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TYPHOID FEVER Outlook (Prognosis) may acquire the virus when they feed on an

Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease, caused by Symptoms usually improve in 2 to 4 weeks with individual during this period. Some studies have
Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted through the treatment. The outcome is likely to be good with shown that monkeys in some parts of the world
ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the early treatment, but becomes poor if play a similar role in transmission.
feces or urine of infected people. complications develop. Characteristics
Symptoms usually develop 1–3 weeks after Symptoms may return if the treatment has not Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that
exposure, and may be mild or severe. They completely cured the infection. affects infants, young children and adults, but
include high fever, malaise, headache, Possible Complications seldom causes death.
constipation or diarrhoea, rose-coloured spots on Intestinal hemorrhage (severe GI bleeding), The clinical features of dengue fever vary
the chest, and enlarged spleen and liver. Healthy Intestinal perforation, Kidney failure, Peritonitis according to the age of the patient. Infants and
carrier state may follow acute illness. When to Contact a Medical Professional young children may have a fever with rash.
Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics. Call your health care provider if you have had Older children and adults may have either a
However, resistance to common antimicrobials is typhoid fever and relapse occurs or if severe mild fever or the classical incapacitating disease
widespread. Healthy carriers should be excluded abdominal pain,decreased urine output, or other with abrupt onset and high fever, severe
from handling food. new symptoms develop. headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection Prevention joint pains, and rash.
characterized by diarrhea, systemic disease, Vaccines Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a
and a rash -- most commonly caused by the At-risk travelers should drink only boiled or potentially deadly complication that is
bacteria Salmonella typhi (S. typhi).Causes bottled water and eat well cooked food. characterized by high fever, often with
Symptoms include fever, general ill-feeling, Adequate water treatment, waste disposal, and enlargement of the liver, and in severe cases
and abdominal pain. A high (over 103 degrees) protection of food supply from contamination circulatory failure. The illness often begins with
fever and severe diarrhea occur as the disease are important public health measures. Carriers a sudden rise in temperature accompanied by
gets worse. of typhoid must not be allowed to work as food facial flush and other flu-like symptoms. The
Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash handlers. fever usually continues for two to seven days
called "rose spots," which are small red spots on DENGUE and can be as high as 41°C, possibly with
the belly and chest. Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that convulsions and other complications.
Other symptoms that occur include: Abdominal causes a severe flu-like illness, and sometimes a In moderate DHF cases, all signs and symptoms
tenderness, Agitation, Bloody stools, Chills, potentially lethal complication called dengue abate after the fever subsides. In severe cases,
Confusion, Difficulty paying attention (attention hemorrhagic fever. the patient's condition may suddenly
deficit), Delirium, Fluctuating mood, Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical deteriorate after a few days of fever; the
Hallucinations, Nosebleeds, Severe fatigue, climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi- temperature drops, followed by signs of
Slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, Weakness urban areas.The only way to prevent dengue circulatory failure, and the patient may rapidly
Exams and Tests virus transmission is to combat the disease- go into a critical state of shock and die within 12
A complete blood count (CBC) will show a high carrying mosquitoes. to 24 hours, or quickly recover following
number of white blood cells. Transmission appropriate medical treatment
A blood culture during first week of the fever Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans Prevention and control
can show S. typhi bacteria through the bites of infective female Aedes At present, the only method of controlling or
Other tests that can help diagnose this condition mosquitoes. Mosquitoes generally acquire the preventing dengue virus transmission is to
include: virus while feeding on the blood of an infected combat the vector mosquitoes.
Stool culture person. After virus incubation for eight to 10 Dengue is transmitted by the bite of an Aedes
ELISA urine test to look for the bacteria that days, an infected mosquito is capable, during mosquito infected with any one of the four
causes Typhoid fever probing and blood feeding, of transmitting the dengue viruses. It occurs in tropical and sub-
Platelet count (platelet count will be low) virus for the rest of its life. Infected female tropical areas of the world. Symptoms appear
Fluoresce antibody study to look for substances mosquitoes may also transmit the virus to their 3—14 days after the infective bite. Dengue
specific to Typhoid bacteria offspring by transovarial (via the eggs) fever is a febrile illness that affects infants,
Treatment transmission, but the role of this in sustaining young children and adults.
Fluids and electrolytes may be given through a transmission of the virus to humans has not yet Symptoms range from a mild fever, to
vein (intravenously). Appropriate antibiotics are been defined. incapacitating high fever, with severe headache,
given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing Infected humans are the main carriers and pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and
rates of antibiotic resistance throughout the multipliers of the virus, serving as a source of rash. There are no specific antiviral medicines
world, so your health care provider will check the virus for uninfected mosquitoes. The virus for dengue. It is important to maintain
current recommendations before choosing an circulates in the blood of infected humans for hydration. Use of acetylsalicylic acid (e.g.
antibiotic. two to seven days, at approximately the same aspirin) and non steroidal anti-
time that they have a fever; Aedes mosquitoes
inflammatory drugs (e.g. Ibuprofen) is not nose or gums, black stools, or easy bruising are years of age. It causes abdominal pain,
recommended. all possible signs of hemorrhage. This form of hemorrhage (bleeding), and circulatory collapse
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (fever, abdominal dengue fever can be life-threatening and can (shock). DHF is also called Philippine, Thai, or
pain, vomiting, bleeding) is a potentially lethal progress to the most severe form of the illness, Southeast Asian hemorrhagic fever and dengue
complication, affecting mainly children. Early dengue shock syndrome shock syndrome.
clinical diagnosis and careful clinical What are dengue fever symptoms and signs? DHF starts abruptly with high continuous fever
management by experienced physicians and After being bitten by a mosquito carrying the and headache. There are respiratory and
nurses increase survival of patients. virus, the incubation period ranges from three intestinal symptoms with sore throat, cough,
How is dengue fever contracted? to 15 (usually five to eight) days before the nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Shock
The virus is contracted from the bite of a striped signs and symptoms of dengue appear. Dengue occurs two to six days after the start of
Aedes aegypti mosquito that has previously starts with chills, headache, pain upon moving symptoms with sudden collapse, cool, clammy
bitten an infected person. The mosquito the eyes, and low backache. Painful aching in extremities (the trunk is often warm), weak
flourishes during rainy seasons but can breed in the legs and joints occurs during the first hours pulse, and blueness around the mouth
water-filled flower pots, plastic bags, and cans of illness. The temperature rises quickly as high (circumoral cyanosis).
year-round. One mosquito bite can inflict the as 104 F (40 C), with relative low heart rate In DHF, there is bleeding with easy bruising,
disease. (bradycardia) and low blood pressure blood spots in the skin (petechiae), spitting up
The virus is not contagious and cannot be (hypotension). The eyes become reddened. A blood (hematemesis), blood in the stool
spread directly from person to person. There flushing or pale pink rash comes over the face (melena), bleeding gums, and nosebleeds
must be a person-to-mosquito-to-another- and then disappears. The glands (lymph nodes) (epistaxis). Pneumonia is common, and
person pathway in the neck and groin are often swollen. inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) may be
Fever and other signs of dengue last for two to present.
four days, followed by a rapid drop in body Patients with DHF must be monitored closely for
What is dengue fever? temperature (defervescence) with profuse the first few days since shock may occur or
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of sweating. This precedes a period with normal recur precipitously (dengue shock syndrome).
viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. It is temperature and a sense of well-being that lasts Cyanotic (bluish) patients are given oxygen.
an acute illness of sudden onset that usually about a day. A second rapid rise in temperature Vascular collapse (shock) requires immediate
follows a benign course with symptoms such as follows. A characteristic rash appears along with fluid replacement. Blood transfusions may be
headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and the fever and spreads from the extremities to needed to control bleeding.
joint pain, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy), cover the entire body except the face. The The mortality (death) rate with DHF is
and rash. The presence (the "dengue triad") of palms and soles may be bright red and swollen. significant. It ranges from 6%-30%. Most deaths
fever, rash, and headache (and other pains) is What is the treatment for dengue fever? occur in children. Infants under a year of age
particularly characteristic of dengue. Other Because dengue fever is caused by a virus, are especially at risk of dying from DHF.
signs of dengue fever include bleeding gums, there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to How can dengue fever be prevented?
severe pain behind the eyes, and red palms and treat it. For typical dengue, the treatment is The transmission of the virus to mosquitoes
soles. purely concerned with relief of the symptoms must be interrupted to prevent the illness. To
Dengue (pronounced DENG-gay) strikes people (symptomatic). Rest and fluid intake for this end, patients are kept under mosquito
with low levels of immunity. Because it is adequate hydration is important. Aspirin and netting until the second bout of fever is over
caused by one of four serotypes of virus, it is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should and they are no longer contagious.
possible to get dengue fever multiple times. only be taken under a doctor's supervision The prevention of dengue requires control or
However, an attack of dengue produces because of the possibility of worsening eradication of the mosquitoes carrying the virus
immunity for a lifetime to that particular hemorrhagic complications. Acetaminophen that causes dengue. In nations plagued by
serotype to which the patient was exposed. (Tylenol) and codeine may be given for severe dengue fever, people are urged to empty
Dengue goes by other names, including headache and for the joint and muscle pain stagnant water from old tires, trash cans, and
"breakbone" or "dandy fever." Victims of (myalgia). flower pots. Governmental initiatives to
dengue often have contortions due to the What is the prognosis for typical dengue fever? decrease mosquitoes also help to keep the
intense joint and muscle pain, hence the name Typical dengue is fatal in less than 1% of cases. disease in check but have been poorly effective.
breakbone fever. Slaves in the West Indies who The acute phase of the illness with fever and To prevent mosquito bites, wear long pants and
contracted dengue were said to have dandy myalgias lasts about one to two weeks. long sleeves. For personal protection, use
fever because of their postures and gait. Convalescence is accompanied by a feeling of mosquito repellant sprays that contain DEET
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more severe weakness (asthenia), and full recovery often when visiting places where dengue is endemic.
form of the viral illness. Manifestations include takes several weeks. Limiting exposure to mosquitoes by avoiding
headache, fever, rash, and evidence of What is dengue hemorrhagic fever? standing water and staying indoors two hours
hemorrhage in the body. Petechiae (small red or Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a specific after sunrise and before sunset will help. The
purple blisters under the skin), bleeding in the syndrome that tends to affect children under 10 Aedes aegypti mosquito is a daytime biter with
peak periods of biting around sunrise and
sunset. It may bite at any time of the day and is
often hidden inside homes or other dwellings,
especially in urban areas.
There is currently no vaccine available for
dengue fever. There is a vaccine undergoing
clinical trials, but it is too early to tell if it will be
safe or effective. Early results of clinical trials
show that a vaccine may be available by 2012
Dengue Fever At A Glance
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of
viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes.
Symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion,
severe joint and muscle pain, swollen glands
(lymphadenopathy), and rash. The presence
(the "dengue triad") of fever, rash, and
headache (and other pains) is particularly
characteristic of dengue fever.
Dengue is prevalent throughout the tropics and
subtropics. Outbreaks have occurred recently in
the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the U.S.
Virgin Islands, Cuba, and Central America.
Because dengue fever is caused by a virus,
there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to
treat it. For typical dengue fever, the treatment
is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms
(symptomatic).
The acute phase of the illness with fever and
myalgias lasts about one to two weeks.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a specific
syndrome that tends to affect children under 10
years of age. It causes abdominal pain,
hemorrhage (bleeding), and circulatory collapse
(shock).
The prevention of dengue fever requires control
or eradication of the mosquitoes carrying the
virus that causes dengue.
There is currently no vaccine available for
dengue fever.