as much
as 40 per cent of their recruitment costs. With the experience, expertise and the economies of scale of the
third party, organizations are able to improve the quality of the recruits and the speed of the whole process.
Also, outsourcing enables the human resource professionals of organizations to focus on the core and other
HR and strategic issues. Outsourcing also gives a structured approach to the whole process of recruitment,
with the ultimate power of decision making of recruiting with the organisation itself. The portion of the
recruitment cycle that is outsourced range from preparing job descriptions to arranging interviews, the
activities that consume almost 70 per cent of the time of the whole recruitment process.

Outsourcing the recruitment processes for a sector like BPO, which faces an attrition of almost 50-60 per
cent, can help the companies in BPO sector to save costs tremendously and focus on other issues like
retention. The job seekers are also availing the services of the third parties (consultants) for accessing the
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latest job opportunities.

In India, the trend of outsourcing recruitment is also catching up fast. For example: Vodafone outsources
its recruitment activities to Alexander Mann Solutions (RPO service provider). Wipro has outsourced its
recruitment process to MeritTrac. Yes bank is also known to outsource 50 per cent of its recruitment
processes.

Advantage Of Outsourcing Recruitment


Traditionally, recruitment is seen as the cost incurring process in an organization. HR outsourcing helps the
HR professionals of the organisations to concentrate on the strategic functions and processes of human
resource management rather than wasting their efforts, time and money on the routine work.

Outsourcing the recruitment processes helps to cut the recruitment costs to 20 % and also provide
economies of scale to the large sized organizations.
The major advantages of outsourcing recruitment performance management are:

Outsourcing is beneficial for both the corporate organisations that use the outsourcing services as
well as the consultancies that provide the service to the corporates. Apart from increasing their
revenues, outsourcing Process provides business opportunities to the service providers, enhancing
the skill set of the service providers and exposure to the different corporate experiences thereby
increasing their expertise.

The advantages accruing to the corporates are:


turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM

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accessibility to the expertise of the service providers

freedom from red tape and adhering to strict rules and regulations

optimal resource utilisation

structured and fair performance management.

a satisfied and, hence, highly productive employees

value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage


Therefore outsourcing helps both the organisations and the consultancies to grow and perform
better.

Changing Role of Recruitment Intermediaries


Recruitment intermediaries, consultancies or agencies are witnessing a boom in the demand of their
services, both by the employers and the job seekers. With an already saturated job market, the recruitment
intermediaries have gained a vital position acting as a link between the job seekers and the employers.

But at the same time, one of the major threats faced by this industry is the growing popularity of e-
recruitment. With the changing demand, technologies and the penetration and increasing use of internet,
the recruitment consultancies or the intermediaries are facing tough competition. To retain and maintain
their position in the recruitment market, the recruitment intermediaries or consultants (as they are commonly
known) are witnessing and incorporating various changes in terms of their role, functions and the services.

According to a survey amongst top employers, most of them agree with the growing influence of
technology and the Internet on the recruitment processes. 70 per cent of employers reported the use of
application portal on their company’s official website. Apart from that, the emerging popularity of the job
portals is also growing.

But the fact that the intermediaries or the consultants are able to provide their expert services, economies
of scale, up to 40 percent savings in the recruitment costs, knowledge of the market, the candidates,
understanding of the requirements, and most importantly, the assess to the suitable and talented
candidates and the structured recruitment processes. The recruitment intermediaries save the
organisations from the tedious of weeding out unsuitable resumes, co-coordinating interviews, posting
vacancies etc. give them an edge over the other sources of recruitment.

To retain their position as the service providers in the recruitment market, the recruitment intermediaries
are providing vale added services to the organisations. They are incorporating the use of internet and job
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portals, making their services more efficient.

Despite of the growing use of the internet, the recruitment intermediaries are predicted to continue
dominating the recruitment market in the anticipated future.

Outsourcing Process

How To Select A Recruitment Consultant


If an organisation decides to outsource its recruitment processes or activities, it is very important
to find and select a suitable recruitment consultant or consultancies, which can deliver results
according to the needs of the organisation. Today, there are thousands of consulting firms
(consultancies) as well as freelance consultants working independently. An organisation looks for
various considerations and qualities before selecting the suitable recruitment consultant.
reputation of the consulting firm in the job market (based on expertise and experience).
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Consultant’s expertise and experience (from how long has he/firm been in the business)

Does the recruitment consultant have the requisite resources to complete the targets on
time?

Get the idea of the effectiveness and the services of the recruitment consultant from its
current and past clients.
Qualities of an independent recruitment consultant:
Some of the qualities or characteristics looked in recruitment consultants are:
Marketing skills

Flexibility and adaptability

Wisdom

Exuberance

Ability to prioritise

Ambition

Resourcefulness

Diplomacy/ delicacy
Selecting the right recruitment consultant is essential for the effective recruitment processes. A
successful Recruitment consultant is someone who is determinative, focused, and able to create
opportunities for him, works harder and smarter than competitors and continually set and achieve
higher standards.

Recruitment Strategies
Recruitment is of the most crucial roles of the human resource professionals. The level of performance of
and organisation depends on the effectiveness of its recruitment function. Organisations have developed
and follow recruitment strategies to hire the best talent for their organisation and to utilize their resources

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optimally. A successful recruitment strategy should be well planned and practical to attract more and good
talent to apply in the organisation.
For formulating an effective and successful recruitment strategy, the strategy should cover the
following elements:
1. Identifying and prioritizing jobs
recruitment keep arising at various levels in every organisation; it is almost a never-ending
process. It is impossible to fill all the positions immediately. Therefore, there is a need to
identify the positions requiring immediate attention and action. To maintain the quality of
the recruitment activities, it is useful to prioritize the vacancies whether to focus on all
vacancies equally or focusing on key jobs first.

2. Candidates to target
The recruitment process can be effective only if the organisation completely understands
the requirements of the type of candidates that are required and will be beneficial for the
organisation. This covers the following parameters as well:
o Performance level required: Different strategies are required for focusing on hiring
high performers and average performers.

o Experience level required: the strategy should be clear as to what is the experience
level required by the organisation. The candidate’s experience can range from being
a fresher to experienced senior professionals.

o Category of the candidate: the strategy should clearly define the target candidate.
He/she can be from the same industry, different industry, unemployed, top
performers of the industry etc.

3. Sources of recruitment
The strategy should define various sources (external and internal) of recruitment. Which
are the sources to be used and focused for the recruitment purposes for various positions.
Employee referral is one of the most effective sources of recruitment.

4. Trained recruiters
The recruitment professionals conducting the interviews and the other recruitment
activities should be well-trained and experienced to conduct the activities. They should also
be aware of the major parameters and skills (e.g.: behavioural, technical etc.) to focus while
interviewing and selecting a candidate.

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5. How to evaluate the candidates


The various parameters and the ways to judge them i.e. the entire recruitment process
should be planned in advance. Like the rounds of technical interviews, HR interviews,
written tests, psychometric tests etc.

How To Select A Recruitment Consultant


If an organisation decides to outsource its recruitment processes or activities, it is very important
to find and select a suitable recruitment consultant or consultancies, which can deliver results
according to the needs of the organisation. Today, there are thousands of consulting firms
(consultancies) as well as freelance consultants working independently. An organisation looks for
various considerations and qualities before selecting the suitable recruitment consultant.

are the consultant’s or firm’s past and present clients?


Consultant’s expertise and experience (from how long has he/firm been in the business)

Does the recruitment consultant have the requisite resources to complete the targets on
time?

Get the idea of the effectiveness and the services of the recruitment consultant from its
current and past clients.
Qualities of an independent recruitment consultant:
Some of the qualities or characteristics looked in recruitment consultants are:
Marketing skills

Flexibility and adaptability

Wisdom

Exuberance

Ability to prioritise

Ambition

Resourcefulness

Diplomacy/ delicacy
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Selecting the right recruitment consultant is essential for the effective recruitment processes. A
successful Recruitment consultant is someone who is determinative, focused, and able to create
opportunities for him, works harder and smarter than competitors and continually set and achieve
higher standards.

HR Challenges In Recruitment
Recruitment is a function that requires business perspective, expertise, ability to find and match the best
potential candidate for the organisation, diplomacy, marketing skills (as to sell the position to the
candidate) and wisdom to align the recruitment processes for the benefit of the organisation. The HR
professionals – handling the recruitment function of the organisation- are constantly facing new challenges
in Recruitment. The biggest HR challenge in Recruitment for such professionals is to source or recruit the
best people or potential candidate for the organisation.

In the last few years, the job market has undergone some fundamental changes in terms of technologies,
sources of recruitment, competition in the market etc. In an already saturated job market, where the
practices like poaching and raiding are gaining momentum.
HR professionals are constantly facing new challenges in one of their most important function-
recruitment. They have to face and conquer various challenges to find the best candidates for their
organisations.

The major challenges faced by the HR in recruitment are:


Adaptability to globalization – The HR professionals are expected and required to keep in
tune with the changing times, i.e. the changes taking place across the globe. HR should
maintain the timeliness of the process

Lack of motivation – Recruitment is considered to be a thankless job. Even if the


organisation is achieving results, HR department or professionals are not thanked for
recruiting the right employees and performers.

Process analysis – The immediacy and speed of the recruitment process are the main
concerns of the HR in recruitment. The process should be flexible, adaptive and responsive
to the immediate requirements. The recruitment process should also be cost effective.

Strategic prioritization – The emerging new systems are both an opportunity as well as a
challenge for the HR professionals. Therefore, reviewing staffing needs and prioritizing the
tasks to meet the changes in the market has become a challenge for the recruitment
professionals.

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Recruiting Expatriates
Expatriate is a person who leaves his country to work and live in a foreign country. Generally, expatriates
are the nationals from the other countries than the host and the MNC’s parent country, i.e. expatriates are
the third country nationals.

The unavailability of the required skills and talents takes the organisation to source talent from other
countries. The procedures and processes of recruiting and selecting the human resources are never uniform
even within a single organisation. The procedures vary according to the post, the skill set required, the
nature of work etc. More of it is seen in the case of recruitment of expatriates. The recruitment and selection
procedures and considerations are drastically different for expatriates than that of the domestic employees.
Recruitment of expatriates involves greater time, monetary resources and other indirect costs. Improper
recruitment and selection can cause the expatriates to return hastily or a decline in their performance.

A mismatch between job (its requirements) and people can reduce the effectiveness of other human
resource activities and can affect the performance of the employees as well as the organisation.

Recruiting expatriates require special considerations and skills to select the best person for the job. Except
for a few expatriate selection policies, the expatriate selection criterion is generally organisation and nation
specific.

The recruiters for recruiting the expatriates should be carefully selected and trained. The recruitment
strategies for expatriates should be aligned with requirements of the job. The interviews of expatriates are
designed in a manner to judge their:
Adaptability to the new culture

Intercultural interaction

Flexibility

Professional expertise

Past international work experience

Tolerance and open-mindedness

Family situation

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Language ability

Attitude and motivation

Empathy towards local culture


A few researches in this field also suggest that women are morel likely to be successful in certain
positions as expatriates as they are more sensitive towards new culture and people. recruitment of
expatriates should be followed by cultural and sensitivity training, and language training.

Head Hunting
Headhunting refers to the approach of finding and attracting the best experienced person with the required
skill set. Headhunting is also a recruitment process involves convincing the person to join your
organization.
Headhunting Process

Forms Of Recruitment
The organisations differ in terms of their size, business, processes and practices. A few decisions
by the recruitment professionals can affect the productivity and efficiency of the organisation.

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Organisations adopt different forms of recruitment practices according to the specific needs of the
organisation. The organisations can choose from the centralized or decentralized forms of
recruitment, explained below:
CENTRALIZED RECRUITMENT

The recruitment practices of an organisation are centralized when the HR / recruitment


department at the head office performs all functions of recruitment. Recruitment decisions for all
the business verticals and departments of an organisation are carried out by the one central HR (or
recruitment) department. Centralized from of recruitment is commonly seen in government
organisations.

Benefits of the centralized form of recruitment are:


Reduces administration costs

Better utilization of specialists

Uniformity in recruitment

Interchangeability of staff

Reduces favoritism

Every department sends requisitions for recruitment to their central office


DECENTRALIZED RECRUITMENT

Decentralized recruitment practices are most commonly seen in the case of conglomerates
operating in different and diverse business areas. With diverse and geographically spread
business areas and offices, it becomes important to understand the needs of each department and
frame the recruitment policies and procedures accordingly. Each department carries out its own
recruitment. Choice between the two will depend upon management philosophy and needs of
particular organization. In some cases combination of both is used. Lower level staffs as well as
top level executives are recruited in a decentralized manner.

Equal Employment Opportunity


Equal employment opportunity refers to the approach of the employers to ensure the practice of being fair
and impartial in the employment process. *The term "Equal Opportunity Employment" was first given by
President Lyndon B. Johnson when he signed Executive Order 11246 which was created to prohibit federal
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contractors from discriminating against employees on the basis of race, sex, creed, religion, color, or
national origin*. The scope of the order also covered the discrimination on the basis of the minority status.
Discrimination in employment
Discrimination refers to the any kind of prejudice, biasness or favoritism on the basis of
disability
race
age
sex
sexuality
pregnancy
Marital status
in employment. No person should be treated less favourably than any other on the basis of the
specified issues above. Many countries (like SA) have already implemented Equal Opportunity
Act, making it against the law to treat anybody unfairly.

Diversity in workforce
With the globalization and the increasing size of the organisations, the diversity in the workforce
is increasing i.e. people from diverse backgrounds, educational background, age groups, race,
gender, abilities etc come together to work for one organisation and common objectives.
Therefore, it is the responsibility of the employer to create an equality-based and discrimination-
free working environment and practices.

Equal opportunity means treating people equally and fairly irrespective of their race, religion, sex,
age, disability etc. Giving women an equal treatment and access to opportunities at the workplace.
Any employee should be ill-treated or harassed by the employer or other employees.

Equal Employment Opportunity principles help to realize and respect the actual worth of the
individual on the basis of his knowledge, skills, abilities and merit. And the policy should cover
all the employees of an organisation whether permanent or temporary, contractual etc.

Equal employment opportunity is necessary to ensure:


To give fair access to the people of all development opportunities
To create a fair organisation, industry and society.
To encourage and give disadvantaged or disabled people a fair chance to grow with the
society

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