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# Faculty of Engineering Technology Page No.

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## FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
MEL , MEA, MIP
(MAKMAL ELEKTRONIK LANJUTAN, MAKMAL ELEKTRONIK ASAS,
MAKMAL PENGIMEJAN PERUBATAN)

## WORKING INSTRUCTION AND REPORT

Course Code & Name /
BNR13402 / ELECTRICAL LABORATORY I
Kod & Nama Kursus
Code & Title of Experiment/
OHMS LAW
Kod & Tajuk Ujikaji
Date of Experiment/
Tarikh Ujikaji
Programme/Program 1 BND / BNE / BNF
Group/ Kumpulan
Name/Nama Matrix No./
No. Matrik
Group Members/
1.
Ahli Kumpulan
2.
3.
4.
Instructor Name / 1.
Nama Instruktor 2.
Data Analysis and Discussion (25%)/
C1
Analisis Data dan Perbincangan(25%)
%
C C2 Conclusion (5%) / Kesimpulan(5%) %
C3 Question (5%)/ Soalan(5%) %
Result (50%)/
P
Keputusan(50%)
%
Assessment / Penilaian
Pre-Lab (10%) /
Pra-Lab (10%)
A
Discipline (5%) /
%
Disiplin (5%)
TOTAL / JUMLAH /100%
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## At the end of the experiment, students should be able to:

1.1 To compare the value of resistance correctly from the current-voltage graph. (C2, PLO2)
1.2 To explain simple circuit problems by using three different forms of Ohms Law. (P2, PLO1)
1.3 To comply the relationship between current, voltage and resistance in a circuit. (A2, PLO1)

2. INTRODUCTION / THEORY

## 2.1. Ohms Law

Ohms Law describes mathematically the relationship between voltage, current and resistance
in an electric circuit. Ohms Law states that voltage (V) across a resistor is directly proportional
to the current (I) flowing through the resistor. The constant of proportionality is the resistance
(R). The resistance (R) of an element denotes its ability to resist the flow of electric current It
is measured in ohms (). The connection circuit for the resistor is shown in
Figure 1. The following formula describes Ohms Law:

## Where: R 0 is the resistance in ohms ()

V is the voltage in volts (V)
I is the current in amperes (A)

## The power dissipated (in Watts) by a resistor can be expressed in terms of R

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## Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW Effective Date 14/02/2017

2
=

2
=

The power dissipated in a resistor is an on linear function of either current or voltage. Since R is
positive quantities, the power dissipated in a resistor is always positive. Thus, a resistor always
absorbs power from the circuit. This confirms the idea that a resistor is a passive element,
incapable of generating energy.

3. PRELAB EXERCISE

## 3.1 Use Ohms Law to complete Table 8.1.

Table 8.1

V (v) R () I (mA)
2.5 1.2k
1.2 6.8 k
240 3.3 M
5.6 390
9.0 8.2 k
(5 marks / A)

## 3.2 Use Ohms Law to complete Table 8.2.

Table 8.2

I (mA) V (v) R ()
2.0 6.5
4.0 4.0
10.0 3.5
0.005 7.0
2.5 1.5
(5 marks / A)
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4. EQUIPMENT

## 4.1. DC Power Supply

4.2. Multimeter
4.3. Milliammeter (100mA)
4.4. Breadboard and jumper wires
4.5. Resistor: 390, 470, 560, 1k, 2.2k, 3.3k, 4.7k

5. PROCEDURES

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

i. Wire always from the load toward the source, not vice-versa.
ii. While ammeters must be hardwired into the circuit, it is usually better to add voltmeters
last, on top of the existing functional circuit so to speak. (This makes it easy to change a
voltmeter connection or to remove it temporarily for a resistance check or some other use.)
iii. Make sure that an ammeter is always placed in series with a circuit element through which
you want to measure the current.
iv. Also, make sure that a voltmeter is always placed in parallel with the terminals across which
you want to measure the voltage.
v. When the instructor has approved your connections, connect the source with an initial
output voltage of 0 volts. Slowly, increase the output voltage of the power supply from 0V
to required value.
vi. In order to measure the value for current, initially made sure to put at large range and reduce
it to the lower range to avoid the fuse from blow.

5.1 TASK 1: DETERMINE THE VALUE OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT BY VARYING THE RESISTANCE

5.1.1. Construct the circuit as shown in Figure 2 with the value of Vs is 7V and the value of R
is 390. Refer to safety precautions to connect the DC power supply.
5.1.2. Measure the value of current, I and the voltage, V1 across resistor R. Refer to safety
precautions on how to measure voltage and current using multimeter.
5.1.3. Record your reading in Table 1 (under section Result).
5.1.4. Repeat step 2-3 for different values of resistors according to Table 1.
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## Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW Effective Date 14/02/2017

Figure 2

5.2 TASK 2: DETERMINE THE VALUE OF RESISTANCE FROM CURRENT-VOLTAGE (I-V) GRAPH

5.2.1 Construct the circuit as shown in Figure 3 with the value of Vs is 2V and choose
any value of R.

Figure 3

5.2.2 Measure the value of current, I. Record your reading in Table 2 (under section
Result).
5.2.3 Repeat step 2-3 for different values of Vs according to Table 2.
5.2.4 Plot a Current vs Voltage (I-V) graph based on data in Table 2. Predict the value of
unknown resistance R from your graph.
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## Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW Effective Date 14/02/2017

6. RESULTS

6.1 TASK 1: DETERMINE THE VALUE OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT BY VARYING THE RESISTANCE

1. Table 1

## Resistance, R () Voltage, V1 (V) Current, I (mA)

390 7

470 7

560 7

1k 7

2.2k 7

3.3k 7

4.7k 7

(17.5 marks / P)

6.2 TASK 2: DETERMINE THE VALUE OF RESISTANCE FROM CURRENT-VOLTAGE (I-V) GRAPH

1. Table 2

Resistance value = .

## Voltage Supply, Vs (V) Current, I (mA)

2.0 3.571
3.0 5.357
4.0 7.143
5.0 8.929

6.0 10.714

(17.5 marks / P)
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## Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW Effective Date 14/02/2017

2. Plot the I-V graph on the attached graph paper. Do include the graph title and label the axes
involve. Next, find the unknown resistance value from the plotted graph and show the
calculation on the same graph paper. (5M)>>linear graph

(15 marks / P)
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## 7. DATA ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION

i. Show the calculation & compare btwn calculate & measured value
Should within 10 % tolerance
(9 marks / C1)
ii. Refer to the Ohms law theory between the relationship on current (I) and Reistance (R)
(9 marks / C1)
iii. Based on V-I graph, calculate the R value
(7 marks / C1)

8. CONCLUSION
(5 marks / C2)

9. QUESTIONS

8.1 How much resistance is required to limit current flow to 20mA with 24V supply?
(2.5 marks / C3)

8.2 What happens to the current in an electric circuit when the voltage is increased? When it is
decreased? When the resistance is increased, and when it is decreased?
V = IR
Increase @ Increase @
decrease decrease
Vfixed Resistance
Current
Rfixed Voltage
(2.5 marks / C3)

## Signature / Tandatangan : Signature / Tandatangan :

Name / Nama : MOHD FADLY BIN ABD RAZAK Name / Nama : DR. JUMADI ABDUL SHUKOR
Date / Tarikh : 20 JAN 2017 Date / Tarikh : 20 JAN 2017
Faculty of Engineering Technology Page No. 1 / 13

## Department of Electrical Engineering Technology Revision No. 2

Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW (REPORT AND ANSWER
Effective Date 14/02/2017
SHEET)

PRELAB EXERCISE

## 3.1 Use Ohms Law to complete Table 8.1.

Table 8.1

V (v) R () I (mA)
2.5 1.2k
1.2 6.8 k
240 3.3 M
5.6 390
9.0 8.2 k

(5 marks / A)

## 3.2 Use Ohms Law to complete Table 8.2.

Table 8.2

I (mA) V (v) R ()
2.0 6.5
4.0 4.0
10.0 3.5
0.005 7.0
2.5 1.5

(5 marks / A)
Faculty of Engineering Technology Page No. 2 / 13

## Department of Electrical Engineering Technology Revision No. 2

Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW (REPORT AND ANSWER
Effective Date 14/02/2017
SHEET)

6.1 TASK 1: DETERMINE THE VALUE OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT BY VARYING THE RESISTANCE

1. Table 1

## Resistance, R () Voltage, V1 (V) Current, I (mA)

390 7
470 7
560 7
1k 7
2.2k 7
3.3k 7
4.7k 7
(17.5 marks / P)

6.2 TASK 2: DETERMINE THE VALUE OF RESISTANCE FROM CURRENT-VOLTAGE (I-V) GRAPH

3. Table 2

Resistance value = .

## Voltage Supply, Vs (V) Current, I (mA)

2.0 3.571
3.0 5.357
4.0 7.143
5.0 8.929

6.0 10.714

(17.5 marks / P)
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## Department of Electrical Engineering Technology Revision No. 2

Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW (REPORT AND ANSWER
Effective Date 14/02/2017
SHEET)

4. Plot the I-V graph on the attached graph paper. Do include the graph title and label the axes
involve. Next, find the unknown resistance value from the plotted graph and show the
calculation on the same graph paper. (5M)>>linear graph

(15 marks / P)
Faculty of Engineering Technology Page No. 4 / 13

## Department of Electrical Engineering Technology Revision No. 2

Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW (REPORT AND ANSWER
Effective Date 14/02/2017
SHEET)
DATA ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION

i. Show the calculation & compare btwn calculate & measured value
Should within 10 % tolerance

(9 marks / C1)

ii. Refer to the Ohms law theory between the relationship on current (I) and Reistance (R)

(9 marks / C1)
iii. Based on V-I graph, calculate the R value

(7 marks / C1)
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## Department of Electrical Engineering Technology Revision No. 2

Title: EXP03_OHMS LAW (REPORT AND ANSWER
Effective Date 14/02/2017
SHEET)
CONCLUSION

(5marks / C2)

QUESTIONS

8.1 How much resistance is required to limit current flow to 20mA with 24V supply?

## (2.5 marks / C3)

8.2 What happens to the current in an electric circuit when the voltage is increased? When it is
decreased? When the resistance is increased, and when it is decreased?
V = IR
Increase @ Increase @
decrease decrease
Vfixed Resistance
Current
Rfixed Voltage
(2.5 marks / C3)