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COMBAT AIR PATROL

Leader can change CAP parameters according to the situation.

Radar CAP procedures :


Cap point is the center point of FAOR (fighter area of responsibility). Hot
leg starts with turn and ends in the cap point and it is flown to the direction
of threat. Each leg is 20NM long. Speed is 0.8 M. CAP level should be as
high as possible so that more range for the active weapons and fuel
economy can be established. To enable discrimination cold leg should be
+- 1000ft to the hot leg.

X BULLSEYE
CAP

GCI/FIGHTER COORDINATION
There is no any document used in this subject i ll talk about my experiences
that i live everyday.
Now lets have a look at main subjects of fighter GCI (ground controlled
intercept-or AWACS in F4).
Friend or foe identification
Types of controls and their advantages
Coordination between fighters
Weapon deployment
Terminology coordination
IDENTIFICATION
In modern fights fratricide (friendly kill) is no more acceptable thus
identification friend or foe has vital importance. As BVR weapons are
getting more and more used everyday identification becomes a subject
which is dependent on tecnology. But to decrease fratricide possiblity still
depends on training and good knowledge of systems and tactics.
If we know the tactical scenery and air space procedures as a leader and
flight number it is possible for us to give good decisions. For example if the
level of threat is low than unknown echoes on scope can not be identified
as enemy directly but on the other hand if the threat level is high then
unknown echoes will be directly identified as enemy.

TYPES OF CONTROLS AND THER ADVANTAGES


In the time of operations the density of air space makes loose control
(target information according to bullseye) has more advantages. First
advantage is loose control enables all friendly A/C to have the information
same time thus having more time on the frequency. Also increasing SA and
threat analysis can be made easier increasing total offense efficiency.
Using bullseye also helps terminolgy coordination. To have efficient loose
control capability pilots should be well trained on the usage of bullseye.

In tactical control given traffic or enemy information only helps the


element that controller is calling. For the other elements in the frequency it
only increases chatter on the radio. But in the operations area all friendly
A/C should be aware of each other. A fighter on CAP needs the
information of all A/C when he turns to the hot leg. But using tactical
control it is nearly impossible for the controller to give this information to
all friendly A/C. Especially in crowded package flights tactical control is
not a good way because elements might be waiting on different points in
the area and using tactical control can not give information to all A/C the
same time causing element support to be lost, causing identification
problems and causing mission effectiveness to be lost. As a result thinking
all the A/C in th channel less information will be given using more time on
radio.
Although these negative effect, it can be life surviving against threats
in close range that are not seen by friendly A/C. As there is probabilty that
awacs mode be more useful for controllers the pilots of F4AF should be
getting ready to fight by the help of controllers and to do this pilots should
know types of control and terminology more.

COORDINATION BETWEEN FIGHTERS

Coordination between GCI(AWACS) and fighters is also included in


this subject. GCI controllers should have a good knowledge about the tactic
that fighters can use and this will also help increasing the coordination
between fighters.
In a FAOR if one of the fighters is closer to the threat the that fighter
should deploy weapons first protecting friendly A/C behind giving time to
them to prepeare for the engagement and also making enemy follow him
and not attack the package behind. If enemy skips first A/C and enters
inside the package this will increase the danger of fratricide possibility. In
case of such thing GCI should not let skipped fighters to follow enemy
inside the package and make them leave engagement and make other
escort intercept the enemy.

WEAPON DEPLOYMENT

The main subject that effects our decision about the usage of the
tactics is the weapons we have and enemy has. If the type of the enemy
A/C is not known and its weapons is not known the best way is to think the
worst and decide on the tactic according to this. For example if the weapon
range of enemy is greater than it will not be wise to go to enemy head on
but instead going to the enemy from sides is wiser . Also if friendly fighters
do not have any radar contact then creating this geometry is the
responsibility of controller. When the enemy is closer to its weapon range
controller should warn friendly fighter to take enemy to side or retreat the
area. Never forget that surviving is our other mission ;).
In an engagement the most important source is the controller about
the type of the incoming enemy A/C. By speeds, levels, and other
informations that he has he can identify A/C. By giving these information
about enemy controller helps pilot to choose the correct tactic which will
lead to success in engagement.

TERMINOLOGY

One of the most important subject is the terminology. Terminology


means abbreviations that means the same to everybody like bullseye which
creates an image in our mind. f there were no terminology we had to say
according to reference point which consists 4 words killing time on
radio. But one word bulls or bullseye does the same thing with great
effectiveness. ncreasing coordination of everybody, decreasing
meaningless chatter on radio.

SAFE FLIGHTS