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Original Title: Cge 651 - Tutorial 1

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Cge 651 - Tutorial 1

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TUTORIAL 1

4. State two (2) factors that will affect the rate of molecular diffusion of one component of

the gases.

Answer: Temperature

Relationship between temperature and kinetic energy show that as temperature increases

so the kinetic energy also increases. Greater kinetic energy leads to increased velocities.

Hence, it will result in greater chance of collisions between particles and then increased

rate of diffusion.

Concentration Gradient

The concentration of a substance is defined as the number of solute molecules that can be

found within a given volume. A large difference in concentration leads to a greater

probability of molecular collisions over the region and therefore increases the rate of

diffusion.

5. State the factors affecting a mass transfer rate of two immiscible fluid phases.

Answer: One of the factors that important is equilibrium relationship. The driving force for

transfer of A from liquid 1 to liquid 2 is the difference between the bulk concentrations

(concentrations A in liquid 1) and (concentrations A in liquid 2) that would be in equilibrium

Simple distillation is effective only when separating a volatile liquid from a non-

volatile substance or when separating two liquids that differ in boiling point by 50 degrees

or more. If the liquids comprising the mixture that is being distilled have boiling points that

are closer than 50 degrees to one another, the distillate collected will be richer in the more

volatile compound but not to the degree necessary for complete separation of the

individual compounds.

7. Sketch a multi-stage continuous distillation process showing the overall enriching boundary

and overall stripping boundary

8. Column modification.

Both extract and raffinate columns were modified. The number of trays was

increased in both of the columns. At a given column shell height, a higher number of trays

requires short tray spacing, causing the tray capacity loss. To prevent column capacity

reductions, high performance trays were implemented and replaced the original sieve trays

in both of the columns. The original xylene column trays remain unchanged. The higher

capacity nature of the tray maintains the desired column capacity with shorter tray

spacing. In addition, the efficiency enhancement features of these trays can help to

maximize column efficiency.

operating line equation from an overall material balance equation in the operation of a

distillation column

Material balance between the n-th stage in the rectifying section and the top of

the column (area enclosed by the blue rectangle in Figure 3) is

+1 = +

= + (1 )

Slope = / = L/(D+L) = R/(R+1)

Material balance between the m-th stage in the stripping section and the bottom

of the column (area enclosed by the red rectangle in Figure 3) is:

1 = +

Substituting = , we obtain the operating line for the stripping section,

= + (1 )

components, and hence their boiling points. It indicates how easy or difficult a particular

separation will be. The relative volatility of component A with respect to component B in a

binary mixture is defined as:

=

Where,

YA= mole fraction of component A in the vapor

XA= mole fraction of component A in the liquid.

In general, relative volatility of a mixture changes with the mixture composition. For

binary mixture, XB = 1 XA. If the system obeys Raoults law that are PA = PyA, PB = PyB, the

relative volatility can be expressed as:

=

Where PA is the partial pressure of component A in the vapor, PB is the partial pressure of

component B in the vapor and P is the total pressure of the system. Thus if the relative

volatility between two components is equal to one, separation is not possible by distillation.

The larger the value of , the greater the degree of separability, thus the easier the

separation.

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