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UNIT VI

OINTMENTS
V.MANIMARAN
LECTURER
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS
SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
OINTMENTS
OINTMENTS ARE SEMISOLID
DOSAGE FORMS INTENDED FOR
EXTERNAL APPLICATION TO
SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANE
. EITHER MEDICATED
OR NON MEDICATED
.MEDICATED
EITHER DISSOLVED OR
DISPERSED IN A VEHICLE AS
FINE POWDER e.g STEROIDS.
. UNMEDICATED
UNMEDICATED OINTMENTS
ARE USED FOR PHYSICAL
EFFECTS SUCH AS
PROTECTANTS or LUBRICANTS
. OINTMENT BASES
OINTMENT BASES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO
FOUR GENERAL GROUPS.
. OLEAGINOUS BASES.
. ABSORPTION BASES.
. WATER-REMOVABLE
BASES.
. WATER-SOLUBLE
BASES.
OLEAGINOUS BASES
(HYDROCARBON BASES)

. ON APPLICATION TO SKIN THEY


HAVE AN EMOLLIENT EFFECT.
. PROTECT AGAINST ESCAPE OF
MOISTURE.
. THEY ARE EFFECTIVE AS
OCCLUSIVE DRESSINGS.
. IMMISCIBLE WITH WATER
AND DIFFICULT TO WASH
OFF.
. THEY CAN REMAIN ON SKIN FOR
LONGER PERIODS WITHOUT DRYING
OUT.
. WATER AND AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
IN SMALL AMOUNTS CAN BE
INCORPORATED WITH SMALL
DIFFICULTY.
. WHEN POWDERED SUBSTANCES
ARE TO BE INCORRPORATED
LIQUID PETROLATUM IS USED AS
LEVIGATING AGENT.
. THEY INCLUDE:
. PETROLATUM

. WHITE PETROLATUM
. YELLOW OINTMENT
. WHITE OINTMENT
ABSORPTION BASES
. TWO TYPES
. THOSE THAT PERMIT
INCORPORATION OF AQUEOUS
SOLUTIONS RESULTING IN
FORMATION OF W/O EMULSIONS
. THOSE THAT ARE ALREADY W/O
EMULSIONS AND PERMIT
INCORPORATION OF ADDITIONAL
QUANTITY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION
PROPERTIES OF
ABSORPTION BASES
. THESE BASES MAY BE USED AS
. THEY DO NOT PROVIDE DEGREE OF
EMOLLIENT

. THESE BASES ARE NOT EASY TO


OCCLUSION

REMOVE FROM SKIN SINCE THE


EXTERNAL PHASE OF EMULSION IS
OLEAGINOUS
. DIFFICULT TO WATER WASHING
. THEY PERMIT INCORPORATION OF
AQUEOUS SOLUTION RESULTING IN
FORMATION OF W/O EMULSION.

. THOSE THAT ARE ALREADY W/O


EMULSION,THEY PERMIT SMALL
QUANTITIES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION
TO BE INCORPORATED.

. THEY FORM A GREASY FILM ON SKIN


SURFACE
. THEY INCLUDE:
. LANOLIN
. ANHYDROUS LANOLIN
. COLD CREAM
WATER REMOVABLE BASES
. (EMULSIFYING BASES)
THEY ARE OIL IN WATER EMULSIONS
HAVING AN EMULSIFIER WHICH
MAKES THEM READILY MISCIBLE
WITH WATER.
. THEY MAY BE DILUTED WITH
WATER OR AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS.
. BECAUSE OF THEIR SURFACE ACTIVE
PROPERTY THEY FACILITATE
CONTACT b/w SKIN AND
MEDICAMENT
. READILY WATER WASHABLE
. THEY INCLUDE:
. HYDROPHILLIC OINTMENTS
. VANISHING CREAMS
WATER SOLUBLE BASES
(GREASELESS BASES)
.UNLIKE OTHER BASES THEY CONTAIN
ONLY WATER SOLUBLE COMPONENTS
. THEY ARE COMPLETELY WATER
WASHABLE
.AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS CAN NOT BE
INCORPORATED EFFICIENTLY BECAUS
THEY SOFTEN GREATLY WITH WATER
ADDITION
. THEY MOSTLY ARE USED FOR
INCORPORATION OF SOLID

.
SUBSTANCES
THESE BASES ARE USED FOR LOCAL
ANAETHETICS AND ARE USED WHEN
EASY WASHING FROM SKIN IS
REQUIRED
. THEY INCLUDE:
. PEG OINTMENT
SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE BASE
. DEPENDS UPON PURPOSE FOR WHICH OINTNENT IS
GOING TO BE APPLIED

. DESIRED RELEASE OF DRUG


SUBSTANCE FROM OINTMENT BASE
. DESIRABILITY OF TOPICAL
. DESRABILITY OF OCCLUSION OF
ABSORPTION

MOISTURE FROM SKIN


. STABILITY OF DRUG IN OINTMENT
. DESIRABILITY OF SURFACE TO
BASE

WHICH IT IS TO BE APPLIED
. EQUALLY EFFICIENT ON DRY AND OILY
. SHOULD HAVE A SUITABLE PH
SKIN

.NO DEHYDRATING EFFECT


. NON IRRITANT AND NON
.COMPATIBLE WITH A LARGE NUMBER
SENSITISING

. MISCIBLE WITH SKIN SECRETIONS AND


OF DRUGS

EXCRETIONS e.g SEBUM ,SWEAT etc


.TWO GENERAL METHODS DEPENDING PRIMARILY
ON NATURE OF INGREDIENTS AND PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES OF CONSTITUENS OF BASE

. INCORPORATION
. FUSION
INCORPORRATION

INCORPORATION OF SOLIDS

INCORPORATION OF LIQUIDS
INCORPORATION
. (INCORPORATION OF SOLID)
THE COMPONENTS ARE MIXED UNTIL A UNIFORM

.
PREPARATION IS ATTAINED
ON SMALL SCALE AS IN EXTEMPORANEOUS
COMPOUNDING THE COMPONENTS ARE MIXED USNG
PESTLE AND MORTAR OR SPATULA MAY BE USED TO RUB
INGREDIENTS ON AN OINTMENT SLAB

. MEDICAMENT IS MIXED WITH SMALL AMOUNT OF BASE


AND REMAINDER IS MIXED GRADUALLY AND
TRITURATED CONTINEOUSLY

. IF MATERIAL TO BE INCORPORATED IS SOLID THEN FIRST


SOLID IS TRITURATED TO FINE POWDER AND THEN
SHOULD BE INCORPORATED
. IT IS OFTEN DESIRABLE TO REDUCE PARTICLE SIZE OF
CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL SO THAT FINAL PRODUCT WILL

. NOT BE GRITTY
THIS IS DONE BY LEVIGATING OR MIXING SUBSTANCE IN
A VEHICLE IN WHICH IT IS INSOLUBLE SO THAT A

.
SMOOTH DISPERSION IS FORMED
LEVIGATING AGENT SHOULD BE IN EQUAL VOLUME

.
TO SOLID MATERIAL
IF MATERIAL TO BE INCORPORATED IS SOLUBLE IN
ONE OF INGREDIENTS OF BASE ,FIRST DISSOLVE IN

.
THAT INGREDIENT AND THEN INCORPORATE
TWIN-ROLLER MILLS ARE AVAILABLE FOR
PREPARATION OF SMALL QUANTITIES OF OINTMENTS

. BY HAND
IF INGREDIENTS OF OINTMENTS ARE REACTIVE WITH
STAINLESS STEAL SPATULA(AS DOES IODINE FOR
EXAMPLE)HARD RUBBER SPATULA MAY BE USED
INCORPORATION
. (INCORPORATION OF LIQUID)
LIQUIDS ARE ADDED ONLY AFTER DUE
CONSIDERATION OF AN OINTMENT BASE CAPACITY TO

.
ACCEPT VOLUME REQUIRED
ONLY SMALL AMOUNT OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION IS

.
INCORPORATED INTO OLEAGINOUS OINTMENT
HYDROPHILLIC OINTMENTS READILY ACCEPT LARGE

. VOLUMES
WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO ADD AQUEOUS
PREPARATION TO HYDROPHOBIC BASE,SOLUTION
FIRST MAY BE INCORPORATED INTO MINIMUM
AMOUNT OF HYDROPHILLIC BASE AND THEN ADDED

.
TO HYDROPHOBIC BASE
ALL LIQUIDS HAVE THEIR LIMITS TO RETAIN LIQUIDS
BEYOND WHICH THEY BECOME TOO SOFT OR SEMISOLID
. FUSION
MEDICATED OINTMENTS AND OINTMENT BASES
CONTAINING COMPONENTS SUCH AS
BEESWAX,PARAFFIN,STEARYL ALCOHOL AND HIGH M.W
PEGs WHICH DO NOT LEND THEMSELVES WELL TO

.
MIXURE BY INCORPORATION ARE PREPARED BY FUSION

OINTMENTS CONTAINING INGREDIENTS WHICH ARE


QUITE SOLID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE ARE PREPARED BY
MELTING INGREDIENTS IN A PORCELAIN DISH OVER

.
WATER BATH
THE USUAL METHOD IS TO MELT SUBSTANCE WITH
HIGHEST MELTING POINT FIRST,AND THEN ADD

.
INGREDIENTS IN ORDER OF THEIR MELTING POINTS
SRIRRING SHOULD BE CONTINEOUS UNTILL OINTMENT
IS HOMOGENEOUS AND REACHES TO CONGEALING
POINT
. AN INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCE IS INCORPORATED AFTER
LEVIGATING WITH OIL
. ON LARGE SCALE FUSION IS CARRIED OUT IN STEAM
JACKETED KETTLES
. TOPICAL APPLICATIONS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO
BE STERILE,HOWEVER CONSIDERATION MUST
BE GIVEN TO INFECTIOUS RESPONSE CAUSED
BY CERTAIN MICROORGANISMS
. BASES HAVING HIGH WATER CONTENT
SUPPORT MICROBIAL GROWTH
. DERMATOLOGIC PRODUCTS SHOULD BE FREE

.
OF:
STAPHYLOCOCCUS
AUREUS
. PSEUDOMONAS
AERUGINOSA
. AMONG THE ANTIMICROBIAL
PRESERVATIVES USED TO INHIBIT
MICROBIAL GROWTH IN TOPICAL
PREPARATIONS ARE:

. METHYLPARABEN
. PROPYLPARABEN
. BENZOIC ACID
. PHENOLS
. SORBIC ACID
FILLING IS DONE BY TWO WAYS:

. HAND FILLING
. MECHANICAL FILLING
HAND FILLING:
.WEIGHTED AMOUNT OF OINTMENT IS
PLACED IN A JAR WITH THE HELP OF
FLEXIBLE SPATULA

.OINTMENT IS FORCED DOWN TO


BOTTOM AND ALONG WALLS OF JAR
TO AVOID AIR ENTRAPMENT
MECHANICAL FILLING:
. IN THIS METHOD OINTMENTS CAN
BE FILLED IN TIN JARS AND
POLYETHYLENE TUBES
. FILLING IS DONE BY PRESSURE
FILLER WHICH CONSIST OF NOZEL
AND PISTON FROM WHICH
OINTMENT OOZES OUT ON APPLYING

. PRESSURE ON PISTON
TUBES ARE FILLED FROM BACK
SIDE AND THEN ARE SEALED
. VACCUM FILLERS ARE ALSO
AVAILABLE IN WHICH NOZEL IS
ATTACHED TO VACCUM PUMP

AN OINTMENT
FILLER
. OINTMENTS SHOULD BE PACKAGED
SO THAT THERE ARE NO AIR SPACES
IN JAR

. MUST BE STORED IN WELL CLOSED


CONTAINER TO AVOID
CONTAMINATION
. STORE AT COOL PLACE TO
AVOID SOFTENING AND
LIQUIFICATION OF BASE
. IT SHOULD BE LABELLED AS:

FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY


VISCOUS LIQUID OR SEMISOLID
EMULSIONS FOR APPLICATION
ON SKIN AND MUCOUS
MEMBRANE
CREAMS MAY BE:
. MEDICATED

. FOR SPECIFIC ACTION e.g FOR APPLICATION ON BURNS


NON-MEDICATED

EMOLLIENT
TWO TYPES:
WATER IN OIL OR OILY CREAMS:
CONTAIN W/O EMULSIFIER e.g WOOL FATS AND WOOL
ALCOHOL
EXAMPLES:

COLD CREAM
ZINC CREAM

OIL IN WATER OR AQUEOUS CREAMS:

CONTAIN O/W EMULSIFIER e.g EMULSIFYING WAX ALKALI


SALT OF A FATTY ACID
EXAMPLES:

VANISHING CREAM
HYDROCORTISONE CREAM
OIL IN WATER EMULSIONS CONTAIN
LARGE PERCENTAGE OF WATER,STEARIC
ACID AND OTHER OLEAGINOUS
COMPONENTS

AFTER APPLICATION WATER EVAPORATES


AND LEAVES BEHIND A THIN RESIDUE
FILM OF STEARIC ACID AND OLEAGINOUS
COMPONENT

SO IT IS PROTECTANT IN NATURE
CREAMS ARE PREPARED BY DISPERSING
OR DISSOLVING MEDICINAL AGENTS IN
EMULSION
IN EXTEMPORANEOUS PREPARATION
PESTLE AND MORTAR IS USED (A
MECHANICAL BLENDER)TO PREPARE
EMULSION

EMULSIFYING AGENT IS MIXED WITH OIL


AND THEN WATER IS ADDED

AFTER FORMATION OF EMULSION


MEDICINAL AGENTS OF CREAM ARE
DISPERSED
ADVANTAGES OVER OINTMENTS

AQUEOUS CREAMS ARE EASY


TO WASH THAN ALL
OINTMENTS

CREAMS ARE EASIER TO


SPREAD THAN
OINTMENTS
SAME PACKAGING AS OINTMENTS:

CREAMS SHOULD BE PACKAGED SO


THAT THERE ARE NO AIR SPACES IN
JAR

MUST BE STORED IN WELL CLOSED


CONTAINER TO AVOID
CONTAMINATION
. AMONG THE ANTIMICROBIAL
PRESERVATIVES USED TO INHIBIT
MICROBIAL GROWTH IN TOPICAL
PREPARATIONS ARE:

. METHYLPARABEN
. PROPYLPARABEN
. BENZOIC ACID
. PHENOLS
. SORBIC ACID
ANSELS
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND
DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

NASIR HAYYAT SIPRA

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