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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

and initial imperfections during construction

Jong-Han Lee

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA

ar ti cl e in fo a bs tra c t

Article history: The instability of precast prestressed concrete bridge girders during construction have been of particular

Received 10 December 2010 concern to bridge engineers. After they are installed on bearing supports, prestressed concrete girders are

Revised 20 January 2012 immediately subjected to environmental thermal loads that may be exacerbated by fabrication and con-

Accepted 8 April 2012

struction errors. Thus, in this research, the environmental thermal loads, which cause extremes in ther-

mal deformations in precast prestressed concrete girders, were determined. Then a three-dimensional

nonlinear nite element sequential analysis procedure was developed to evaluate the behavior of a pre-

Keywords:

cast prestressed concrete girder subjected to both thermal loads and geometry and support imperfections

Precast prestressed concrete

AASHTO-PCI standard girder

during each construction stage. This analysis indicated instability in a 30-m long prestressed concrete BT-

Thermal effects 1600 girder when total lateral deformation in the middle height of the girder at mid-span exceeded about

Elastomeric bearing 25 cm.

Nonlinear nite element 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PCI Bridge and diaphragms.

Manual For the initial

[2] provides sweep of

a tolerance in the

3 mmgirder,

per 3the

m

Since the advent of precast prestressed concrete girders in (1/8 in per 10 ft) of member length. Nevertheless, in practice, this

bridge design and construction, the demand for a more expansive small tolerance value has not been adhered to because of the many

girder span, which would reduce construction costs and improve unexpected conditions that occur during fabrication and handling,

bridge esthetics, has been increasi ng. However, the lengthening as mentioned previously. However, no study that evaluates the lat-

of girders with deeper precast sections and high-strength concrete eral deformation of the girders has been carried out, especially dur-

increases the likelihood that the girders will destabilize. Such fail- ing construction when the girders are subjected to the combined

ure, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 1 , have led to considerable effects of thermal response, initial sweep, and support slope.

apprehension about the behavior of precast prestressed concrete Some relevant initial research was conducted by Mast [3,4],

girders during construction, specically before the addition of the who calculated the stability of a girder suspended from lifting de-

slab and bracing. One investigation into the collapse of the girders, vices and transported on elastic supports. Mast proposed a method

Oesterle et al. [1] indicated that a combination of several factors, based on the ratio of a resisting moment at the support to an over-

including the initial sweep (or lateral deformation), the thermal turning moment induced by the girder sweep and support slope.

sweep, and the support slope, could cause lateral instab ility of The method was adopted in the PCI Bridge Design Manual[2] for

the girders during construction. the evaluation of how safe a girder is from rollover (or overturning)

The initial sweep of the girder occurs during fabrication, ship- during shipping and lifting. However, the manual provided no spe-

ping, and handling. During fabrication, the eccentricity of pre- cic method or guideline that analyzes the lateral stability of the

stressing strands can create an error that leads to unexpected girders placed on elastic bearing supports during construction.

initial sweep in the girder. Then shipping and handling can subject The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specications [5] and the AASHTO

the girder to unaccounted loads or boundary conditions that also LRFD Bridge Construction Specications [6] simply addressed the

affect the initial sweep. When placed on supports that are not level, importance of considering the safety of precast members during

the girder can also experience sweep. In addition, while pre- all construction stages, but they did not provide any specic guide-

stressed concrete girders are resting on a bearing support, thermal lines related to the stability of precast prestressed concrete girders

environmental effects can produce additional sweep that may con- during construction.

tribute to the instability of the girders prior to the placement of a Thus, as an initial study, this research evaluated the behavior of

a precast prestressed concrete girder subjected to the combined ef-

fects of the initial sweep, the thermal response, and the support

Tel.: +1 404 894 2278; fax: +1 404 894 2201.

E-mail address:jonghan.lee@gatech.edu

slope during construction. For the largest vertical and lateral

0141-0296/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.04.003

2 J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18

are outlined in Dufe and Beckman [9].

Variations in the air temperature were calculat ed using the

sinusoidal Kreith and Kreider equation [10]:

1 1

h p i

T air t T max T min T max T min sin t 9 2

2 2 12

Tmax and Tmin are the daily maximum and minimum air tempera-

tures, respectively. In the calculations, the lengths of the 21st of

March, June, September, and December represented the length of

the days in each season.

With the dened seasonal environmental conditions, a two-

dimensional heat transfer analysis was conducted on four AASH-

TO-PCI standard girder sections: Type-I, Type-IV, Type-V, and

BT-1600 [2]. The heat transfer mechanisms involved in this study

Fig. 1. Stability failure of precast prestressed AASHTO Type-V girders during the are heat irradiation from the sun, heat radiation to the surround-

construction of the Red Mountain Freeway in Arizona [1]. ings, heat convection between the surroundings and the concrete

surface, and heat conduction in the concrete. In the calculation of

heat gain from the sun and heat loss to the surroundings, the value

thermal response, the thermal effects of seasonal variations and of solar absorptivity and surface emissivity of concrete was se-

bridge orientations on vertical and lateral thermal gradients were lected to be 0.50 and 0.85, respectively [11]. The thermal conduc-

evaluated for four AASHTO-PCI standard girder sections in Atlanta, tivity and specic heat of concrete, which denes the heat ow

Georgia. For a 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 girder, which within the body of the concrete girder, were taken as 1.50 W/m K

showed the largest vertical and lateral thermal gradients in the and 1000 J/kg K, respectively, based on a previous study on the

summer and the winter, respectively, the behavior of the girder temperature prediction of concrete pavement [12].

subjected to the thermal response, the initial sweep, and the sup- The inuence of changes in the girder orientations on tempera-

port slope was evaluated using three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear ture distributions was also evaluated for eastwest (EW), south

nite element sequential analysis. north (SN), southwestnortheast (SWNE), and southeast

northwest (SENW) orientations. The largest vertical thermal

2. Determination of thermal loads gradients, calculated from the largest temperature difference

between the highest and lowest temperatures along the depth of

The primary environmental parameters causing temperature the sections, were found in the summer and in the EW orienta-

tion. The largest lateral thermal gradie nts across the middle of

variations in bridges are solar radiation, air temperature, and wind the top ange, the web, and the bottom ange were found in the

speed. These environmental values were determined from 30-year

(from 1961 to 1990) monthly averaged daily solar radiation and EW orientation in the winter because of the greater exposure of

climatic data provided by the National Renewable Energy Labora- the vertical surfaces of the girder to the sun in the EW orientation.

tory [7] for Atlanta. To account for seasonal variations in environ- Among the four sections, the deeper and wider Type-V and BT-

mental conditions, this study chose the daily solar radiation values 1600 sections exhibited larger vertical and lateral thermal gradi-

of 21.9, 29.4, 22.4, and 11.9 MJ/m 2 for March, June, September, and ents. The largest vertical thermal gradients in the summer were

December, respectively. The months of March, June, September, 26 C in the Type-V section and 25 C in the BT-1600 section. The

and December were dened as representative months of the largest lateral thermal gradients of the Type-V and BT-1600

spring, summer, fall, and winter. The daily maximum and mini- sections in the winter were about 20 C in the top ange, 15 C

mum air temperatures for each season were determine d from in the web, and 25 C in the bottom ange. Thus, for the BT-1600

the record maximum temperature and the average daily minimum girder in an EW orientation, the thermal loads in this study were

temperature of the 30-year climatic values, respectively, for the determined from the summer and winter environmental condi-

representative months. The average daily minimum temperature tions in Atlanta.

was used rather than the record daily minimum temperature since

it is highly unlikely that the record maximum and minimum tem-

peratures occurred on the same day. However, since wind speed

was minimal on the days when the largest vertical and lateral ther-

mal gradients occurred, this study neglected the effect of wind

speed on girder temperatures.

The temporal variation in the daily solar radiation was calcu-

lated using the Liu and Jordan equation [8]:

p

cos w cos ws

I t H a b cos w 1

24 sin ws ws cos ws

the total daily solar radiation, w the solar hour angle, and ws the

sunrise hour angle; a = 0.409 + 0.5016 sin(ws 1.047), and

b = 0.66090.4767 sin(ws 1.047). For other inclined surfaces of

the girder, irradiation was estimated according to the location and

orientation of the girder, the geometry and shadow of the girder, Fig. 2. Arrangement of the prestressing strands in the BT-1600.

J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18 3

3. 3D nonlinear nite element thermal response analysis With the dened geometry of the bearing pad, the compressive

modulus of bearing pad was calculated using the stress and strain

3.1. 3D nite element model curve given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specications [5].

Since elastomeric bearings become stiffer as strain increases, the

Based on the preliminary design referen ce given in the PCI stiffness of the vertical bearings was dened as a bi-linear relation-

Bridge Design Manual [2], the BT-1600 girder was designed to be ship with one inection point at 0.028 compressive strain. That is,

30 m long with a concrete compressive strength of 48 MPa, girder the compressive modulus of the elastomeric bearing pad, Es, is ini-

spacing of 1.8 m, and 24 low relaxation strands of 12.7 mm in tially 148 MPa up to 0.028 compressive strain, and thereafter in-

diameter. As shown in Fig. 2 , four strands were placed in the top creases to 230 MPa. The vertical stiffness of bearing pad, k, was

ange and twenty strands in the bottom ange. The strands placed then derived as follows:

in the top and bottom anges were each prestressed to 44.5 kN and

Es A

150.4 kN, respectively. k 3

The 30-m long BT-1600 girder was modeled with a total of H

350,400 linear solid elements of approximately 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm in which A is the area of the bearing pad and H the thickness of the

with 5 cm in the longitudinal direction of the girder per element bearing.

in the nite element program Abaqus [13]. The prestressing The vertical bearing stiffness was modeled using a series of non-

strands were modeled using 3D two-node truss elements and de- linear spring elements, which provide restraint only when com-

ned as embedded elements in the solid concrete elements. The pressed. The compressive stiffness of individual springs was

embedded element technique used in this study constrains the calculated using the tributary area of the springs categorized as

translational degrees of freedom of the embedded elements to corner, edge, and center spring elements according to the location

the interpolated values of the corresponding degrees of freedom of the springs within the bearing surface. Fig. 3 shows the force and

of the host solid elements. displacement relationship dened from the calculated compressive

The modulus of elasticity of the concrete used in this study was stiffness, in which k1 represents compressive strain up to 0.028 and

calculated to be 28,500 MPa using the ACI Committee 435 [14] for k2 represents that greater than 0.028. The vertical spring elements

high-strength concrete. Since the maximum tensile stress of con- used to model the bearing pads are illustrated in Fig. 4. The arrows

crete due to thermal effects

p did not exceed the allowable tensile shown in this gure represent the restrained directions at the both

stress of concrete, 0:63 fci, in which fci represents the compressive ends due to the dowel bars located in the middle of the pad.

strength of concrete, the concrete materials used in this thermal

response analysis were modeled to be linear elastic. The coefcient

3.3. Thermal responses

of thermal expansion pertaining to the thermal movement of the

girder was taken as 10.8 10 6/C [5].

The material properties of the 12.7 mm diameter strands were

composed of a static analysis and its subsequent nonlinear thermal

those listed in the PCI Bridge Design Manua . lThe desig n yield

stress analysis. First, the 3D static analysis is performed to intro-

strength of the strands was 1689 MPa. After the yielding of the

duce camber and stresses induced by prestressing forces to the gir-

strands, or 0.0086

was dened yield strain,

to be perfectly the stress

plastic. and strain

The coefcient ofrelationship

the thermal der. The prestressing forces were dened as the initial stress

conditions and applied uniformly along the strand. The values of

expansion of the strands was dened to be the same as that of

the initial stresses, assigned to the top and bottom strands, were

the concrete.

482 MPa and 1578 MPa, respectively, calculated by dividing the

prestressing forces by a nominal area of the strand. The support

boundary condition in this analysis was dened as a simply sup-

3.2. Support conditions

ported condition at the location of the dowel bars. The camber

and stresses obtained from the rst static analysis provide the ini-

Precast prestressed concrete bridge girders are generally sup-

tial conditions for the start of the subsequent thermal stress anal-

ported by steel-reinforced elastomeric bearing pads that provide

ysis. Then the 3D thermal stress analys is employed the girder

vertical support in compression and minimum horizontal resis-

temperatures obtained from heat transfer analysis as sequential

tance to the girder due to friction. According to a recent study on

thermal loads to determine the thermal response of the girder.

the elastomeric bearing stiffness of standard precast prestressed

Since the heat transfer analysis is carried out on a 2D cross-section

concrete girders [15], the vertical stiffne ss calculated from the

of the girder, the temperature distributions are transferred to the

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specication [5]s provided good agree-

ment with that obtained from the nite element analysis. This

study also recommended that the effects of the horizontal bearing

restraint be ignored in the design of AASHTO precast concrete

bridge girders. Thus, the vertical stiffness of the bearing pad was

evaluated using the AASHTO specications. This analysis assumed

that the horizontal stiffness of the bearing pad was zero, but in-

cluded the lateral resistance to the girder, provided by the dowel

bar in the middle of the pad.

The size of the bearing pad for the BT-1600 girder, based on the

Georgia Department of Transportation manual [16], was deter-

mined to be 25 cm long and 50 cm wide. A 7.5 cm diameter hole

in the middle of the pad was also designed for the dowel bar.

The hole of the bearing pad at the other end of the girder was slot-

ted so that the girder could expand longitudinally. Thus, the dowel

bar, located in the middle of the bearing pad, was modeled with

both lateral and longitudinal restraints at the one end and only a

lateral restraint at the other end. Fig. 3. Relationship between the force and displacement of the spring element.

4 J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18

(a) One end of the girder (b) Other end of the girder

Fig. 4. Finite element model with spring elements for elastomeric bearing pads and restrained conditions for dowel bars.

along the length of the girder. The support conditions involved in

this analysis were dened to be elastomeric bearing pad conditions

shown in Fig. 4 . For the purpose of comparison, the analysis in-

cluded boundary conditions that dened the bearing pads as rigid

vertical restraints. The detailed process of the 3D nite element

thermal response analysis is given in the owchart shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 6 shows variations in the vertical and lateral thermal move-

ments at the mid-span of the 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 gir-

der obtained from the 3D thermal response analysis of the

summer and winter environmental conditions in Atlanta. The ini-

tial vertical camber induced by the prestressing strands was

3.28 cm, and it decreased to 0.81 cm due to the self-weight of

the girder. The environmental thermal loads increased the vertical

displacement to 2.67 cm at 3 p.m. in the summer and 1.91 cm at

2 p.m. in the winter under elastomeric bearing pad conditions.

Thus, the total vertical thermal movement was 1.86 cm in the sum-

mer and 1.10 cm in the winter. In the rigid support conditions, the

total vertical thermal movement was 1.07 cm in the summer and

0.46 cm in the winter. In contrast to the vertical thermal move-

ment, lateral thermal movement at mid-span was greater in the

winter due to larger lateral thermal gradients. The lateral thermal

movement was 1.02 cm in the summer and 1.96 cm in the winter.

The support conditions of the elastomeric bearing pads did not af-

fect the lateral thermal movements, and the differences in the lat-

eral movements along the depth of the girder were minimal.

Fig. 5. Flowchart of the 3D nite element thermal response analysis.

Nonlinear thermal strains induced by environmental thermal

loads cause self-equilibrium stresses in the girder due to the strain

difference between the nonlinear thermal strains and the nal

Fig. 6. Variations in the vertical and lateral thermal movements at the mid-span of the 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 girder under elastomeric bearing pad conditions in the

summer and the winter in Atlanta.

J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18 5

linear strains. The BT-1600 girder initially exhibited longitudinal Similarly, lateral thermal movement was calculated using the

compressive stresses of 5723 kPa on the top surface and lateral thermal gradients over the cross-section. However, the lat-

7584 kPa on the bottom surface at mid-span due to prestressing eral thermal gradients vary from the top to the bottom anges, so

forces and self-weight. In the summer, when the largest vertical the lateral curvature of the girder, u x, was obtained from three lat-

thermal gradients occurred, the concrete longitudinal compressive eral thermal gradients in the middle of the top ange, the web, and

stresses increased to 7791 kPa (by 36%) on the top surface and the bottom ange:

9170 kPa (by 21%) on the bottom surface. In the winter, the com- X R E a

pressive stresses on the top and bottom surfaces only slightly DT x hx xdx

i

ux 6

changed due to the smallest vertical thermal gradients. However, E Iy

the middle of the web showed higher longitudinal compressive

stresses due to larger thermal gradients in the web in the winter. in which DT( x) is the lateral thermal gradient at width x , h( x) the

The tensile stresses of the top and bottom strands only slightly depth of the girder, Iy the moment of inertia of the cross-section

changed (increased by less than 41 MPa) due to environmental with respect to the weak y-axis, and i (=1,2,3) the lateral thermal

thermal effects. gradients of the top ange, the web, and the bottom ange of the

girder, respectively.

4. Beam model for the calculation of thermal deformations

4.2. Comparison of the beam model with the 3D nite element analysis

4.1. Development of the beam model

For the BT-1600 girder, which showed the largest vertical and

Thermal strain distributions induced by environmental thermal lateral thermal gradients among the four AASHTO-PCI standard

effects are nonlinear. Because of the nonlinear thermal gradients in girder sections, this study calculated the vertical and lateral

the girders, their thermal movements are basically calculated using thermal movements in the summer and winter environmental

3D numerical analysis. Thus, based on beam theory, this study de- conditions in Atlanta using the proposed model. The length of

rived an analytical method that could calculate the vertical and the BT-1600 girder was 30 m, and the material properties of con-

thermal deformations from the nonlinear thermal gradients. crete were the same as used previously.

Fig. 7 illustrates vertical strain distributions along the depth of a The vertical and lateral thermal movements calculated using

prestressed concrete girder section caused by a nonlinear vertical the beam model were compared with those obtaine d from the

thermal gradient. The unrestrained plane section tends to expand 3D nite element thermal stress analysis for simply supported

in accordance with the vertical thermal gradient shown in boundary conditions. Fig. 8 shows that the thermal movements

Fig. 7 b. However, according to the NavierBernoulli hypothesis, calculated from the beam model correlate well with those obtained

the nal strain prole is linear, illustrated in Fig. 7 c. Thus, the ver- from the 3D nite element analysis. Differences between the max-

tical thermal deformation can be obtained by integrating the cur- imum vertical and lateral thermal movements of the beam model

vature, uy, over the length of the girder. For a simple span, the and those of the 3D nite element analysis were less than 0.08 cm

vertical deformation at mid-span, d y, is (5.3%).

dy 4

8

AASHTO-PCI standard girders

in which L is the length of the girder. The curvature of the girder can

be calculated using the following equation: The beam model was further used to propose simple equations

R E a that are capable of calculating the vertical and lateral thermal

DT y wy ydy

u 5 movements with the design span of precast prestressed concrete

E Ix

bridge girders. For the four AASHTO-PCI standard girder sections,

in which DT( y) is the vertical thermal gradient at depth y, w( y) the Type-I, Type-IV, Type-V, and BT-1600 sections,Table 1 summarizes

width of the section, Ethe concrete modulus of elasticity, a the coef- the equations in terms of the span length of the girder. The equa-

cient of thermal expansion of concrete, and Ix the moment of iner- tions can be used to calculate the maximum vertical and lateral

tia of the cross-section with respect to the strong x-axis. thermal movements of the girders located in Atlanta. The thermal

Fig. 7. Strain distributions induced by a nonlinear vertical thermal gradient in a simply supported prestressed concrete girder section.

6 J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18

Fig. 8. Comparisons of the vertical and lateral thermal movements calculated using the beam model with those obtained from the 3D nite element analysis.

Table 1

5

Maximum vertical and lateral thermal movements of the four AASHTO-PCI standard girder sections in the summer and the winter (Units: 2.73 10

m).

a

AASHTO-PCI standard sections Max. vertical movement Max. lateral movement a Max. span (m) [2]

Summer Winter Summer Winter

Type-I 117 L2 71L2 53L2 63L2 15

Type-IV 39 L2 23L2 123L2 153L2 37

Type-V 59 L2 26L2 40L2 82L2 44

BT-1600 55 L2 20L2 40L2 83L2 40

a

L is the span of the girder in meters.

that yield the largest vertical and lateral thermal movements,

respectively.

Since the behavior of the girders mainly depends on the mo-

ment of inertia of the cross-section, the Type-I section, which has

the smallest moment of inertia with respect to the strong x-axis,

has the largest vertical thermal movement. For a Type-I girder de-

signed to be a maximum span of 15 m, the maximum vertical ther-

mal movement was calculated to be 0.71 cm in the summer in

Atlanta. The largest lateral thermal movements occurred in the

Type-V and BT-1600 sections, which have the largest lateral ther-

mal gradients and a small amount of moment of inertia with re-

spect to the weak y-axis.

thermal effects with geometry and support imperfections

tion and construction errors to affect the behavior of precast pre-

stressed concrete girders during construction, especially prior to

the placement of cross bracing and the deck slab. This study found

that the main imperfection was initial lateral deformation in the

girder at mid-span and the bearing slope in the lateral direction.

To analyze the combined effects of the initial sweep, the bearing

support slope, and thermal loads on the prestressed concrete gir-

der, a 3D nonlinear nite element sequential analysis procedure

was developed which could update the geometry and stresses of

the girder during each construction state. The owchart of the

sequential analysis procedure is depicted in Fig. 9 .

The rst static analysis shown in Fig. 9 was performed to gener-

ate the sweep in the girder and camber and stresses due to pre-

Fig. 9. Flowchart of the 3D nonlinear nite element sequential analysis.

stressing forces. As mentioned previously, the camber and

stresses are obtained from prestressing forces, dened as the initial

stress conditions. The shape of the initial sweep, dened in the rst with the self-weight of the girder applying to the lateral direction.

static analysis, is obtained from another previous static analysis The magnitude of the initial sweep is specied by scaling the

J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18 7

maximum lateral deformation obtained from the static analysis to The initial evaluation of the support slope on the behavior of the

a target sweep value. Since the sweep and the camber occur prior prestressed BT-1600 girder was conducted with no initial sweep.

to the placement of the girder on the bearing supports, the support The support slopes chosen for this study were 0 , 2.5 , and 5 .

boundary condition in this rst static analysis was assumed to be a The angle of 0 represents a perfectly at condition between the

simply supported condition. girder and the supports. The maximum value of the support slope

The initial sweep in the girder and the camber and stresses in- of 5 was chosen based on the maximum measured support slope

duced by prestressing forces are employed to update the geometry of 0.0079 rad. (4.5 ) on the collapsed girders in Arizona [1].

and stress states of the girder for the next analysis. Then the slope For a support slope of 5 at both ends of the girder, this study

of the bearing support is produced by applying displacement examined the vertical and lateral responses of the prestressed

boundary conditions corresponding to the support slope to the up- BT-1600 girder with increases in initial sweep at 3, 6, 9, 11, and

graded 3D nite element model. Since the support slope is a stress- 13 cm. The initial sweep of 3 cm was the sweep tolerance of

free behavior, the stress states in the concrete and prestressing 3 mm per 3 m length of prestressed concrete beam provided in

strands are the same as those dened in the rst static analysis. the PCI Bridge Design Manual [2].

Finally, the prestressed concrete girder updated from the previ-

ous analysesthe rst static analysis for the initial sweep of the 5.3. Vertical behavior of the prestressed concrete girder

girder and the effects of prestressing forces and the second static

analysis for the support slope of the girderprovides a reference

For the geometrically perfect structure, or the 30-m long BT-

conguration of the next 3D nonlinear nite element analysis. 1600 girder with no initial sweep, Fig. 10 a shows variations in

The self-weight of the girder and the thermal loads obtained from the vertical movements due to thermal loads and self-weight for

the 2D heat transfer analysis are applied to assess the behavior of

the support slope of 0 , 2.5 , and 5 . Fig. 10b shows the variations

the prestressed concrete girder during construction. This analysis

in the vertical movements of the girder with increases in the initial

accounted for the nonlinearity of the geometry and the nonlinear sweep from 3 cm to 13 cm with a constant 5 support slope. From

behavior of the elastomeric bearing pads. Fig. 10, we can see that the girder, after being installed on the bear-

ing supports, underwent slight increases in vertical movement

5.2. Structural analyses with the support slope and the initial sweep

with increases in the support slope or the initial sweep. In partic-

ular, for the initial sweep of 11 and 13 cm, the 3D nonlinear nite

Since the stability of prestressed concrete girders during con- element analysis stopped at 2 p.m. and at 10 a.m., respectively, as

struction mainly depends on their lateral behavior, the thermal shown in Fig. 10b. The failure of this numerical analysis was due

load involved in this 3D sequential nonlinear analysis was based to the larger increases in lateral movements with increases in the

on the winter environmental conditions showing the largest lateral initial sweep in the sloped girder. The lateral behavior of the girder

thermal gradients in Atlanta. Among the four AASHTO-PCI sections, with increases in the initial sweep and support slope will be dis-

this study selected the 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 girder. cussed below.

Fig. 10. Variations in the vertical movements of the 30-m long BT-1600 girder at Fig. 11. Variations in the lateral movements at the mid-height of the 30-m long BT-

mid-span with increases in (a) support slope with no initial sweep and (b) initial 1600 girder web at mid-span with increases in (a) support slope with no initial

sweep for a 5 support slope. sweep and (b) initial sweep for a 5 support slope.

8 J.-H. Lee / Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 18

5.4. Lateral behavior of the prestressed concrete girder In the following analysis, to combine thermal effects with fabri-

cation and construction errors, this study developed a 3D nite ele-

For the lateral behavior of the 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 ment sequential nonlinear analysis procedure that accounted for

girder during construction, Fig. 11 exhibit variations in the lateral the changes in the geometry and stress states of the girder. This

movements at the middle height of the girder web with increases analysis included the nonlinear behavior of the girder and the elas-

in the support slope and the initial sweep. Increases in the support tomeric bearing pads. The analyses indicated possible instability in

slope with no initial sweep, illustrated in Fig. 11 a, only slightly the 30-m BT-1600 girder when lateral deformations due to the

changed the lateral deformations due to the combination of ther- combination of thermal effects, the initial sweep, and the support

mal effects and self-weight, as was found in the vertical behavior slope exceeded about 25 cm at the middle height of the girder,

of the girder. However, with increases in the initial sweep for a close to the centroid of the girder cross-section.

constant support slope of 5 , Fig. 11 b reveals increases in the lat- In addition, this study proposed a beam model to calculate envi-

eral movements at the middle height of the web at mid-span. For ronmentally-induced vertical and lateral thermal deformations for

the 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 girder with an initial sweep simply supported girders. The vertical deformation is based on a

of 11 and 13 cm, the lateral movements were about 12 cm imme- vertical thermal gradient along the depth of the cross-section,

diately after the girder was installed on the sloped bearing support. and because the lateral thermal gradients vary from the top to

The combined thermal effects then increased the lateral move- the bottom anges, the lateral deformation is dened from three

ments, including the initial sweep of 11 cm and 13 cm, to lateral temperature gradients of the middle of the top ange, the

25.7 cm at 1 p.m. and 25.9 cm at 9 a.m., respectively, at the middle web, and the bottom ange. A comparison showed that the vertical

height of the girder web at mid-span, shown in Fig. 11b. After that, and lateral movements of the beam were within 0.08 cm (6%) of

as mentioned previously, the 3D nite element analyses halted due those determined by the 3D nite element analysis. Furthermore,

to error messages of largest increment of displacement in the lat- this study proposed simple equations for calculating the maximum

eral direction at the top ange of the girde r at mid-span and vertical and lateral thermal movements in terms of the span length

excessive distortion in solid concrete elements . According to of the girders for simply supported four AASHTO-PCI standard

the messages, the failure of this numerical solution to converge girders located in Atlanta: Type-I, Type-IV, Type-V, and BT-1600

is an indication of instability in the structure due to the large in- girders.

crease in lateral deformations. To provide more generalized conclusions on the lateral behavior

of precast prestressed concrete girders, including the initial sweep

and the support slope during conduction, the development of the

6. Conclusions and discussions 3D and simplied models should include more girders under vari-

ous environmental conditions.

Using the 3D nonlinear nite element analysis, this initial study

evaluated the behavior of a precast prestressed concrete bridge gir- References

der during construction, particularly before the placement of the

slab deck and bracing. This analysis included initial sweep in the [1] Oesterle RG, Sheehan MJ, Lot HR, Corley WG, Roller JJ. Investigation of red

girder and the slope of the support, which occur during fabrication, mountain freeway bridge girder collapse. CTL Group Project No. 262291. CTL

handling, and construction, and environmental thermal loads to Group, Skokie, IL; 2007.

[2] Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. PCI bridge design manual. PCI, Chicago,

the girders immediately after resting on bearing supports. IL; 2003.

To determine thermal loads, this study rst evaluated vertical [3] Mast RF. Lateral stability of long prestressed concrete beams Part 1. PCI J

1989;34(1):3453.

and lateral thermal gradients using seasonal variations in environ- [4] Mast RF. Lateral stability of long prestressed concrete beams Part 2. PCI J

mental conditions from 30-year (from 1961 to 1990) monthly daily 1993;34(1):3453.

climatic values for Atlanta. The study then examined the inuence [5] American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials. AASHTO

LRFD bridge design specications: 2008 interim revision. AASHTO,

of girder orientations on the thermal gradients for four AASHTO-

Washington, DC; 2007.

PCI standard girder sections. The maximum vertical thermal gradi- [6] American Association of State Highway and Transportation Ofcials. AASHTO

ents were found in the summer in an eastwest orientation, and bridge construction specications: 2006 and 2007 interim revisions. AASHTO,

the maximum lateral thermal gradients were found in the winter Washington, DC; 2004.

[7] National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Solar radiation manual for at-plate

in an eastwest orientation. Among the four AASHTO-PCI sections, and concentrating collectors. NREL, Golden, CO; 1994.

the deeper and wider Type-V and BT-1600 sections exhibited the [8] Liu BYH, Jordan RC. The interrelationship and characteristic distribu tion of

largest vertical and lateral thermal gradients. Thus, the thermal direct, diffuse, and total solar radiation. Sol Energy 1960;4(1):119.

[9] Dufe JA, Beckman WA. Solar engineering of thermal processes. John Wiley &

loads involved in this study were determined from the summer Sons; 1960.

and winter environmental conditions for Atlanta. [10] Kreith F, Kreider JF. Principles of solar engineering. Macmillan Company; 1978.

For a 30-m long prestressed BT-1600 girder, the 3D nite ele- [11] Jeong JH, Zollinger DG. Finite element modeling and calibration of temperature

prediction of hydrating Portland cement concrete pavements. J Mater Civil Eng

ment thermal response analysis was performed which consisted 2006;18(3):31724.

of two sequential analyses: A 3D static analysis with a simply sup- [12] Branco FA, Mendes PA. Thermal actions for concrete bridge design. J Struct Eng

ported boundary condition and a 3D thermal stress analysis with 1993;199(9):231331.

[13] Abaqus. Dassault Systems Simulia, Providence, RI; 2008.

elastomeric bearing pads. The bearing pads were modeled as non- [14] ACI Committee 435. Control of deection in concrete structures. ACI

linearResults

springsofwith Committee

N, Report, Farmington

Cai CS. Hills, MI; 1995.

pads. the the effective

analyses vertical

showed stiffness ofinthe

no instability thebearing

girder [15] Yazdani Eddy SM, Validation of AASHTO bearing stiffness for

standard precast concrete bridge girders. ACI Struct J 2000;97(3):43643.

due to the combined effects of self-weight and thermal loads with-

[16] Georgia Department of Transportation. GDOT bridge and structures design

out any initial sweep or support rotation. policy manual: revised July 2009. GDOT, Atlanta, GA; 2005.

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