You are on page 1of 43

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Styrene who is also known as ethylbenzene,vinybenzene and phenylethene is an organic
compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. Although styrene was discovered way
back in 1839, its commercial production and applications were developed in the 1930s. Post
world war period witnessed a boom in styrene demand due to its application in the
manufacture of synthetic rubber. This led to a dramatic increase in styrene capacity. Styrene
has wide application in producing plastic and synthetic rubber industry. It is mostly used in
manufacturing of polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), styrene-
acrylonitrile (SAN), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and lattices, unsaturated polyester resins
(UP resins) and miscellaneous uses like textile auxiliaries, pigment binders polyester resin,
aromatics and intermediate industries.

Worldwide, there are commonly five methods of manufacturing of styrene such as
catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, Oxidation of ethylbenzene to ethyl hyroperoxide ,
side-chain chlorination of ethlybenzene followed by dechlorination, side-chain of
chlorination of ethylbenzne hydrolysis to the corresponding alcohols followed by dehydration
and pyrolysis of petroleum recovery. In an effort to find a sustainable method of
manufacturing of styrene from ethylbenzene, several design objectives were chosen as a
necessity for the proposed system such as identifying suitable catalyst, the economic factor,
environmental factor, strategic location to build for styrene plant, the design specifications on
the reactors and distillation column used in the plant, the market price and also not to forget
the safety issue relating to the plant. Obtaining this data was very crucial before scaling up
the design of a complete industrial plant.

For the final design of our project, we includes the process flow diagram (PFD) and
also Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) created by Microsoft Visio, finalized site
selection to build the styrene plant, the analysis of reactor and distillation design plus with
HAZOP study and FTA analysis in concerning safety relating issue toward the each
equipment used in the process background of producing styrene. From this variable aspect,
we conclude the proposed plant design would indeed be economically viable and profit
inducing.

1

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016

TABLE OF CONTENT
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... 3
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 5
PROBLEM STATEMENT ..................................................................................................................... 6
OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................................................... 7
PROCESS SELECTION ........................................................................................................................ 8
PROCESS BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................ 10
Material Balance For The Production Of Styrene............................................................................. 11
Sizing For Primary Distillation Column (Multi-Component Distillation) ........................................ 15
1) Bubble and Dew Point By Trial Calculation,........................................................................ 15
2) Relative Volatility, ................................................................................................................ 15
3) Minimum Number of Theoretical Stages,............................................................................. 17
4) Minimum Reflux Ratio, ........................................................................................................ 18
5) Operating Reflux Ratio and No of Stages, ............................................................................ 19
6) Column Diameter, ................................................................................................................. 20
7) Feed Location,....................................................................................................................... 21
Block Flow Diagram (BFD) For Styrene Production ...................................................................... 22
Process Flow Diagram (PFD) For Styrene Production ..................................................................... 23
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) For Styrene Production ............................................. 24
Process Equipment Symbols and Numbering ................................................................................... 25
Plant Layout ...................................................................................................................................... 27
SITE SELECTION ............................................................................................................................... 28
HAZARD AND RISK ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................ 35
Hazard And Operability Studies (HAZOP) ...................................................................................... 35
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) ................................................................................................................ 36
Material Safety Data Sheet (Styrene)................................................................................................ 37
Safety ................................................................................................................................................ 41
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................... 42
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 43

2

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our deepest appreciation to those who help in providing us helpful
information and contribute directly or indirectly which led to the completion of the report.
Special gratitude to our lecturer, Encik Omar Syah Jehan, who guide us in the selection of
idea and give the best suggestion and step-by-step guidelines for during the improvement of
the report. Last but not least, bundle of thank you for all the team member whose invested
the highest effort, time and energy in achieving the objective of the report.

3

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016

ABSTRACT
The production of styrene is a 28 billion dollar industry worldwide. There is a significant
demand for it and cutting costs even a few cents per pound will yield large savings. These
savings can then be passed to the consumer and will ultimately make styrene products (like
polystyrenes and ABS polymers) available to more people worldwide. We believe it is
feasible to simulate a process for producing styrene that will make this possible. The idea is
to use cheaper raw materials, namely ethane instead of ethylene, and utilize the fundamentals
of the process, such as a dehydrogenation unit, to convert the ethane to ethylene in the
process. An advantage to the new process is that it starts with a less expensive raw material,
ethane, instead of ethylene.

4

Styrene also can be used as the yeast-like fungus Exophiala jeanselmei that can be used to treat air polluted with styrene. Styrol. polyesters. Cinnamene. Diethyl benzene forms when ethylene reacts with ethyl benzene. column 1. The formation of multiply- substituted benzenes is limited by running the reaction with a large excess of benzene. Diarex HF 77. Ethyl benzene is produced by coupling ethylene and benzene with an acidic catalyst. 5 . although high concentrations have a less pleasant odour. reactor effluent cooling system (2 unit). protective coatings. This derivative of benzene is a colourless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell. The chemical structure of the styrene is shown in the figure 1. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 INTRODUCTION Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene. 3-phases separator. which is used in plastics. reactor feed heating system (3 unit). The production of styrene using many equipment such as reactor (with floating head shell and tube). Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. column 3 and column intermediate cooling system. The IUPAC name for styrene are Vinyl benzene. Vinylbenzene.1. the selectivity for our process should favour ethyl benzene production. Phenylethylene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. column 2. resins. Styrolene. Figure 1 – Ethyl Benzene Molecular Structure A by-product of the process is diethyl benzene (DEB) that is an intermediate in divinyl-benzene manufacture. Since the demand for styrene is far greater than the demand for divinyl-benzene. pre-separating effluent heat exchanger. Phenylethene. Styropol. and chemical intermediates.

 is the extent of reaction. The selectivity of these reactions is determined by the feed ratio and processing conditions. as well as the enterprise rate. Consumer demand for styrene derived products may fluctuate as well with less use of plastics and polystyrene products amid environmental concerns. the research team combined. Having used a large variety of primary and secondary sources. Styrene 2016 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2020 grants access to the unique data on the examined market. canvassed and presented all available information on product in an all-encompassing research report clearly and coherently as shown in figure 1. Figure 2 .Global Styrene Demand Based On Styrene 2016 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2020 6 . As we know that production of styrene can jump into polystyrene so it is the profitable production due to the high demand from the customer to produce the polystyrene. the selling price of styrene could decrease and potentially affect profitability.2. As a result. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 The reactions that produce Ethyl Benzene and Diethyl Benzene are Where. Competitors in the market for styrene production may also influence the cost value of products.

equipments. heat exchangers. 6) Choosing the strategic location for the plant to be built. it is hard to break through into the styrene market without planning a plant of massive capacity. 4) Our plant will be optimized to produce styrene below the current production cost by utilizing new technology and building a plant of with large capacity to be cost efficient. Styrene. 7 . 8) Analyse the design to determine whether it is economically competitive at the average market price. cheaper starting material can be used. location and other few factors need to take into consideration to design the plant for the mass production of the wanted product. 9) Determining the safety issues relating to the design of the plant. utilities. OBJECTIVES 1) Designing full scale mass production industrial plant to produce styrene from ethyl benzene as the main raw material. if a new. distillation columns and reactors. 3) Evaluate the plant design based on economic and environmental factor. The selection and the cost of raw material. pumps. turbines. However. The current method for producing styrene in small scales utilizes ethylene as a starting material. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 PROBLEM STATEMENT Currently. 7) Determine the design specifications on the following pieces of process equipment such as compressors. there are many methods in producing styrene. Besides. the cost of production can be significantly reduced and the market undercut with less capital cost than by sheer capacity. 5) Simulating complete plant design using HYSYS. 2) Identifying suitable catalyst for the reaction to proceed optimally. However the problem lies on the selection of the best method to produce styrene in large scale in order to satisfy the demand of the compound which expected to increase by years.

Then. Approximately 25 million tonnes of styrene were produces in 2010 [1]. There are many methods in producing Styrene which are:- 1) Catalytic Dehyrogenation of ethyl benzene. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 PROCESS SELECTION Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. 2) Oxidation of ethyl benzene to ethyl benzene hyroperoxide which reacts with propylene oxide after which the alcohol is dehydrated to styrene. 3) Side-chain chlorination of ethyl benzene followed by dechlorination. 5) Pyrolysis of petroleum recovery from various petroleum processes. it is used to oxidize propylene to propylene oxide. The resulting phenyl ethanol is dehydrated to give styrene. Figure 3 – Reaction Of Ethyl Benzene with Oxygen to Produce Propylene Oxide which then led to Production of Styrene 8 . Method 2 is one of the commercialize process to produce styrene from propylene oxide. 4) Side-chain chlorination of ethyl benzene hydrolysis to the corresponding alcohols followed by dehydration. In this process ethyl benzene is treated with oxygen to form ethyl benzene hydroperoxide.

3) Decrease carbonaceous deposits by steam reforming reaction. Ethyl benzene is reacted with catalyst usually iron oxide to produce styrene. The advantages of diluting ethyl benzene with superheated steam in this process is :- 1) It lowers the partial pressure of ethyl benzene and shift of equilibrium towards higher styrene production and minimizing the loss to thermal cracking. 2) Supplies part of the heat needed for endothermic reaction. 4) Avoid catalyst over reduction and deactivation by controlling the state of the iron. the steam does not react with ethyl benzene and the catalyst which prevents coking from happen. Besides. 9 . This process is the primary commercialize process for production of styrene about 85% of the industrial process used nowadays. the problem with pyrolysis process is that carbon is catalyst poison making more cost needed to reactivated back the catalyst. The best process to produce styrene in large scale is method 1 which is catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene. it have been generally suffered from high cost of raw materials and from the chlorinated contaminants in the monomer whereas method 5 the pyrolysis petroleum recovery from various petroleum process is not widely available since manufacturing styrene directly from petroleum streams is difficult and costly. the process can be controlled. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Method 3 and 4 involved the use of chlorine. During the process. Figure 4 – Reaction of Ethyl Benzene to Produce Styrene This process reaction is equilibrium limited and with the addition of steam.

Then. The process begins with fresh ethyl benzene 160 MT/hr fed to a Mixer-1 where after one process complete . Dowtherm Heater and Molten Salt Heater respectively to dilute the ethyl benzene to enhance the conversion toward styrene before fed to Isothermal Packed Bed Reactor. The raw materials need to considered is also minimum which only consist of ethyl benzene. They flow to Mixer-2 and mix with superheated steam about 640 MT/hr. Ethyl Benzene and Styrene where they need to undergo distillation to extract the wanted product which is Styrene . the unreacted ethyl benzene will be recycled back into Mixer-1 where combination of both the fresh and the recycled one is approximately about 26 MT/hr. catalyst and steam generation. The organic liquid split composition is Benzene. Waste water (640 MT/hr) and Organic Liquid Split (112 MT/hr) is separated. second distillation column where Benzene and Toluene is further separated whereas the bottom stream of the first distillation column. go to the third distillation column where Styrene and Ethylbenzene is separated. they go the Furnace Heater. 10 . After the organic liquid split left the separator. Toluene. The distillate stream go to another distillation column. The reactor effluent is then flow through Molten Salt Cooler and Dowtherm Cooler before fed to 3-phase Separator where Vapor Silt (48 MT/hr) . The styrene is the main product to satisfies the demand is stored into storage vessel while the ethyl benzene that is recovered from the process is recycled back to Mixer-1 . The reactor is where the conversion of ethyl benzene to styrene occurs by contacting the diluted ethyl benzene with iron oxide (Fe3O4) catalyst. it fed into flash tank where approximately about 12 MT/hr of vapor split is released. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 PROCESS BACKGROUND The team has decided to go with catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene since it is widely used nowadays. The organic liquid split then go to a distillation column where Benzene-Toluene and Ethylbenzene-Styrene is separated according to their boiling point. The steam to feed ratio is 4:1.

5% of the feed.0875 (C7H8) Methane 14 0.0000 Total 160 1.1625 Ethylbenzene 0.3375 (C8H8) Hydrogen 40 0.0875 (CH4) Total 160 1.1625 (C8H10) (C8H10) Styrene 54 0.0875 Methane Figure 5 – The Composition of The Components On The Reactor Streams Table 1 .0375 (C2H4) Benzene 6 0.0000 Ethylbenzene 26 0. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Material Balance For The Production Of Styrene The basis of the feed stream is 160MT/hr of ethylbenzene.0000 11 . 4) The total conversion of ethylbenzene is about 83.0875 Toluene 0.0000 Ethylbenzene Reactor 0. 160 MT/hr 160 MT/hr 1.The Mass Flow Rate and Composition of the Component Present At The Reactor Input Output Component Mass Flow Composition Component Mass Flow Composition Rate Rate (MT/hr) (MT/hr) Ethylbenzene 160 1. The team made assumptions of the following condition at the reactor in order to produce about 54MT/hr of styrene :- 1) Fractional conversion of the ethylbenzene to styrene and benzene is about 37. 2) The selectivity of styrene over benzene to be 90%. 3) Fractional conversion of ethylbenzene to toluene is about 14% of the ethylbenzene balance of the main reaction.2500 (H2) Ethylene 6 0.2500 Hydrogen gas 0.0375 Benzene 0.0375 (C6H6) Toluene 14 0.75% .3375 Styrene 0.0375 Ethylene 0.

2500 Hydrogen 8 0.0875 Methane 2.2321 Hydrogen 32 0.8 0. about 80% of the by-product gases is removed while waste water is assumed to be completely removed.4821 Styrene 0.0375 Ethylene 1.0107 Ethylene 0.2 0.3375 Styrene 0.2333 Methane 160 MT/hr 112 MT/hr Three-Phase 0.0107 (C2H4) (C2H4) Benzene 6 0.0250 (CH4) (CH4) Total 160 1.1625 Ethylbenzene Separator 0.1250 (C7H8) (C7H8) Methane 14 0. it is negligible in the calculation.0875 Toluene 14 0.2321 Ethylbenzene 0.1625 Ethylbenzene 26 0.0375 Benzene 0.3375 Styrene 54 0.0714 Hydrogen gas 0.The Mass Flow Rate and Composition of the Component Present At The Three-Phase Separator Input to Three Phase Reactor Output To Flash Tank Output (Vapor Split) Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Flow Flow Flow Rate Rate Rate (MT/hr) (MT/hr) (MT/hr) Ethylbenzene 26 0. The effluent of the reactor is then. Thus.4821 Ethylene 4.0375 Benzene 6 0.0536 Benzene 0.2333 (H2) (H2) (CH4) Ethylene 6 0. fed to three-phase separator to remove the by- product gaseous and most of the water present in the effluent mixture.0375 Ethylene 0.0714 Methane 11. The efficiency of the separator is assumed to be 80%.2 0.2500 Hydrogen gas 0. there are presence of water (H2O) molecule at the effluent stream.0000 Total 48 1.0250 Methane (inert) Figure 6 – The Composition of The Components On The Three-Phase Separator Streams Table 2 . however since the molecule does not take part in the reaction and considered inert.0875 Methane Waste water 0.6667 (C8H10) (C8H10) (H2) Styrene 54 0.1000 (C8H8) (C8H8) (C2H4) Hydrogen 40 0.0875 Toluene 0.1250 Toluene 0. 48 MT/hr (Vapor Split) 0.0000 Total 112 1.6667 Hydrogen Gas 0.1000 Ethylene 0.0000 12 . PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Since the production of styrene under high temperature using steam technology where the steam was first mix with the ethylbenzene before fed to the reactor.0536 (C6H6) (C6H6) Toluene 14 0.8 0.

hydrogen gas. where all the remaining vapor split is assumed to be completely removed.060 Benzene 5. 3) 98 wt% of Styrene from feed stream presence at the bottom product stream.6747 Styrene 0.56 1. ethylene and methane is no longer presence in the output stream of the flash tank. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 The effluent of the three-phase reactor is then fed to flash tank.6169 Toluene 0.1400 Toluene 0.0000 13 .44 1.0603 Ethylbenzene 24.0603 Ethylbenzene 0.6169 Toluene 0.08 0.30 0.0015 (C6H6) (C6H6) (C6H6) Toluene 14 0.3149 Ethylbenzene 0.5400 Styrene 0. styrene.0015 Benzene 0.70 0.540 Styrene 1.88 0. benzene and toluene) is the separated using distillation columns where separation using the differences in boiling point is considered.260 Ethylbenzene 1.2727 Benzene 0. 2) 95 wt% of Toluene from feed stream presence at the overhead product stream.92 0. Therefore.0600 Benzene 78.0501 Styrene 100 MT/hr Primary Distillation 0.3149 (C8H10) (C8H10) (C8H10) Styrene 54 0. The organic liquid split (composition of ethylbenzene. 4) 95 wt% of Ethylbenzene from feed stream presence at the bottom product stream.The Mass Flow Rate and Composition of the Component Present At The Primary Distillation Column Input Overhead Output Bottom Output Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Flow Flow Flow Rate Rate Rate (MT/hr) (MT/hr) (MT/hr) Ethylbenzene 26 0.70 0.0089 Toluene Figure 7 – The Composition of The Components On The Primary Distillation Column Streams Table 3 .0000 Total 21.2600 Ethylbenzene Column 0.44 MT/hr 0.56 MT/hr 0.12 0.6747 (C8H8) (C8H8) (C8H8) Benzene 6 0.2727 Benzene 0.30 0. The organic liquid split fed to the primary distillation column and the component with lower boing point (Benzene-Toluene) goes to the overhead output stream while the higher boiling point to the bottom output stream (Ethylbenzene-Styrene).0000 Total 78. 21.0501 Styrene 52. Assumptions on the primary distillation column are as follow :- 1) 98 wt% of Benzene from feed stream presence at the overhead product stream.140 Toluene 13.0089 (C7H8) (C7H8) (C7H8) Total 100 1.

675 Styrene 54 MT/hr Styrene Figure 9 – The Composition of The Components On The Secondary Distillation Column Streams Table 5 – The Mass Flow Rate and Composition of the Component Present At The Tertiary Distillation Column Input Overhead Output Bottom Output Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Flow Flow Flow Rate Rate Rate (MT/hr) (MT/hr) (MT/hr) Ethylbenzene 26 0.0000 Total 54 1.300 Benzene Distillation Column 0. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 6 MT/hr Benzene 20 MT/hr Secondary 0.3250 Ethylbenzene 26 1.6750 (C8H8) Total 80 1.0000 26 MT/hr Ethylbenzene 80 MT/hr Tertiary Distillation 0.7000 (C7H8) Total 20 1.3000 Benzene 6 1. at the secondary distillation column.0000 Total 26 1.0000 Styrene 54 1.0000 (C6H6) (C6H6) (C7H8) Toluene 14 0. traces of benzene could still be found in the bottom product stream.0000 Toluene 14 1.0000 (C8H10) (C8H10) (C8H8) Styrene 54 0. For example.325 Ethylbenzene Column 0.700 Toluene 14 MT/hr Toluene Figure 8 – The Composition of The Components On The Secondary Distillation Column Streams Table 4 – The Mass Flow Rate and Composition of the Component Present At The Secondary Distillation Column Input Overhead Output Bottom Output Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Component Mass Composition Flow Flow Flow Rate Rate Rate (MT/hr) (MT/hr) (MT/hr) Benzene 6 0.0000 Total 14 1. 14 .0000 Real production will not give the complete separation of the mixture at the distillation column since efficiency of 100% is impossible to be achieved.0000 Total 6 1.

The K value is determined using Antoine Equation. Bubble Point : Dew Point : Where : xi = concentration of component I in liquid phase.58 209. Light key = KLK Heavy key = KHK 15 . Relative volatility : Where.325kPa.44 2) Relative Volatility.79 Toluene 6. ( ) Table 6 – Antoine Constant For Component in Primary Distillation Column A B C Benzene 6.95464 1344. the pressure obtained is divided with the pressure used for operating condition which is 1atm = 101.8 219. Ki = equilibrium constant of component i. Antoine Equation : ( ) .90565 1211.9571 1445.95719 1424. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Sizing For Primary Distillation Column (Multi-Component Distillation) 1) Bubble and Dew Point By Trial Calculation. where assumption of temperature is made to get the value of partial pressure.255 213. yi = concentration of component I in vapour phase.033 220.482 Ethylbenzene 6. Then.206 Styrene 6.

8165 1.3368 1.1981 0.3567 0.5⁰C is acceptable since the ( ) . PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Table 7 – Feed Temperature for Distillation Column 1 Feed .5⁰C Column1 xi p (mmHg) Ki ai xi*ai yi Benzene (B) (light key L) 0.6365 4.8460 Ethylbenzene (basis) 0.3720 Styrene (S) (heavy key H) 0. Table 8 – Top Temperature / Dew Point For Distillation Column 1 Top Temp (D) T = 100⁰C Column1 yi = xi p (mmHg) Ki ai yi / ai xi Benzene (light key L) 0.9336 0.8⁰C is acceptable since ( ) .9981 0.2849 0.7510 0.9412 1.1813 1.9127 4. T = 128.06 2763.1790 Styrene (heavy key H) 0.0603 0. Table 9 – Bottom Temperature / Bubble Point For Distillation Column 1 Bottom Temp (W) T=142.14 1239.6747 707.2672 Toluene 0.0501 192.6315 1.2539 0.6280 0.4197 1.0000 0.3381 1.9493 0.8⁰C Column1 xi = yi p (mmHg) Ki ai yi * ai Benzene (light key L) 0.0089 1735.2600 Styrene (heavy key H) 0.3149 0.9537 2.7770 5.8465 1.2727 1350.0000 0.3219 0.7771 0.7320 2.6541 4.7740 1.1651 0.4913 1.1588 0.3771 Assumption temperature of 100⁰C is acceptable since the ( ).0203 Ethylbenzene (EB) (basis) 0.0172 0.9307 0.6169 556.0074 Toluene (T) 0.26 620.5471 0.2266 Assumption temperature of 128.9744 0.0015 3733.0277 Assumption temperature at 142.0000 0.54 482.2559 0.2484 0.7433 3.1540 Toluene 0. 16 .6345 0.3149 897.5316 0.2797 Ethylbenzene (basis) 0.2841 1.0062 0.0667 0.4537 0.7879 0.0519 0.0603 256.

08 α LW = 4.0501)(20) = 1.6747)(80) = 52.2559 .12 *( )( )+ ( ) ( ) *( )( )+ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 17 .92 α L.0015)(80) = 0. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 3) Minimum Number of Theoretical Stages.av = √(α LD)(α LW) =9. XLD = mole fraction of light key in distillate XLW = mole fraction of light key in bottom XHD = mole fraction of heavy key in distillate XHW = mole fraction of heavy key in bottom XLD*D = (0. at T = 100°C XHD*D = (0.2727)(20) = 5.5°C XLW*W = (0.88 α LD = 5.5343 XHW*W = (0. *( )( )+ ( ) ( ) √ ( ) Where.1588. at T = 142.

3 0. Rm = 0.d = concentration of component i in the top at minimum reflux and Ө is the root of the equation. We assume q=1 because of thermal condition at feed is saturated liquid. usually the heacy key. Where.3983 -0.4507 1. Therefore.0009 Therefore. Underwood equation is used to determine the minimum reflux ratio.15 0.7333 -1.3278 -1.9991 18 . Rm = the minimum reflux ratio.646 0.4025 -0.1260 -2. Xi.4833 -0.0951 0. when Ө = 1.0847 0.0808 0. άi = the relative volatility of the component i with respect to some reference component.646 .1868 1.8031 -1. Table 10 – Assumption for the value of Ө (Assumed) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Sum Ө ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.7898 -0.8667 -0. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 4) Minimum Reflux Ratio.

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 5) Operating Reflux Ratio and No of Stages. ( ) 19 . R = 1. So.5Rm = 1.4986 Figure 10 . the Then.Erbar-Maddox Correlation between Reflux Ratio and Number of stages (Rm based on Underwood Method) The value of N is determined based on Erbar-Maddox graf.

lt = 0. m/s lt = plate spacing. Vw = 1. u = maximum allowable vapour velocity. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 6) Column Diameter. substitute the assumption value .5) Assumption. Souders and Brown Equation. 1) Plate spacing.5 – 1. pv = 1. Dc = 0. uv = 0.9975 √ Assumption.00 m 20 .975 m 1. pl = 909 kg/mL at 25⁰C 3) Vapor density. based on the gross(total) column cross sectional area. m (range 0. 1) Styrene distillate.45m 2) Liquid density. ( ( )[ ] Where. Lowenstein (1961) is used to estimate the allowable superficial vapor velocity and hence the column area and diameter. Vapour flowrate is the principal factor that determines the column diameter.45 kg/mL Therefore.08 Thus.

The feed location is determined using Kirkbride (KI) empirical method. [( )( )( ) ] ( ) [ ] ( ) Ns + Ne = 14. Besides. However.1074Ne = 14. This tray also has holes punched in it and lowest pressure drop. corrosion particularly if large holes is used. Kirkbride has devised an approximate method to estimate the number of theoretical stages above and below the feed which can be used to estimate the feed-stage location.3858 stages 7. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 7) Feed Location. the tray is resilient to solids.3618 stages Therefore. the feed-stage is at stage 12 stages.024 stages Ns = 14. 21 . Ns = number of theoretical stages below the feed plate.1074Ne + Ne = 14. the liquid is retained by vapour upflow. The turndown performance is poor due to weeping (2:1 range).024 = 12.3858 stages Ne = 2.3858 stages 6. The tray used for the distillation column is sieve tray since this is the cheapest design for tray.3858 – 2. Ne = number of theoretical stages above the feed plate.

BFD For Styrene Production Plant 22 . PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Block Flow Diagram (BFD) For Styrene Production HEAT ISOTHERMAL PBR HEAT MIXER EXCHANGERS REACTOR EXCHANGERS DISTILLATION COLUMN 2 DISTILLATION PHASE FLASH TANK COLUMN 1 SEPARATOR DISTILLATION COLUMN 2 Figure 11 .

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Process Flow Diagram (PFD) For Styrene Production 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 E-101 E-102 E-103 E-104 E-105 M-101 M-102 R-101 C-102 20 10 19 E-107 T-102 18 15 11 21 R-102 C-101 17 16 14 13 V-101 E-106 F-101 S-101 T-101 R-101 12 22 C-103 24 23 P-101 E-108 27 25 T-103 R-103 P-102 Figure 12 .PFD For Styrene Production Plant 23 .

P&ID For Styrene Production Plant 24 . P-286 V-34 LIC LT 20 C-102 10 19 26 E-107 TIC TT P-288 15 11 21 T-102 18 RB-102 LIC LT C-101 17 16 14 13 S-43 P-317 V-101 TT E-106 F-101 S-101 T-101 TIC FT FIC TIC FIC TIC TT FT FT FIC RB-101 12 TIC 22 TT LIC LIC LT C-103 24 23 P-101 E-108 27 25 T-103 RB-103 P-102 TIC TT FIC FT Figure 13 .. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) For Styrene Production 1 3 FIC TIC FT TIC TIC FIC FIC FT FT TT TT TT 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 TT TT TT E-101 E-102 E-103 E-104 E-105 M-101 M-102 V-29 TIC TIC TIC R-101 TIC TIC TT .

Pressure and Mass Flow Rate For Styrene Production Plant No of Stream 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Temperature .3 31. Temperature. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Process Equipment Symbols and Numbering Table 11 – Process Equipment Symbols and Numbering Numbering Process Equipment Numbering Process Equipment C-101 Condenser 1 E-105 Dowtherm Cooler C-102 Condenser 2 E-106 Column 1 Feed Heater C-103 Condenser 3 E-107 Column 2 Feed Cooler R-101 Reboiler 1 E-108 Column 3 Feed Cooler R-102 Reboiler 2 R-101 Isothermal PBR Reactor R-103 Reboiler 3 S-101 Phase Separator M-101 Mixer 1 V-101 Flash Tank M-102 Mixer 2 T-101 Distillation Column 1 E-101 Furnace Heater T-102 Distillation Column 2 E-102 Dowtherm Heater T-103 Distillation Column 3 E-103 Molten Salt Heater P-101 Recycle Pump E-104 Molten Salt Cooler P-102 Styrene Pump Table 12 – No of Stream. .5 250 415 600 600 400 20 20 20 20 (⁰C) Pressure . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 40 40 40 (atm) Mass Flow Rate 15.2 23.6 55 55 55 160 160 160 160 48 . . 116. 112 (MT/hr) 25 . . .

56 21.5 (atm) Mass Flow Rate 112 12 100 21.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2.1 110.44 78.44 27 55 27 55 (MT/hr) 26 .6 141.56 6 15 78. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Table 13 – No Of Stream.5 1. Temperature.4 121 136 145 136 145 (⁰C) Pressure 1. Pressure And Mass Flow Rate For Styrene Production Plant No of Stream 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Temperature 20 20 20 98 50 80.5 1.

Plant Layout For Styrene Production 27 . PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Plant Layout Figure 14 .

costs and ease of access and flexibility. Pengerang. rail and sea transport and thus minimizing the overall transportation costs. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 SITE SELECTION Based on the market survey and preliminary feasibility study. 4 = Good . Four sites within Peninsular Malaysia were selected for further consideration : Pasir Gudang. Kerteh and Butterworth. Government assistance is anticipated in order to encourage the development of the state. there are few places have been considered for the site selection. Malaysia. 3 = Moderate . The plant layout is design based on specified safety considerations. 2 = Bad . close proximity to road. Table 14 – Characterization Of The Site Suggestion Site Suggestion No Factors Pasir Gudang Pengerang Kerteh Butterworth (Terengganu) (Penang) 1 Raw materials 5 4 3 3 availability 2 Markets 5 4 3 3 3 Energy Availability 4 4 4 4 4 Climate Conditions 3 3 3 3 5 Transportation facilities 5 4 3 3 6 Water Supply 3 3 4 - 7 Waste Disposal 5 5 5 5 8 Labor Supply 3 3 3 3 9 Taxation and legal 3 3 3 3 restrictions 10 Site characteristics 3 3 3 3 11 Flood and Fire 3 3 3 3 protection 12 Community factors 4 4 4 4 Total 46 43 41 37 1 = Very Bad . 5 = Very Good 28 . Johor. The location was chosen for the existing infrastructure. It is proposed to develop a 80MT/yr styrene plant in Pasir Gudang.

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 1. Kerteh. Johor. Benzene Titan Petchem (M) Sdn. Idemitsu SM (M) Sdn. Ethylene Kerteh. This is because it will reduce the transportation cost and storage sites facilities. 600 000 tonnes per year. Bhd. Titan Petchem (M) Sdn. 220 000 tonnes per year. Terengganu. Johor. Bhd. Terengganu. below are the company that provide the raw material for production of styrene :- Table 15 . Optimal Olefins (M) Sdn. 587 000 tonnes per year. Bhd. Ethylene (M) Sdn.Company That Supply Raw Material for Production of Styrene Raw Material Company Aromatics (M) Sdn. Terengganu. Johor. If large volume of raw material is consumed. 630 000 tonnes per year. Based on the research and information gathering. 29 . it is the best to choose the place for the plant site near the raw materials sources. 188 000 tonnes per year.0 Raw Material Availability The source of raw material is one of the most important factor in selection of a plant site. 400 000 tonnes per year. Bhd. Kerteh. Pasir Gudang. Pasir Gudang. Ethylbenzene Pasir Gudang. Bhd. Bhd.

However. Idemitsu that operate at Pasir Gudang have 120 KMts demand of styrene for production of Polystyrene and Toray that operate at Butterworth.0 Energy Availability All the state has equivalent price for electricity. Johor and Butterworth. Penang were choose as the best from the best for marketing factor.0 Market Figure 15 : Malaysia Styrene Derivative Supply and Demand Pasir Gudang. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 2. It is due to standard price provided by the Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) for the industrial sector. Penang have 107 KMts demand of styrene for production of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). for the company that generate their own electricity by using turbine concepts or other means of generation electricity allowing the reducing of the utilities cost. 3. we decided to choose Pasir Gudang due to the fact that the market is bigger around the plant site area. Thus. There is few companies that highly demand for styrene. Based on statistics in 2013. 30 .

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 4. 5. Table 16 . Thus. it is because Pasir Gudang have three main terminal port compared to Kerteh which only have two and Butterworth only have one. The plant should have better transportation facilities to ease the transportation of the product to the customer and for the utilities. Johor 1) Tanjung Langsat Port 2) Tanjung Pelepas Port 3) Johor Port Kerteh. Terengganu 1) Kertih Port 2) Kuantan Port Butterworth. P.Transportation Facilities for The Particular State State Transportation Facilities Pasir Gudang. Abnormally low temperatures will require the provision of additional insulation and special heating for equipment and pipe runs.0 Climate Conditions Adverse climatic conditions at a site will increase costs.0 Transportation Facilities Transportation is another factor that must be considered for site selection because with transportation is the way for connection. we decided to choose Pasir Gudang as the 1st place for transportation facilities. Pinang 1) North Butterworth Container Terminal (NBCT) 31 . Stronger structures will be needed at locations subject to high winds (cyclone/hurricane) or earthquakes. Pasir Gudang provide a greater choice for transportation and thus allowing to reduce the cost for the transportation. Based on the table.

30/m3 Min. requiring no special handling problems with the chemical. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 6. we still choose Johor due to the fact that the other factors for site selection prefer more towards the state. However. the minimum charge for water supply in Johor is lower compared to Terengganu. An environmental impact assessment should be made for each new project or major modification or addition or an existing process. Charge : RM 30. and full consideration must be given to the difficulties and cost of their disposal.Price for The Particular State State Price Johor (SAJ) Band 1 : 0 – 35m3 @ RM 2.00 Terengganu (SATU) Band 1 : RM 1. However. The steam is used for power to keep the reaction going. Terengganu offers lower price for the water supply. The catalyst used is non toxic and not considered as a hazardous chemical.0 Water Supply Based on the data from the table below. it is decided that no additional waste-treatment facilities is required for the plant. Table 17 . The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents will be covered by local regulations. Charge : RM 50. Terengganu is the best option since the price of the water is the lowest among the other states. whereas water used for the reaction is reusable since it literally inert and not involved directly in the conversion of ethyl benzene to styrene. The production of styrene using catalytic dehydrogenation process produces almost none waste that needs to be dispose. Therefore. 32 . and the appropriate authorities must be consulted during the initial site survey to determine he standards that must be met. Therefore.80/m3 Band 2 : > 35 m3 @ RM 3. the rate per cubic metre for large consumption. Kerteh.15/m3 Min. The toluene and benzene is considered as useful by-product and could be sales for profit other than styrene whereas ethyl benzene left at the end of the process can be recycled back to the feed stream.00 Pulau Pinang (PBA) Not available 7.0 Waste Disposal All industrial processes produce waste products. Thus.

Skilled tradesmen will be needed for plant maintenance. The land should ideally be flat. 9. The location of the fire extinguisher must be easy for the people to see. parks. tax concessions. but there should be an adequate pool of unskilled labour availability locally and labour suitable for training to operate the plant. the plant should have many protection for the fire such as fire extinguisher. In addition to the main plant. Skilled construction workers will usually be brought in from outside the site area. and etc. The plant must build at the place that has low chances to be flooding. and other inducements are often given by governments to direct new investment to preferred locations such as areas of high unemployment. The overriding of such grants can be the overriding considerations in site selection. emergency medical services and places for storage must also be taken into consideration while deciding on a particular site. However. well drained and have suitable load-bearing characteristics. the protection such as flood protection should be considered. It can be measure by studies the topography of the site location.0 Taxation and Legal Restrictions Capital grants.0 Labor Supply Labour will be needed for construction of the plant and its operation.0 Flood and Fire Protection The location should be located nearer the port location. 33 . For the fire protection. we also have to consider the associated services which have to be amalgamated within a particular plant site. Canteens. Local trade union customs and restrictive practices will have to be considered when assessing the availability and suitability of the local labour for recruitment and training. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 8. general utilities. It is because the fire extinguisher can be used easily whenever getting emergency situation. 10. A full site evaluation would be made to determine the need for piling or other special foundations 11.0 Site Characteristics Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed plant and for future expansion.

Full consideration must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it does not impose a significant additional risk to the community. On a new site. the local community must be able to provide adequate facilities for the plant personnel: schools.0 Community Factors The proposed plant must be fit in with and be acceptable to the local community. All of the state or site choosen for the potential site of the styrene plant has considerably enough and complete facilities of their own community. and recreational and cultural facilities. banks. housing. 34 . PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 12.

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 HAZARD AND RISK ASSESSMENT Hazard And Operability Studies (HAZOP) Table 18 – HAZOP For Distillation Columns Study Mode Parameter Deviations Causes Consequences Action required Distillation Columns Flow No  Plugging or blockage in  Loss of feed into  Schedule inspection and do pipeline the distillation maintenance regularly on the  Broken pipeline column pipeline. valve  Low product rate More Of  Valve Failure to closed  Flooding into distillation column Level High Blockage at the output pipe  Overpressure of Install high level alarm reflux drum  Liquid flow back to distillation column Low Pipe particle clogged and Level decreases  Scheduling inspection leakage Backflow of material  Install valve Temperature Low Failure of heat exchanger Will affect the Install temperature alarm sensor production rate High Failure as column 1 feed Off specification  Scheduling inspection heater product  Install temperature sensor 35 .  Valve is closed  Decrease in  Install automatic valve production rate  Clean the pipeline Less Of  Leakage in the pipeline  Backflow of some  Install automatic valve  Less amount of opening feed material  Regular maintenance.

Fault Tree Analysis In Case Of High Temperature Rise To Reactor 36 . PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 HAZARD AND RISK ASSESSMENT Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Figure 16 .

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Material Safety Data Sheet (Styrene) 37 .

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 38 .

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 39 .

PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 40 .

The reactor and the distillation column operate at low pressures (1- 2 atm). The 3-phase separator poses an immediate flame risk since it operates at 40 atm. Arrester elements are recommended to prevent ignition of potential leaks during the high pressure drop. All of the reactor effluent components. The organic liquid split experiences a large pressure drop from the pressure relief valve into the flash tank. However. the reaction is in the vapour phase. Styrene poses a reactivity risk with a rating of two on the safety diamond. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 Safety The reaction feed and effluent are concerns for the safety of the plant design. The 3-phase separator should be placed in an area where no people or processes can be harmed. with the exception of water. so pressure relief valves should be in place to vent in the case of pressure build ups. The ethyl benzene and styrene flow streams pose health and flammability safety risks with a rating of two and three on the safety diamond. Additional fire safety equipment needs to be implemented to prevent a plant fire. are flammable at standard conditions. or within a reinforced concrete enclosure as another layer of safety precaution. 41 .

The most common method for styrene production is catalytic dehydrogenation. which is used in plastics. The team successfully construct Block Flow Diagram (BFD). 42 . and chemical intermediates. The team believed Pasir Gudang . The demands for styrene is indeed very high. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 CONCLUSION Styrene is the precursor for polystyrene. resins. Johor is the best location for the plant. Besides. protective coatings. the construction of the plant provides job opportunities and increase the economy for Malaysia. Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) for the production of styrene. Since the raw material availability and the demands for styrene is high in the area. the team believed styrene would provide a good platform for high profit interest and low capital cost. Therefore. thus the team proceed with the method. Besides. the transportation facilities and community factors also contribute in the decision making for choosing Pasir Gudang. . polyesters.

[9] Omar Syah Jehan Elham. Product Information & Characteristic : Manufacturing and Use. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Transport Process and Separation. July 2016. [12] Styrene Prices.html [7] Omar Syah Jehan Elham. Retrieved on 18 September 2016.pdf&usg=AFQjCNG R_kTetuKMFH0i_MC4eKcDJ2BaRA&sig2=pi_F3x8VZ_eyZrL_B83M_w&bvm=bv. 2014. Retrieved on 27 September 2016. Lecture Notes Chapter 5 Process Control And Instrumentation. https://en.com/essays/engineering/styrene-production-plant. July 2016. Styrene Production From Ethylbenzene.tc. July 2016. ICIS. https://www.3. 23 March 2015.php [2] Christie John Geankoplis. https://www. Styrene (monomer) MSDS. https://www. 4th Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Retrieved on July 2016.styrenemonomer. Lecture Notes Chapter 2 Site Selection. Retrieved on July 2016. UiTM Johor. Lecture Notes Chapter 3 Process Design And Safety.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKE wjgm5OqtLnPAhUaS48KHR9QCdsQFgghMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Equipment Sizing. PLANT DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION OF STYRENE 2016 REFERENCES [1] Styrene Production Plant.com/msdsList. Lecture Notes Chapter 1 Introduction to Process Design. July 2016. Campus Pasir Gudang.ukessays. Market And Analysis. Arno Behr. Campus Pasir Gudang.org/2. http://www. Campus Pasir Gudang. Vapour-Liquid Separation Process. Retrieved on September 2016. [11] Omar Syah Jehan Elham.google. Campus Pasir Gudang. Campus Pasir Gudang. [3] Material Safety Data Sheet Listing.c2I&cad=rjt [5] Styrene.org/wiki/Styrene [6] Styrene Producers Association.13 4495766.bci.de%2FDownloads%2FPraktika%2Ftc30_styrene_english.php [4] Pro. Faculty of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering. Dr. [8] Omar Syah Jehan Elham. Retrieved on July 2016.wikipedia. UiTM Johor. July 2016. UiTM Johor. pg 741 – 752.sciencelab. [10] Omar Syah Jehan Elham.icis. UiTM Johor. UiTM Johor.com/chemicals/styrene/ 43 . Universitat Dortmund.tu- dortmund. http://www.d.