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3

Marriott Waterfront, Baltimore, MD, USA

June 30-July 02, 2010

M.C.F. Donkers, W.P.M.H. Heemels, D. Bernardini, A. Bemporad, V. Shneer

Abstract In this paper, we study the stability of Networked Given a protocol, such as the well-known Round-Robin (RR)

Control Systems (NCSs) that are subject to time-varying trans- and Try-Once-Discard (TOD) protocol, which orchestrates

mission intervals, time-varying transmission delays, packet- when a certain communication node is given access to the

dropouts and communication constraints. Communication con-

straints impose that, per transmission, only one sensor or network, the mentioned papers provide criteria for computing

actuator node can access the network and send its information. the so-called Maximum Allowable Transmission Interval

Which node is given access to the network at a transmission (MATI) and Maximum Allowable Delay (MAD). Stability

time is orchestrated by a so-called network protocol. This is guaranteed as long as the actual transmission intervals

paper considers NCSs, in which the transmission intervals and delays are always smaller than the MATI and MAD,

and transmission delays are described by a random process,

having a continuous probability density function (PDF). By respectively.

focussing on linear plants and controllers and periodic and A common feature of the aforecited references is that

quadratic protocols, we present a modelling framework for conditions for stability are derived, given hard deterministic

NCSs based on stochastic discrete-time switched linear systems. bounds on the various network phenomena. In many situ-

Stability (in the mean-square) of these systems is analysed using ations, however, transmission intervals and delays are mod-

convex overapproximations and a finite number of linear matrix

inequalities. On a benchmark example of a batch reactor, we elled as random phenomena that are described by probability

illustrated the effectiveness of the developed theory. distributions. Unfortunately, less results are available that

provide conditions for stability when the transmission inter-

I. I NTRODUCTION vals and delays are random processes. A common approach

Modelling, analysis, and controller design of networked found in literature, see, e.g., [6][9], is to take a finite or

control systems (NCSs) has recently received considerable countable set of possible transmission intervals and delays

attention in literature. The main reason for this attention and attribute probabilities to each element of the set. In

is the advantages that NCSs offer, such as low installation this way, the NCS can be effectively modelled as a Markov

and maintenance costs, reduced system wiring and increased jump system [10]. It is however not possible to make any

flexibility of the system. A drawback of networking the statements about stability when the number of elements in

control system, however, is that it is no longer possible the set are not finite or countable.

to assume, that delays are constant or perhaps negligible, In this paper, we focus on linear plants and linear con-

that sampling occurs equidistantly in time, and that all trollers and study the stability (in the mean-square) of NCSs,

sensor and actuator signals are available at all times. As a in the presence time-varying transmission intervals and time-

result, a deep understanding of the effects of time-varying varying delays, which are described by random processes,

delays, time-varying transmission intervals, and constrained and communication constraints. Contrary to [6][9], we

communication, (i.e., not all sensor and actuator signals allow for continuous probability density functions, which

being transmitted at every transmission), on the stability can, possibly, be defined on an unbounded domain, like in

and performance of the control system is needed. Most [11], [12]. In particular, the techniques we provide are appli-

of the literature studies the effects of only some of the cable to more general probability distributions, including the

phenomena, while ignoring the others. Clearly, it is important exponential probability distribution that was studied in [11]

to consider the combined presence of time-varying delays as a special case. Contrary to [12], we can consider both

and time-varying transmission intervals, and communication quadratic and periodic protocols, as introduced in [4]. These

constraints, as in any practical NCS they will be present classes of protocols includes the well-known Try-Once-

simultaneously. Discard (TOD) protocol and Round-Robin (RR) protocol as

Stability of NCSs subject to time-varying transmission special cases. For reasons of space, however, in this paper

intervals and communication constraints has been considered we restrict our attention to the analysis for the quadratic

in [1], [2] and time-varying transmission intervals, time- protocol. The main difference between between [11], [12]

varying delays and communication constraints in [3][5]. and the work presented in this paper is that [11], [12] use

a continuous-time modelling paradigm, while we apply a

This work is supported by the European Community through the FP7- discrete-time modelling framework that leads to a switched

ICT-2007-2 thematic programme under the WIDE-224168 project.

Tijs Donkers and Maurice Heemels are with the Department of Me- linear system model, which is stochastically time-varying.

chanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, Using a convex overapproximation and newly developed

{m.c.f.donkers, m.heemels}@tue.nl. Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), the stability (in the mean-

Daniele Bernardini is with the Department of Information Engineering,

University of Siena, Italy, bernardini@dii.unisi.it. square) of the NCS with the transmission intervals and delays

Alberto Bemporad is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, satisfying a continuous probability density function (PDF)

University of Trento, Italy, bemporad@ing.unitn.it. can be analysed. We will show the effectiveness of the

Vsevolod Shneer is with the Dept. of Mathematics and Com-

puter Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, presented approach on the benchmark example of a batch

shneer@eurandom.tue.nl. reactor as also used in [1][4], [11].

the controller and/or the plant at arrival instant rk . As in [3], a

transmission only occurs after the previous transmission has

arrived, i.e., tk+1 > rk > tk , for all k N. In other words,

we consider the delays to be smaller than the transmission

interval. After each transmission and reception, the values

in y and u are updated, while the other values in y and u

remain the same. This leads to the constrained data exchange

Fig. 1: Illustration of a typical evolution of y and y. expressed as

y(t) = yk y(tk ) + (I yk )y(tk )

(3)

u(t) = uk u(tk ) + (I uk )u(tk )

A. Nomenclature

The following notational conventions will be used. for all t (rk , rk+1 ], where k := diag(yk , uk ) is a

diag(A1 , . . . , AN ) denotes a block-diagonal matrix with the diagonal matrix, given by

entries A1 , . . . , AN on the diagonal and A> Rmn de-

i = diag(i,1 , . . . , i,ny +nu ), (4)

notes the transposed of matrix A Rnm . For a vector x

Rn , we denote by xi the i-th component and p kxk := x> x when k = i. In (4), the elements i,j , with i {1, . . . , N }

its Euclidean norm. We denote by kAk := max (A> A) and j {1, . . . , ny }, are equal to one, if plant output y j

the spectral norm of a matrix A, which is the square-root of is in node i, elements i,j+ny , with i {1, . . . , N } and

the maximum eigenvalue of the matrixhA> A. We i sometimes

h i j {1, . . . , nu }, are equal to one, if controller output uj is

A B

write symmetric matrices of the form B > C , as A ?

B

C .

in node i, and are zero elsewhere.

The convex hull and interior of a set A are denoted by coA The value of k {1, . . . , N } in (3) indicates which

and intA, respectively. A probability density function on Rn node is given access to the network at transmission instant

is a Lebesgue-integrable function p : Rn R+ , where R+ tk , k N. Indeed, (3) reflects that the values in u and y

denotes the set of nonnegative real numbers, that satisfies corresponding to node k are updated just after rk , with

R

p(x)dx = 1. The expected Rvalue of the random variable the corresponding transmitted values at time tk , while the

Rn

x Rn is defined as E(x) := Rn xp(x)dx. others remain the same. A scheduling protocol determines

the sequence (0 , 1 , . . .) and a particular class of protocols

II. NCS M ODEL AND P ROBLEM S TATEMENT will be made explicit later.

In this section, we present the model describing the Net- The transmission instants tk , as well as the arrival instants

worked Control Systems (NCSs), subject to communication rk , k N are not necessarily distributed equidistantly in

constraints, time-varying transmission intervals and delays. time. Hence, both the transmission intervals hk := tk+1

Let us consider the linear time-invariant (LTI) continuous- tk > 0, k N and the transmission delays k := rk

time plant given by tk > 0, k N, are varying in time, as is also illustrated

( in Fig. 1. Furthermore, since tk+1 > rk , for all k N, we

dt x (t) = A x (t) + B u(t)

d p p p p

have that k < hk . We assume that the transmission intervals

(1)

y(t) = C p xp (t), and transmission delays are described by an Independent and

Identically Distributed (IID) random process, characterised

where xp Rnp denotes the state of the plant, u Rnu by a probability density function (PDF) p : R2 R+ . The

the most recently received control variable, y Rny the assumptions made above can described by making explicit

(measured) output of the plant and t R+ the time. The assumptions on the PDF.

controller, also an LTI system, is assumed to be given by

Assumption II.1 For each k N, the transmission interval

(

dt x (t) = A x (t) + B y(t)

d c c c c

(2) hk and the transmission delay k are described by an IID

u(t) = C c xc (t) + Dc y(t). random process, characterised by a PDF p : R2 R+ , with

In this description, xc Rnc denotes the state of the p(h, ) = 0 for all (h, ) 6 , where

controller, y Rny the most recently received output of = (h, ) R2 | h > 0 0 6 < h .

(5)

the plant and u Rnu denotes the controller output. At

transmission instant tk , k N, (parts of) the outputs of A. The NCS as a time-varying switched system

the plant y(tk ) and controller u(tk ) are sampled and are

To analyse the stability of the NCS described above, we

transmitted over the network. We assume that they arrive

transform it into a discrete-time model. In this framework,

after a delay k at instant rk := tk + k , called the arrival

we need a discrete-time equivalent of (1) and also of (2)

instant, see Fig. 1.

because a continuous-time controller is used. To arrive at

Let us now explain in more detail the functioning of the

this description, let us first define the network-induced error

network and define these most recently received y and u

as

exactly. The plant is equipped with sensors and actuators e (t) := y(t) y(t)

y

that are grouped into N nodes. At each transmission instant (6)

eu (t) := u(t) u(t).

tk , k N, one node, denoted by k {1, . . . , N }, gets

access to the network and transmits its corresponding values. The stochastically time-varying discrete-time switched sys-

These transmitted values are received and implemented on tem can now be obtained by describing the evolution of the

3685

Ahk + Ehk BDC

Ehk BD Ehk k Bk

xk+1 = x (11)

C(I Ahk Ehk BDC) I D1 k + C(Ehk k Bk Ehk BD) k

| {z }

=:Ak ,hk ,k

states between tk and tk+1 = tk + hk . In order to do so, we Since y is still updated according to (3), we can describe the

define xpk := xp (tk ), uk := u(tk ), uk := limtrk u(t) and evolution of the states between tk and tk+1 = tk + hk in a

euk := eu (tk ). Since u, as in (3), is a left-continuous piece- similar fashion as in (7). In this case, (9) reduces to

wise constant signal, we can write uk1 = limtrk1 u(t) = >

u(rk ) = u(tk ). As (3) and (6) yield uk1 = uk + euk and xk := xp> ey>

k xc>

k k

, (13)

uk1 uk = uk euk , we can write the exact discretisation of

(1) as follows: resulting in (11), in which

Ap Bp C c

B p Dc

h i

p Rh p

xpk+1 = eA hk xpk + 0 k eA s dsB p (uk + euk ) Ahk := e 0 Ac

,

hk

B := , (14a)

R h p

Bc

0 k k eA s dsB p uk euk . (7)

C := C 0 , D := I,

p

(14b)

A discretised equivalent of (2) is obtained in a similar fashion R A0p BpACc c s

h i

limtrk y(t), and observing yk1 = y(tk ), and is given by

c Rh c

xck+1 = eA hk xck + 0 k eA s dsB c (yk + eyk )

R h c

B. The Quadratic Protocol as a Switching Function

0 k k eA s dsB c yk eyk . (8)

Based on the previous modelling steps, the NCS is formu-

We now present two different models each describing a lated as a stochastically time-varying discrete-time switched

particular NCS. The first covers the situation where both system (11). In this framework, protocols are considered

the plant and the controller outputs are transmitted over the as the switching function determining k . We consider

network and the second where only the plant outputs y are quadratic protocols, as introduced in [4].

transmitted over the network and the controller outputs u A quadratic protocol is a protocol, for which the switching

are sent continuously via an ideal nonnetworked connection. function can be written as

We include this particular case, because it is often used in

examples in NCS literature (see, e.g., the benchmark example k = arg min x>

k Pi xk , (15)

i=1,...,N

in [1][4], [11]) and it allows us to compare our methodology

to the existing ones. where Pi , i {1, . . . , N }, are certain given matrices. In fact,

1) The NCS model when both y and u are transmitted: the well-known TOD protocol, see, e.g., [1][3], sometimes

For an NCS having controller (2), the complete NCS model also called Maximum Error First (MEF) protocol, belongs to

is obtained by combining (3), (6), (7), and (8) and defining this class of protocols. In the TOD protocol, the node that has

> the largest network-induced error, i.e., the largest difference

xk := xp> ey>

k xc>

k k eu>

k . (9) between the latest transmitted values and the current values

of the signals corresponding to the node, is granted access to

This results in the discrete-time model (11), as shown on

the network. The TOD protocol can be modelled as in (15)

the top of this page, in which Ak ,hk ,k Rnn , with n =

by adopting the following structure in the Pi matrices:

np + nc + ny + nu , and

0 Bp

Pi = P diag(0, i ), (16)

Ap hk Ac hk

Ahk := diag(e ,e ), B := , (11a)

Bc 0 in which i , i {1, . . . , N }, is given by (4) and P some

I 0 arbitrary matrix. Indeed, if we define eik := i ek , where

C := diag(C p , C c ), D := , (11b)

Dc I ek := [ey>

k , ek ] , (15) becomes

u> >

>

R p R c

E := diag( 0 eA s ds, 0 eA s ds), R. (11c)

= arg max ke1k k, . . . , keN

k k , (17)

2) The NCS model when only y is transmitted: In this case which is the TOD protocol. In case two nodes have the same

we assume that only the outputs of the plant are transmitted maximal values, one of them can be chosen arbitrarily.

over the network and the controller communicates its values

continuously and without delay. We therefore have that Remark II.2 Although the work presented in this paper

u(t) = u(t), for all t R+ , which allows us to combine considers analysis of NCSs with continuous-time controllers

(1) and (2), yielding and quadratic protocols only, extensions are possible towards

x (t) A B p C c xp (t) discrete-time controllers and other protocols, such as periodic

p p p c

B D

= + y(t). (12)

xc (t) 0 Ac xc (t) Bc protocols.

3686

C. Stability of the NCS a partitioning Sm=1 Sm = , (as we use a finite number of

The problem studied in this paper is to analyse stability of bounded triangles Sm , m {1, . . . , S}, and can be an

the stochastically time-varying discrete-time switched linear unbounded set), we will propose a method to deal with the

system (11) with protocol (15), and the transmission intervals remainder, i.e., with c :=R \(Sm=1 Sm ), and select it to

and transmission delays by a random process satisfying be small in the sense that c p(h, )dhd < for some

Assumption II.1. Let us now formally define stability for suitably chosen > 0.

the NCS. The proposed overapproximation is such that for each Sm ,

m {1, . . . , S}, and for all {1, . . . , N }, it holds that

Definition II.3 System (11) with switching sequences sat-

n o

A,h, | (h, ) Sm

isfying (15) is said to be Uniformly Globally Mean-Square

Exponentially Stable (UGMSES) if there exist c > 0 and

nP o

3

l=1 l

A ,m,l + B m C | A, , (22)

0 6 < 1, such that for any initial condition x0 Rn , and

all k N, it holds that where A,m,l Rnn , Bm Rnq and the procedure to

obtain this convex overapproximation is given below.

E kxk k2 6 ckx0 k2 k .

(18)

III. O BTAINING A C ONVEX OVERAPPROXIMATION Procedure III.1

Select triangles Sm , m {1, . . . , S}, satisfying

In the previous section, we obtained an NCS model in the

form of a stochastically time-varying discrete-time switched Sm = co{(hm,1 , m,1 ), (hm,2 , m,2 ), (hm,3 , m,3 )} (23)

linear system. In the stability conditions developed in the

next section, we will employ techniques originally developed where (hm,l , m,l ), l {1, 2, 3} denote the vertices of

for the situation in which the time-varying transmission inter- the triangle Sm . Moreover, for all m, p {1, . . . , S}

vals and delays lie in some bounded set , i.e., (hk , k ) R p 6= m, intSp intSm = , intSm 6= , and

and

for all k N, as discussed in [4]. As in [4], Ak ,hk ,k \(S

p(h, )dhd < , for some small > 0.

m=1 Sm )

depends nonlinearly on the uncertain parameters hk and Define

k . To make the system amenable for analysis, a procedure A,m,l := A,hm,l ,m,l . (24)

was proposed to overapproximate Ak ,hk ,k by a polytopic

system with norm-bounded additive uncertainty, i.e., To bound the approximation error, first construct the

matrix , that, depending on the NCS model defined in

M

X Section II-A, is given by

xk+1 = kl Ak ,l + Bl k Ck xk ,

(19)

diag(A , A ),

p c

l=1

if (11) is as in Section II-A.1,

=

Ap B p C c

where A,l Rnn , Bl Rnq , C Rqn , for , if (11) is as in Section II-A.2.

0 Ac

{1, . . . , N } and l {1, . . . , M }, with M the number of

(25)

vertices of the polytope. The vector k = [k1 . . . kM ]>

Write the matrix in its real Jordan form [13], i.e.

A, k N, is time varying with

n := T T 1 , where T is an invertible matrix and

PM

A = RM l=1 l = 1 and l > 0 = diag(1 , . . . , L ) (26)

o

for l {1, . . . , M } (20) with i Rni ni , i {1, . . . , L}, the i-th real Jordan

block of .

and k , where is a norm-bounded set of matrices Compute for each real Jordan block i , i {1, . . . , L}

in Rmm that describes the additive uncertainty. Equation the worst case approximation error, i.e.

(19) is an overapproximation of (11), in the sense that for 3

all {1, . . . , N }, it holds that

P3 l

i l=1 hm,l X l i hm,l

n o

A

i,m = P sup
e e
,

3

l = 1,

A,h, | (h, ) l=1

l

>0

l=1

nP

M

o (27a)

+

l

l=1 A ,l Bl C | A, . (21) 3

P3 l

l=1 hm,l

X Z

Eh

i,m = P sup l

ei s ds
,

Contrary to [4], we will not exactly pursue a description 3

l = 1,

l=1 l=1 hm,l

satisfying (21), as this would remove all information about l

>0

the PDF of (hk , k ). As in [4], we partition into triangles (27b)

Sm , m {1, . . . , S}, but we make individual overapprox-

imations of Ak ,hk ,k for each triangleRR Sm , instead. This
X3 Z P3

l=1 l (hm,l m,l )

allows us to assign a probability pm = Sm p(h, )dhd to Eh

i,m = P sup

l

ei s ds
.

3

each triangle and adopt this information in the subsequent l=1l = 1, l=1 hm,l m,l

l

stability analysis. Roughly speaking, the continuous PDF >0

that assigns probabilities to (h, ) in each triangle Sm in the For a detailed explanation of the origin of the approxi-

partitioning of . Since it is typically not possible to achieve mation error bounds, the reader is referred to [4].

3687

Finally, define Furthermore, we introduce the sets

N

0

T 1 n X

M := RN N ji = 1 for i {1, . . . , N }

C := T BDC 1 1

T BD (28)

0 T 1 B j=1

o

and ji > 0 for i, j {1, . . . , N } (34)

and

T T T and

Bm := Um , (29)

CT CT CT

R = {diag(r1 I1 , . . . , rL IL , rL+1 I1 , . . . , r3L IL )

in which R3(np +nc )3(np +nc ) | ri > 0}, (35)

Um = diag(1,m

A A

I1 , . . . , L,m Eh

IL , 1,m I1 , . . . , where Ii is an identity matrix of size ni . The main result of

Eh Eh

L,m IL , 1,m I1 , . . . , L,m

Eh

IL ), (30) this section is presented next.

with Ii the identity matrix of size ni , complying with Theorem IV.1 Suppose there exist triangles Sm , m

the i-th real Jordan Block. The additive uncertainty set {1, . . . , S} and a convex overapproximation as in (19)

R3(np +nc )3(np +nc ) is now given by satisfying (22), for all {1, . . . , N }, a matrix =

{ji } M, a positive scalar , a positive definite matrices

= diag(1 , . . . , 3L ) | i+jL Rni ni ,

Pi satisfying Pi I, matrices Ui,m , and matrices Ri,m,l

ki+jL k 6 1, i {1, . . . , L}, j {0, 1, 2} . (31) R, i {1, . . . , N }, m {1, . . . , S}, and l {1, 2, 3},

satisfying

PN

Remark III.2 In the special case that there exist hnom or Ui,m 0 pm A>i,m,l j=1 ji Pj Ci> Ri,m,l

nom such that p(h, ) = 0, either for all h 6= hnom or ? Ri,m,l pm Bm>

PN

0

j=1 ji Pj

for all 6= nom , i.e., the transmission interval or delay is 0

PN

0

? ? pm j=1 ji Pj

constant, Procedure III.1 has to be modified slightly. This

is because we proposed to form triangles Sm R2 , ? ? ? Ri,m,l

(36)

m {1, . . . , S}, having the property that intSm 6= , which

for all i {1, . . . , N }, m {1, . . . , S}, l {1, 2, 3}, in

is not useful in this case. In this case, we propose to form

which pm := Sm p(h, )dhd , and satisfying

RR

line-segments Sm , m {1, . . . , S} instead, such that for

each Sm , m {1, . . . , S}, it holds that S

X ZZ

Pi Ui,m kAi,h, k2 p(h, )dhd I 0,

Sm = co{(hm,1 , m,1 ), (hm,2 , m,2 )}, (32) m=1 \(S

m=1 Sm )

(37)

where (hm,l , m,l ), l {1, 2}, now denote the vertices of the for all i {1, . . . , N }. Then, the switching law (15) renders

line segment Sm . All other properties of Sm , m {1, . . . , S} the system (11) UGMSES.

still hold and the remainder of the procedure can be applied

mutatis mutandis. We can now briefly comment on the conditions presented

in Theorem IV.1: Firstly, the stability of (11) is guaran-

IV. S TABILITY OF NCS WITH S TOCHASTIC teed for h and satisfying a continuous PDF, because

U NCERTAINTY RR PDF is also overapproximated by assigning pm :=

the

Sm

p(h, )dhd to each triangle Sm , m {1, . . . , S}. To

In section II, we discussed the NCS model and in Section be more precise, the probability pm is the probability that

III, we proposed a way to overapproximate it by a switched the pair (h, ) Sm . Secondly, in case the triangles can

polytopic system with a norm-bounded uncertainty. A spe- be chosen such that \(Sm=1 Sm ) = , the conditions in

cific feature of this overapproximation is that an individual (37) simplify as the integral in the left-hand side of (37)

overapproximation is made for each triangle Sm , m vanishes. This is possible, if there exists some h > 0, such

{1, . . . , S} which enables us to preserve the characteristics of that p(h, ) = 0 for all h > h. In other cases, condition (37)

the PDF. In this section we will use this overapproximation to can be satisfied by finding an upper bound on the integral in

develop conditions to verify stability of the NCS model (11) (37). Since kAi,h, k2 can bounded by kAi,h, k2 6 ceh , for

with transmission intervals and delays (hk , k ), characterised some constant c > 0 and a constant that depends on the

by an IID random process satisfying Assumption II.1. eigenvalues of > +> , with as in (25). The satisfaction of

Stability of the class of quadratic protocols given by (15), (37) requires the existence of the integral in its left-hand side,

of which the TOD protocol is a special case, can be analysed which is satisfied when the PDF p(h, ) decays exponentially

using the ideas in [14], in which only switched linear systems faster than the bound ce h, when the transmission intervals

without any form of uncertainty are considered. To analyse approach infinity. Hence, p(h, ) 6 ceh for some >

the stability of (11) having this switching function, we guarantees finiteness of the integral in (37). The fact that the

introduce the non-quadratic Lyapunov function PDF decays exponentially fast also allows us to bound the

expected value of the evolution of (1) and (2) in between

V (xk ) = min x>

k Pi xk , (33) two subsequent transmissions, i.e., the so-called intersample

i=1,...,N

3688

i i

tempimagetemp 2010/2/11 14:37 page 1 #1

Uniform Distribution with a = 0 and b = 0.11 random process satisfying the aforementioned PDFs. In [4],

Gamma Distribution with a = 10 and b = 0.006

we obtained a hard deterministic maximum allowable trans-

Probability p(h) mission interval of 0.066, which includes all PDFs for which

holds that p(h, ) = 0 for all h > 0.066 and all 6= 0, and

we can therefore conclude that incorporating probabilistic

information on the distribution of the transmission intervals

can prove stability for situations not covered by earlier results

in the literature.

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Transmission Interval h VI. C ONCLUSIONS

Fig. 2: Illustration of the considered PDFs. In this paper, we studied the stability of Networked

Control Systems (NCSs) that are subject to communication

constraints, time-varying transmission intervals and time-

behaviour. As a consequence, UGMSES of the discrete- varying delays. We analysed the stability of the NCS when

time NCS model (11) with switching function (15) also the transmission intervals and transmission delays are de-

implies mean-square exponential stability of the underlying scribed by a random process, having a continuous proba-

continuous-time NCS given by (1), (2), (3) and (6), with bility density function, and the communication sequence is

protocol (15). determined by a quadratic protocol. This analysis was based

on a stochastically time-varying discrete-time switched linear

V. I LLUSTRATIVE E XAMPLE system of the NCS. We provided conditions for stability (in

In this section, we illustrate the presented theory using a the mean-square) using a convex overapproximation and a

well-known benchmark example in the NCS literature [1] finite number of linear matrix inequalities. On a benchmark

[4], [11], consisting of a model of a batch reactor. The details example, we illustrated the effectiveness of the developed

of the linearised model of the batch reactor model used in theory. Although the work presented in this paper consid-

this example and the continuous-time controller can be found ers analysis of NCSs with continuous-time controllers and

in the aforementioned references. quadratic protocols only, extensions are possible towards

We will analyse the NCS as was done in [1][4], [11], discrete-time controllers and other protocols, such as periodic

where it is assumed that the controller is directly connected protocols.

to the actuator, i.e., only the two outputs are transmitted via

R EFERENCES

the network. Furthermore, we consider the TOD protocol and

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control systems, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, pp. 16501667, 2004.

0 for all k 6= 0, k N. In this example, we consider two [2] G. Walsh, H. Ye, and L. Bushnell, Stability analysis of networked

different PDFs, namely a uniform distribution control systems, IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology, pp. 438

446, 2002.

for a 6 h 6 b and = 0

1

[3] W. Heemels, A. Teel, N. van de Wouw, and D. Nesic, Networked

p(h, ) = ba (38)

0 elsewhere control systems with communication constraints: Tradeoffs between

transmission intervals, delays and performance, IEEE Trans. Autom.

Control, 2010.

with a = 105 and b = 0.11 and the Gamma distribution [4] M. Donkers, W. Heemels, N. van de Wouw, L. Hetel, and M. Stein-

i i

h

hc1 e d for h > 0 and = 0 buch, Stability analysis of networked control systems using a

1

p(h, ) = dc (c) (39) switched linear systems approach, Submitted for journal publication.

0 elsewhere

i i

[5] A. Chaillet and A. Bicchi, Delay compensation in packet-switching

networked controlled sytems, in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Decision and

with c = 10 and d = 0.006, in which (c) denotes the Control, 2008, pp. 36203625.

Gamma function, [15]. The resulting PDFs are shown in [6] L. Montestruque and P. Antsaklis, Stability of model-based networked

control systems with time-varying transmission times, IEEE Trans.

Fig. 2. Autom. Control, pp. 15621572, 2004.

In order to assess the bounds on the allowable transmission [7] P. Seiler and R. Sengupta, An H approach to networked control,

intervals, we first define our NCS model as in Section II- IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, pp. 356 364, 2005.

[8] Y. Shi and B. Yu, Output feedback stabilization of networked control

A.2. This model appropriately describes the situation as systems with random delays modeled by markov chains, IEEE Trans.

discussed in this example, where only the plant outputs y Autom. Control, pp. 1668 1674, 2009.

are transmitted over the network and the controller outputs [9] F. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Hung, and M. Gani, H control for networked

systems with random communication delays, IEEE Trans. Autom.

u are sent continuously via a nonnetworked connection. Control, pp. 511 518, 2006.

Then, we derive the uncertain polytopic system (19), using [10] O. Costa, M. Fragoso, and R. Marques, Discrete-Time Markov Jump

Procedure III.1. For the uniform distribution, we construct Linear Systems. Springer-Verlag, 2005.

[11] M. Tabbara and D. Nesic, Input-output stability of networked control

80 line segments, as discussed in Remark III.2, Sm = systems with stochastic protocols and channels, IEEE Trans. Autom.

[( 0.11

79 (m 1), 0), ( 79 m, 0)], for m {1, . . . , 80}. For the

0.11

Control, pp. 11601175, 2008.

Gamma distribution, we construct 40 line segments Sm = [12] D. Antunes, J. P. Hespanha, and C. Silvestre, Control of impulsive

renewal systems: Application to direct design in networked control,

[( 0.3

39 (m1), 0), ( 39 m, 0)], m {1, . . . , 30}. We now check

0.3

in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, 2009, pp. 6882 6887.

the matrix inequalities of Theorem IV.1, using the structure [13] R. Horn and C. Johnson, Matrix Analysis. Cambridge University

of the Pi -matrices as in (16). Using this procedure we obtain Press, 1985.

[14] J. Geromel and P. Colaneri, Stability and stabilization of discrete time

a feasible solution of LMIs of Theorem IV.1, on the basis switched systems, Int. J. Control, pp. 719728, 2006.

of which we conclude that the TOD protocol stabilises the [15] A. Papoulis, Propability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes.

NCS when the transmission intervals are given by an IID McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991.

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