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TERRORISM

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Agro-terrorism. Terrorism by contaminating crops or livestock with a deadly


contagious disease.

Anarchism. A political theory holding all forms of governmental authority to be


unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation
and free association of individuals and groups.

Anti-terrorism. Preventive measures, such as judicial, legislative, security or


military measures taken to reduce vulnerability to a terrorist attacks.

Asset (terrorist). A resource - person, group, relationship, instrument, installation, or


supply - at the disposition of terrorist organization for use in an operational or support
role. Often used with a qualifying term such as suicide asset or surveillance asset.

Asymmetric Threat. The use of crude or low-tech methods to attack a superior or


more high-tech enemy.

Biological Agent. A micro-organism that causes disease in personnel, plants, or


animals or causes the deterioration of materiel.

Biological Weapon. Use of a bacterium or virus as a weapon. An item of


materiel, which projects, disperses, or disseminates a biological agent.

Blister Agents. Substances that cause blistering of the skin. Exposure is through
liquid or vapor contact with any exposed tissue (eyes, skin, and lungs).

Blood Agents. Substances that injure a person by interfering with cell respiration
(the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissues).

Bugging. Intrusive surveillance whereby an eavesdropping device is installed in a


target's home or car.

Car Bomb. An automobile used as a weapon by detonation of bombs.

Carrier. Person or animal that is potentially a source of infection by carrying an


infectious agent without visible symptoms of the disease.

Cease-fire. A temporary agreement to stop fighting. A cease-fire has no terms beyond


the suspension of fighting.

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Cell. Small group working together clandestinely. Contact with other cells of the same
organization and even with command structure of the organization is limited.

Chemical Weapon. Use of toxic chemicals as weapons Use of toxic chemicals as


weapons. A munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm
through toxic properties of chemicals used in it.

Chemical Agent. A chemical substance that is intended for use in military operations
to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate people through its physiological effects.

Choking Agent. Substances that cause physical injury to the lungs. Exposure is
through inhalation.

Cognitive Re-construal. Conceptualization of terrorist attacks as pertinent to the


service of a moral imperative.

Collar Bombs. Improvised explosive device, strapped to the neck of a person.

Collateral Damage. Civilian casualties and civilian property damage in an attack


on a military target.

Command Wire Improvised Explosive Device (CWIED). Improvised explosive


device that is connected to an electrical cable, enabling the operator control until this
device needs to be initiated.

Conflict. A political-military situation between peace and war, distinguished from


peace by the introduction of organized political violence and from war by its reliance on
political methods. It shares many of the goals and characteristics of war, including the
destruction of governments and the control of territory.

Cosmic War. Great historical and metaphysical struggles. Religious terrorists


often allude to the notion of a cosmic war to characterize their ongoing battle and
situation. These references to war justify the use of violence, enabling individuals who
die to be perceived as heroes.

Counter-terrorism. Military, police and intelligence measures used to fight terrorism


through pre-emptive or retaliatory measures.

Counter Terrorism Committee. Committee of the Security Council. This


committee identifies shortcomings in attempts to combat terrorism as well as offers
states assistance in this endeavor.

Crises Management. The law enforcement response, and focuses on the criminal
aspects of the incident.

Cyber-terrorism. Attacks on computer networks or systems, generally by hackers


working with or for terrorist groups. Some forms of cyber-terrorism include denial of
service attacks, inserting viruses, or stealing data.

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De-escalation. Toning down the intensity of the conflict or dispute so that a solution
becomes more likely.

Dialogue. A dialogue is an open, honest discussion between or among the parties in


a dispute.

Dirty Bomb. A dirty bomb, or Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) uses


conventional explosive to disperse radioactive material like that used in the medical
arena over a given area.

Dispute. The arguments, disagreements and fights that take place between people
who are experiencing a conflict.

Disputants. Disputants are the people, groups or organizations that are in conflict
with each other. They are often called parties.

Drain the Swamp. Clich meaning that you have to clean up the environment in
which a terrorist network operates, rather than retaliate in a limited way.

Dysfunctional State. Used to mean a nation or state whose declared government


cannot fulfill one or more of the core functions of governance, such as defense, internal
security, revenue collection, resource allocation.

Eco-terrorism. Sabotage intended to hinder activities that are considered


damaging to the environment.

Escalation. Escalation is an increase in the intensity of a conflict. When a conflict


escalates, the people involved (disputants) move from gently opposing positions to
more forceful, confrontational tactics.

Facilitation. A facilitator is a third party who helps the disputants to stay focused on
working toward their common goals by following the agreed-upon ground rules.

Failed State. A dysfunctional state which also has multiple competing political
factions in conflict within its borders, or has no functioning governance above the local
level. This does not imply that a central government facing an insurgency is
automatically a failed state. If essential functions of government continue in areas
controlled by the central authority, it has not "failed.

Fundamentalism. In any religion, fundamentalists have a strict theology and moral


code. Characteristics include literal interpretation of scriptures and a strict adherence to
traditional doctrines and practices.

Guerilla Warfare. Military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held or


hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces. The oldest form of
asymmetric warfare, guerrilla warfare is based on sabotage and ambush with the
objective of destabilizing the government through lengthy and low-intensity
confrontation.

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Hacking. An umbrella term encompassing all attempts at unauthorized access to
computer systems, including malicious software, malicious modification of hardware and
denial of service.

Hate Crimes. A crime whose victim is selected because he or she belongs to a


group the attacker hates. Some, but not all, hate crimes are acts of terrorism.

Hawala. Paperless financial system that al Qaeda is suspected of using. From the
Hindi for "in trust," the system works on cash and promises of repayment, making
tracing of transactions difficult.

Improvised Explosive Device (IED). Devices that have been fabricated in an


3improvised manner and that incorporate explosives or destructive, lethal, noxious,
pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals in their design.

Improvised Incendiary Device. Improvised device including any mechanical,


electrical, or chemical device used intentionally to initiate combustion and start a fire.

Infrared Improvised Explosive Device. Improvised explosive device that is


triggered by infrared.

Incapacitating Agent. Produce temporary physiological and/or mental effects via


action on the central nervous system. Effects may persist for hours or days, but victims
usually do not require medical treatment. However, such treatment speeds recovery.

Infidel. Someone who does not believe in the speaker's religion. Christians
described Muslims as infidels during the crusades, and Islamic fundamentalists use the
term to denounce members of other faiths.

Interest-based approach. This type of dispute resolution looks at problems in


terms of interests, not positions, and works to get the parties to understand one
another's interests so everyone is satisfied that their needs have been met.

Insurgency. An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted


government through the use of subversion and armed conflict.

International. Relating to, or affecting two or more nations.

Islamist. People or groups who invoke Islam for political ends. Not all Islamist
groups advocate terrorism.

Make a Statement. Clich for the intended meaning of a terrorist attack or the
response to a terrorist attack. Same as "send a message.

Material Support. Providing help to a designated foreign terrorist organization. This


can include money, lodging, training, documents, weapons, and personnel.

Molotov Cocktail. A crude incendiary bomb made of a bottle filled with flammable
liquid and fitted with a rag wick.

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Narco-terrorism. Terrorism conducted to further the aims of drug traffickers. It may
include assassinations, extortion, hijackings, bombings, and kidnappings directed
against judges, prosecutors, elected officials, or law enforcement agents, and general
disruption of a legitimate government to divert attention from drug operations.

Nation. A community of people composed of one or more nationalities and


possessing a more or less defined territory and government or a territorial division
containing a body of people of one or more nationalities and usually characterized by

relatively large size and independent status.

Nation-state. A form of political organization under which a relatively


homogeneous people inhabits a sovereign state; especially a state containing one as
opposed to several nationalities.

Nerve Agents. Substances that interfere with the central nervous system.
Exposure is primarily through contact with the liquid (skin and eyes) and secondarily
through inhalation of the vapor.

Nuclear Terrorism. Nuclear terrorism refers to an act of terrorism in which a


person or persons belonging to a terrorist organization detonates a nuclear device.
Some definitions of nuclear terrorism include the sabotage of a nuclear facility and/or
the detonation of a radiological device, colloquially termed a dirty bomb.

Political Terrorism.Terrorist acts directed at governments and their agents and


motivated by political goals.

Repression of Consciousness. Situation in which shocking, destructive acts seem


reasonable because they become common and integrated with the routine of
individuals; these activities become normalized.

Roadside Bombs. Improvised explosive devices, placed alongside the curb or


roads, and detonated by passing vehicles.

Safe House. Building not under surveillance by intelligence or counterintelligence


organizations where terrorists can be safe while they plan attacks or rest.

Secondary Device. An explosive which is detonated after a smaller diversionary


device.

Self-starters. Phrase sometimes used to describe militant groups, inspired by the


philosophy of Al Qaeda, but had never affiliated with this network or attended terrorism
training camps.

Setback. Distance between outer perimeter and nearest point of buildings or


structures within. Generally referred to in terms of explosive blast mitigation.

Shielding. Maintaining significant physical barriers between you and the hazard e.g.
wall, vehicle etc.

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Sleeper Cell. A small cell which keeps itself undetected until such time as they
can awaken and cause havoc.

Special Forces. Small units trained for special missions, such as unconventional
warfare and counter-terrorism.

State Terrorism. Acts of terrorism by a government against its own people.

State-sponsored Terrorism. Acts carried out by non-government groups with


funding, arms, intelligence or other direct or indirect help from a government.

Surgical Strike. Military operation with a limited objective, performed with precision
and swiftness, usually from the air.

Symmetrical Warfare. Battle between like forces: tanks vs. tanks and aircraft vs.
aircraft. War on terrorism may be largely asymmetrical.

Terror Tactics. The art and science of employing violence, terror and intimidation
to inculcate fear in the pursuit of political, religious, or ideological goals.

Terrorism. The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear;


intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that
are generally political, religious, or ideological.

Terrorist. An individual who uses violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve a


result.

Terrorist Goals. The term goals will refer to the strategic end or end state that the
terrorist objectives are intended to obtain.

Terrorist Group. Any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that
practice, international terrorism.

Terrorist Objectives. Terrorist objectives refer to the intended outcome or result of


one or a series of terrorist operations or actions.

Toxic Chemical Agent. Produce incapacitation, serious injury, or death. They can be
used to incapacitate or kill victims. These agents are the choking, blister, nerve, and
blood agents.

Toxin Agent.A poison formed as a specific secretion product in the metabolism of a


vegetable or animal organism, as distinguished from inorganic poisons. Such poisons
can also be manufactured by synthetic processes.

Transnational. Extending or going beyond national boundaries. In this context, not


limited to or centered within a single nation.

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Triggering Events. A triggering event is something that happens to start a conflict. It
can be something minor, such as an accidental word or careless mistake, or it can be
something major and deliberate.

Underground. A covert unconventional warfare organization established to


operate in areas denied to the guerrilla forces or conduct operations not suitable for
guerrilla forces.

VBIED. Vehicle borne improvised explosive devices.

War against Terror. An expression coined by former US President George W.


Bush, which incorporates different military, secret service, diplomatic and economic
measures used by the US and its allies to fight terrorist organizations and their
supporters. The war was launched in Afghanistan in 2001.

ORGANIZATIONS / GROUPS LINKED WITH TERRORISM

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). Also known as Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab
Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist
Muslims based in Iraq.

Al-Ittihad al-Islami. Islamic Union based in Somalia.

Al-Badhr. Militant organization based in Pakistan.

Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. A collection of secular militant organizations,


operating in Palestine, arguably an armed wing of Fatah - although denied by Fatah
leaders.

Al Qaeda or Al-Qaida. The terrorist network of bin Laden.

Al-Shabaab. Military wing of the Council of Islamic Courts in Somalia. The


organization comprises several distinct elements: some elements linked to Al Qa'eda
while others linked to domestic insurgencies in Somalia.

Al Tahwid. Palestinian group based in London which professes a desire to destroy


both Israel and the Jewish people throughout Europe. Eleven al Tahwid were arrested in
Germany allegedly as they were about to begin attacking that country.

Ansar al-Islam. Organization that strives to destabilize the secular Kurdish


leadership. In the aftermath of assaults from the US and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan,
many individuals dispersed to Iran.

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Armed Islamic Group (GIA). Militant organization, formed to overthrow the Algerian
government and thus to establish an Islamic state. The organization began to institute
violence when the military government did not recognize victory of the Islamic Salvation
Front in 1991.

Baluchistan Liberation Army (BLA). Militant organization based in Pakistan.

Baluchistan Liberation Front (BLF). Militant organization based in Pakistan.

Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA). Militant Basque organization, seeking


separation from Spain and France.

Black September. The Palestinian group that captured and killed members of the
Israeli Olympic team at the 1972 Olympics in Munich.

Brigate Rosse / Partito Comunista Combattente (BR/PCC). Militant organization


based in Italy. Also known as New Red Brigades / Communist Combatant Party.

Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF). Militant organization also known as


Cholana Kantoap Serei Cheat Kampouchea based in Cambodia.

Designated Foreign Terrorist Organization (DFTO).A political designation determined


by the U.S. Department of State. Listing as a DFTO imposes legal penalties for
membership, prevents travel into the U.S., and proscribes assistance and funding
activities within the U.S. or by U.S. citizens.

Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Sometimes called the Islamic Jihad, militant organization,
formed in the late 1970s in Egypt, now virtually a part of Al Qa'eda. They were formed
by members of the Muslim Brotherhood, who sought more rapid change.

Gamaa Islamiya. Egypt's largest militant group. Claimed responsibility for June 1995
assassination attempt on Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Signed bin Laden's 1998
fatwa, declaring jihad against the United States.

Hizb-I Islami Gulbuddin (HIG). Based in Afghanistan.

Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA). Based in Pakistan.

Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI). Based in Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM). Based in Pakistan.

Hamas. A Palestinian militant organization, with an intent on destroying Israel.


Hamas is an acronym, which translates to Islamic Resistance Movement.

Hezbollah. A Shia paramilitary organization, based in Lebanon, and regarded as a


terrorist organization in many nations. They also operate schools, hospitals, and
agriculture in Lebanon. They emerged in 1982 in response to conflicts with Israel. The
organization receives financial support from Iran and Syria.

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Irish Republican Army (IRA). Militant organization based in Northern Ireland.

Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). An Islamic terrorist group which seeks to
create an Islamic caliphate. The name of the group, transliterated ad-Dawlah al-
Islmyah f al-Irq wash-Shm, is sometimes translated ISIL, which stands for the
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Daish, alternatively DAESH, which is an
acronym for the Arabic language name.

Islamic Army of Aden. Islamic military organization, also known as Aden-Abyan,


Islamic Army AAIA, based in southern Yemen.

Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB). Organization, based in


Chechnya, comprising Islamic militants. The organization was founded in 1998. Many
members were captured by Russians when they invaded Dagestan, a republic or state
in Russia, to support a separatist movement.

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU). A militant organization, espousing jihadi


principles, formed in 1998. This organization launched several raids in southern
Kyrgyzstan, from bases in Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan.

Islamic Observation Centre. London-based extremist group.

Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna. Salafi militant organization, operating in Iraq, to combat the
US and government. The organization includes Sunni, Kurdish, and foreign individuals.
The organization was formed in 2003.

Jamiat ul-Ansar. Sunni Islamist militant organization, operating in India (Kashmir).

Jemaah Islamiah. A militant organization that is striving to establish an Islamic state


throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Philippines, Singaopre, and Brunei.

Jewish underground. A Jewish militant organization. Their acts were ignited by the
murder of six Jewish seminary students.

Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). A group formed to establish Kurdish state in


Turkey. Most of its money is derived from drug trafficking, sometimes controlling almost
80% of the illicit drug trade.

Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ). Islamic militant group, based in the Punjab region and
Karachi, responsible for the deaths of many Shias and Christians in Pakistan. Their
objective is to establish Sharia law in Pakistan and a Sunni state.

Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT). Militant organization, primarily located in Pakistan. The


organization was originally formed to fight the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. The
organization espouses a Salafist interpretation of Islam, similar to the Wahabi form. The
movement has also been involved in other Muslim struggles in Bosnia, Kosovo, and
Chechnya. They are one of the largest militant organization in South Asia.

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Libyan Islamic Fighting Group. A militant jihadist organization, formally aligned with
Osama bin Laden, has now, since peace talks with the Libyan Government, constructed
a code that refutes the tenets of al Qaeda. They now regard their armed struggle
against the Libyan government illegal under Islamic law.

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). World Tamil Association, World Tamil
Movement, Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils, Ellalan Force, and Sangilian
Force based in Sri Lanka.

Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). Based in Uganda.

Muslim brotherhood. Founded in 1928, this transnational organization, established


in Egypt, promulgated many Islamic fundamentalist beliefs. The brotherhood is often the
main political opponent in many Arab nations.

Palestinian Islamic Jihad. Palestinian militant organization, with the express


goal to replace Israel with a Palestinian nation. The Al-Quds brigades, which is the
military arm of the organization, has claimed responsibility for many suicide attacks.

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan. Militant organization in Pakistan, responsible for


attacks on Shiites following the Iranian Revolution.

Special Purpose Islamic Regiment (SPIR). Based in Chechnya.

Taliban. Plural of Talib, word for students of Islam or seekers of knowledge. Clerics
trained at madrasahs in Pakistan called themselves the Taliban when they started a
rebellion against the Afghan government in 1996.

Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). Organization based in Pakistan.

Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB). Branch of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime in
Vienna, which offers assistance to members on legislation, intended to combat and
prevent terrorism. The branch assists legislative drafting, training of judges and lawyers
in these changes, and cooperation on international matters such as extradition.

World Islamic Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusaders. Name used
by the leaders of Islamic terrorist groups who joined bin Laden's 1998 fatwa calling on
Muslims everywhere to kill Americans and drive Americans from Arabia and Jews from
Palestine.

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