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PHYSICS PROJECT

SELF INDUCTANCE OF A COIL

Submitted to Submitted by

Mr. Pradeep Patel Sumit Somani


AIM:-
To study the factor on which the self inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this
coil, when put in series with a resistor (bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable
frequency.

APPARATUS:-
A coil of large turns, a.c. source of adjustable frequency, an electrical bulb, (6V) a.c. ammeter of
suitable range rheostat, a soft iron rod, one way key, connecting wires etc.

THEORY:-
Self inductance is the property of a coil which opposes the change in current through it. The self
inductance of a coil (long solenoid) is

0 2
L=


where r = Relative magnetic permeability of magnetic material, r =
0

N =Total number of turns in solenoid

A = Area of cross-section of solenoid

l = Length of solenoid

Hence, the self inductance depends upon

1. No. of turns in solenoid


2. Geometry of coil, L A,L 1/l
3. Nature of core material, L

When an inductor is connected in series with a resistor (bulb) with a variable source of
frequency , then current flowing in the bulb is


Irms =

where Z = 2 + 2 2 = Impedance of the a.c. circuit

Here R = Resistance of bulb

L = Self inductance of coil


= 2f = Angular frequency of a.c. source.

The brightness of bulb i.e., Heat generated in bulb is


2
H = Zt
2
P = = Z

2
P = 2 + 2 2

OBSERSATION:-
1. Least count of ammeter = A
2. Zero error of ammeter= A
3. Range of ammeter= A

S. No. Frequency of applied Current in ammeter Current in ampere with


voltage without iron rod in coil iron rod in coil (A)
(A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

RESULT:-
1. The current in the circuit decrease on inserting the iron rod in the core of coil at constant
frequent of applied voltage and brightness of bulb decrease and vice-versa.
2. The current in the circuit increase on decreasing the frequency of applied voltage and
vice-versa. Therefore, the brightness of bulb increase.

PRECAUTIONS:-
1. The coil should have number of turn.
2. Current should be passed for a small time to avoid the heating effect.
3. There should not be parallax in taking the reading of ammeter.

SOURCE OF ERROR:-
1. The resistance of circuit mat increase slightly due to heating effect of current.
2. There may be eddy current in soft iron coil.
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by
which a change in current through it induces an electromotive force in both the conductor
itself and in any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.
These effects are derived from two fundamental observations of physics: a steady current creates
a steady magnetic field described by Oersteds law, and a time-varying magnetic field induces an
electromotive force (EMF) in nearby conductors, which is described by Faradays law of
induction. According to Lenzs law a changing electric current through a circuit that contains
inductance induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current (self-
inductance). The varying field in this circuit may also induce an EMF in neighboring circuits
(mutual inductance).
The term inductance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in 1886. It is customary to use the
symbol L for inductance, in honors of the physicist Heinrich Lenz in the SI system, the
measurement unit for inductance is the Henry, with the unit symbol H, named in honor of Joseph
Henry who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Faraday.
Lenz's law named after the physicist Heinrich Lenz who formulated it in 1834, says:
The direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to Faradays
law of induction will be such that it will create a field that opposes the change that produced it.

Lenz's law is shown by the negative sign in Faradays law of induction:-


which indicates that the induced voltage and the change in magnetic flux have opposite signs. It
is a qualitative law that specifies the direction of induced current but says nothing about its
magnitude. Lenz's Law explains the direction of many effects in electromagnetism, such as the
direction of voltage induced in an inductor or wire loop by a changing current, or why eddy
currents exert a drag force on moving objects in a magnetic field.
Lenz's law can be seen as analogous to Newtons third law in classic mechanics.
For a rigorous mathematical treatment, see electromagnetic induction and Maxwells equations.
Inductors do this by generating a self-induced emf within itself as a result of their changing
magnetic field. In an electrical circuit, when the emf is induced in the same circuit in which the
current is changing this effect is called Self-induction, ( L ) but it is sometimes commonly called
back-emf as its polarity is in the opposite direction to the applied voltage.
When the emf is induced into an adjacent component situated within the same magnetic field,
the emf is said to be induced by -induction, (M) and mutual induction is the basic operating
principal of transformers, motors, relays etc. Self inductance is a special case of mutual
inductance, and because it is produced within a single isolated circuit we generally call self-
inductance simply, Inductance.
The basic unit of measurement for inductance is called the Henry, (H) after Joseph Henry, but it
also has the units of Webers per Ampere ( 1 H = 1 Wb/A ).
Lenzs Law tells us that an induced emf generates a current in a direction which opposes the
change in flux which caused the emf in the first place, the principal of action and reaction. Then
we can accurately define Inductance as being: a coil will have an inductance value of one Henry
when an emf of one volt is induced in the coil were the current flowing through the said coil
changes at a rate of one ampere/second.
In other words, a coil has an inductance, ( L ) of one Henry, ( 1H ) when the current flowing
through it changes at a rate of one ampere/second, ( A/s ) inducing a voltage of one volt, ( VL ) in
it. This mathematical representation of the rate of change in current through a coil per unit time
is given as:

(A/s)

Where: di is the change in the current in Amperes and dt is the time taken for this current change
in seconds. Then the voltage induced in a coil, ( VL ) with an inductance of L Henries as a result of
this change in current is expressed as:

VL = -L
(V)
Note that the negative sign indicates that voltage induced opposes the change in current through
the coil per unit time (di/dt).
From the above equation, the inductance of a coil can therefore be presented as:

Inductance of a Coil


L= = = 1Henry
/ /
Where: L is the inductance in Henries, VL is the voltage across the coil and di/dt is the rate of
change of current in Amperes per second, A/s.
Inductance, L is actually a measure of an inductors resistance to the change of the current
flowing through the circuit and the larger is its value in Henries, the lower will be the rate of
current change.
We know from the previous tutorial about the inductor, that inductors are devices that can store
their energy in the form of a magnetic field. Inductors are made from individual loops of wire
combined to produce a coil and if the number of loops within the coil are increased, then for the
same amount of current flowing through the coil, the magnetic flux will also increase.
So by increasing the number of loops or turns within a coil, increases the coils inductance. Then
the relationship between self-inductance, ( L ) and the number of turns, ( N ) and for a simple
single layered coil can be given as:

Self Inductance of a Coil



L = N
Where:
L is in Henries
N is the Number of Turns
is the Magnetic Flux Linkage
is in Amperes
This expression can also be defined as the flux linkage divided by the current flowing through
each turn. This equation only applies to linear magnetic materials.

Image of a solenoid:-