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Original Title: Chem Chap1 Sol

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AIM:-

To study the factor on which the self inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this

coil, when put in series with a resistor (bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable

frequency.

APPARATUS:-

A coil of large turns, a.c. source of adjustable frequency, an electrical bulb, (6V) a.c. ammeter of

suitable range rheostat, a soft iron rod, one way key, connecting wires etc.

THEORY:-

Self inductance is the property of a coil which opposes the change in current through it. The self

inductance of a coil (long solenoid) is

0 2

L=

where r = Relative magnetic permeability of magnetic material, r =

0

l = Length of solenoid

2. Geometry of coil, L A,L 1/l

3. Nature of core material, L

When an inductor is connected in series with a resistor (bulb) with a variable source of

frequency , then current flowing in the bulb is

Irms =

= 2f = Angular frequency of a.c. source.

2

H = Zt

2

P = = Z

2

P = 2 + 2 2

OBSERSATION:-

1. Least count of ammeter = A

2. Zero error of ammeter= A

3. Range of ammeter= A

voltage without iron rod in coil iron rod in coil (A)

(A)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

RESULT:-

1. The current in the circuit decrease on inserting the iron rod in the core of coil at constant

frequent of applied voltage and brightness of bulb decrease and vice-versa.

2. The current in the circuit increase on decreasing the frequency of applied voltage and

vice-versa. Therefore, the brightness of bulb increase.

PRECAUTIONS:-

1. The coil should have number of turn.

2. Current should be passed for a small time to avoid the heating effect.

3. There should not be parallax in taking the reading of ammeter.

SOURCE OF ERROR:-

1. The resistance of circuit mat increase slightly due to heating effect of current.

2. There may be eddy current in soft iron coil.

In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by

which a change in current through it induces an electromotive force in both the conductor

itself and in any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.

These effects are derived from two fundamental observations of physics: a steady current creates

a steady magnetic field described by Oersteds law, and a time-varying magnetic field induces an

electromotive force (EMF) in nearby conductors, which is described by Faradays law of

induction. According to Lenzs law a changing electric current through a circuit that contains

inductance induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current (self-

inductance). The varying field in this circuit may also induce an EMF in neighboring circuits

(mutual inductance).

The term inductance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in 1886. It is customary to use the

symbol L for inductance, in honors of the physicist Heinrich Lenz in the SI system, the

measurement unit for inductance is the Henry, with the unit symbol H, named in honor of Joseph

Henry who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Faraday.

Lenz's law named after the physicist Heinrich Lenz who formulated it in 1834, says:

The direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to Faradays

law of induction will be such that it will create a field that opposes the change that produced it.

which indicates that the induced voltage and the change in magnetic flux have opposite signs. It

is a qualitative law that specifies the direction of induced current but says nothing about its

magnitude. Lenz's Law explains the direction of many effects in electromagnetism, such as the

direction of voltage induced in an inductor or wire loop by a changing current, or why eddy

currents exert a drag force on moving objects in a magnetic field.

Lenz's law can be seen as analogous to Newtons third law in classic mechanics.

For a rigorous mathematical treatment, see electromagnetic induction and Maxwells equations.

Inductors do this by generating a self-induced emf within itself as a result of their changing

magnetic field. In an electrical circuit, when the emf is induced in the same circuit in which the

current is changing this effect is called Self-induction, ( L ) but it is sometimes commonly called

back-emf as its polarity is in the opposite direction to the applied voltage.

When the emf is induced into an adjacent component situated within the same magnetic field,

the emf is said to be induced by -induction, (M) and mutual induction is the basic operating

principal of transformers, motors, relays etc. Self inductance is a special case of mutual

inductance, and because it is produced within a single isolated circuit we generally call self-

inductance simply, Inductance.

The basic unit of measurement for inductance is called the Henry, (H) after Joseph Henry, but it

also has the units of Webers per Ampere ( 1 H = 1 Wb/A ).

Lenzs Law tells us that an induced emf generates a current in a direction which opposes the

change in flux which caused the emf in the first place, the principal of action and reaction. Then

we can accurately define Inductance as being: a coil will have an inductance value of one Henry

when an emf of one volt is induced in the coil were the current flowing through the said coil

changes at a rate of one ampere/second.

In other words, a coil has an inductance, ( L ) of one Henry, ( 1H ) when the current flowing

through it changes at a rate of one ampere/second, ( A/s ) inducing a voltage of one volt, ( VL ) in

it. This mathematical representation of the rate of change in current through a coil per unit time

is given as:

(A/s)

Where: di is the change in the current in Amperes and dt is the time taken for this current change

in seconds. Then the voltage induced in a coil, ( VL ) with an inductance of L Henries as a result of

this change in current is expressed as:

VL = -L

(V)

Note that the negative sign indicates that voltage induced opposes the change in current through

the coil per unit time (di/dt).

From the above equation, the inductance of a coil can therefore be presented as:

Inductance of a Coil

L= = = 1Henry

/ /

Where: L is the inductance in Henries, VL is the voltage across the coil and di/dt is the rate of

change of current in Amperes per second, A/s.

Inductance, L is actually a measure of an inductors resistance to the change of the current

flowing through the circuit and the larger is its value in Henries, the lower will be the rate of

current change.

We know from the previous tutorial about the inductor, that inductors are devices that can store

their energy in the form of a magnetic field. Inductors are made from individual loops of wire

combined to produce a coil and if the number of loops within the coil are increased, then for the

same amount of current flowing through the coil, the magnetic flux will also increase.

So by increasing the number of loops or turns within a coil, increases the coils inductance. Then

the relationship between self-inductance, ( L ) and the number of turns, ( N ) and for a simple

single layered coil can be given as:

L = N

Where:

L is in Henries

N is the Number of Turns

is the Magnetic Flux Linkage

is in Amperes

This expression can also be defined as the flux linkage divided by the current flowing through

each turn. This equation only applies to linear magnetic materials.

Image of a solenoid:-

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