You are on page 1of 10



Quality Education for a Better Mindanao
A. Bonifacio Avenue, Tibanga, 9200 Iligan City Philippines +


GS-122 (Material Science Measurements)

Laboratory Report


Submitted by:

Cyril Joy P. Guerra

Submitted to:

Engr. Myra Cabatingan


Geology is the study of the Earth, and this doesnt include only the surface of the Earth but

ultimately, it is the study of rocks. Rocks are defined as a natural aggregate of minerals,

mineraloids or rock fragments. Rocks are classified according to how they formed. Rock

formation cannot be seen through the naked eye since it is a lengthy process which can take

centuries. Thats why, we rely on rocks observable clues to infer their formations. Two clues

that indicate a rocks formation are its composition and texture.

Composition refers to what comprises the rock. One property that provides us with a clue

to a rocks composition is its color. Fragments of other rocks, fossils, and identifiable mineral

grains are also aspects of composition. Texture is a description of the rock material. It includes

characteristics such as crystal size and shape, number of different grain sizes, and alignment of


These are the three major groups of rocks. All rocks are classified in one of these categories.

Igneous rocks form when magma is cooled and crystallized either at the Earth's surface or

within its crust. Sedimentary rocks form when some eroded particles of other rocks are

deposited on different coastal areas (on the ocean floor, stream/lake beds) and are compacted

or by the precipitation of minerals or mineraloids from water. Metamorphic rocks are formed

when existing rocks have undergone pressure and / or temperature changes so that their original

mineralogy has been changed.

Each of these rock groups contains many different types of rock, and each can be identified

from its physical features. Being able to describe and name rocks is one of the fundamental

skills of a geologist. Important information regarding the nature of rocks is communicated

through concise, accurate descriptions. This information allows the geologist to identify the
rock, and, in the process, to learn about its history and the geological environment in which it

was formed.

A knowledge of field relationships between different rock units is fundamental to the study

of rocks. It is gained from mapping and observing rocks in the field. In depth analysis of rocks

using a microscope or sophisticated analytical laboratory equipment provides important

information on their composition. In between these extremes is the observation and description

of hand specimens. The term hand specimen refers to an easily manageable piece of rock that

can be picked up and easily transported back to the geologist's base for further investigation.

This activity is inquiry-based and assumes no prior knowledge of students in rock

identification. This is to be used as an introduction to using observation of physical

properties to identify rocks. One of the importance of this activity is it allows students

observe the various physical properties of common rock forming minerals. Second, is it lets

students utilize the combination of physical properties to determine the proper

identification and chemical composition of rocks. Third, is it helps students to understand

that different minerals make up rocks using the rock identification key.

Training students to identify or comprehend what rocks are comprised of through

specific techniques in the laboratory is one of the importance and goals of this subject since

rock formation is something we cant witness with our naked eye.


Identifying rocks is a systematic process which requires concise and accurate

descriptions of physical characteristics. The process of identifying rocks is called petrography.

Geologists use petrographic descriptions to communicate the essential features of rocks in

writing. Petrographic descriptions also summarize these characteristics for future reference.

They should contain sufficient information to allow the identification of the rock.

Systematic petrographic descriptions, as the name suggests, should follow a systematic

pattern detailing the necessary information in a set order. Geologists need to be able to

determine the physical properties of rocks based on observations and simple tests that can be

conducted in the field.

Before you start, you'll need a rock sample in your hands. To begin using the rock

identification key:

1. Record the rock's sample number on your table.

2. Describe the texture and color or composition of your sample.

3. To test the rocks reaction to acid, pour HCl (dropwise or as many as needed) to the rock

sample. The rock sample will either fizz or will not react to the diluted hydrochloric acid


4. Record the results and with the use of the rock identification key, identify the rock and

also, know its parent rock, texture, sediments and other observtions.

5. Fill in the tables provided.

Rock Sample # Reaction to acid Rock Name Type of Rock

1 No reaction Clay stone Sedimentary

2 No reaction Andesite Igneous

3 No reaction Schist Metamorphic

4 No reaction Mud stone Sedimentary

5 No reaction Conglomerate Sedimentary

6 No reaction Amphibolite Metamorphic

7 No reaction Andesite Igneous

8 No reaction Slate Metamorphic

9 No reaction Granite Igneous

10 No reaction Quartzite Metamorphic

11 No reaction Schist Metamorphic

12 No reaction Conglomerate Sedimentary

13 No reaction Basalt Igneous

14 No reaction Quartzite Metamorphic

15 No reaction Sandstone Sedimentary

16 Bubbles formed Gabbro Igneous

17 Bubbles formed Marble Metamorphic

18 No reaction Basalt Igneous

19 No reaction Mudstone Sedimentary

20 Bubbles formed Limestone Sedimentary

21 No reaction Sandstone Sedimentary

22 No reaction Gneiss Metamorphic

23 Bubbles formed Marble Metamorphic

24 Bubbles formed Limestone Sedimentary

25 No reaction Gneiss Metamorphic

26 No reaction Conglomerate Sedimentary

27 Bubbles formed Conglomerate Sedimentary

28 Bubbles formed Conglomerate Sedimentary

29 No reaction Schist Metamorphic

30 No reaction Sand stone Sedimentary

31 No reaction Mud stone Sedimentary

32 No reaction Basalt Igneous

33 No reaction Granite Igneous

34 Bubbles formed Coquina Sedimentary

35 No reaction Shale Sedimentary

36 Bubbles formed Marble Metamorphic

37 Bubbles formed Chalk Sedimentary

38 Bubbles formed Marble Metamorphic



The different properties identified using the different apparatus the given instructions

provided help students identify the rock sample. As mentioned in the procedure above, the

collector needs to be careful about depending too much on any one or two properties. Finally,

while the rock identification key should help the collector correctly identify many rocks, it

wont work all the time. This activity serves as a conclusion to the rocks and minerals, because

they are using skills and resources they have learned, to identify the different rocks and

minerals. This will also help prepare the students for the next laboratory activities.

Rocks are seen and found in uncommon forms. Rock origins of most rocks cannot be

observed because they form at the depth within the earth or in the past before people existed.

To explain their origin, we draw analogies that we can observe. Now, we have knowledge to

identify and cause measure about such field. We are now, able to identify different types of

rocks whether sedimentary, metamorphic or igneous and different types of mass movement

activities, its cause and nature. There is always the chance that a collector will find something

that isnt even covered by rock identification key. The trick is to do your best at each stage of

the discovery process. Finally, this laboratory report helped us obtain results as cited in the

graphs above which we believe are accurate.