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MATH 312

Section 1.1: Definitions and Terminology

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Outline

1 Syllabus

4 Conclusion

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Instructor Information

Instructor: Jonathan Duncan Email: duncjo@wwc.edu

Phone: 527-2097 Office: KRH 330

Resources

Text: A First Course in Differential Equations

Dennis G. Zill, 2005

Webpage: http://math.wwc.edu/courses/312/

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Homework Expectations

Homework Procedures

Please keep the following homework procedures in mind.

Daily 10-point assignments will be given.

Assignments are due by 5:00 p.m. on the next class day.

Assignments more than one day late will not be accepted.

Your two lowest scores will be dropped.

Follow the formatting instructions mentioned in the syllabus

to receive full credit.

Show all of your work to receive full credit.

Present your solutions in an easy to follow and understand

format.

Work as a group, but turn in your own work only.

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Exam Schedule

Exam Schedule

There will be three in class exams during the quarter.

Exam I 13 April, Chapters 1-3

Exam II 4 May, Chapters 4 and 5

Exam III 22 May, Chapters 6 and 7

Final Exam 5 June, Comprehensive

Exam Pointers

In class exams may be moved with at least one weeks advance

notice.

The final exam may only be taken out of schedule after consultation

with the Associate Academic Dean.

As with homework, your solutions will be graded both on

correctness and quality of presentation.

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Assignment of Grades

Grade Weights

Your quarter average is based on the following categories and

weights.

Homework 16%

In Class Exams 3 18% = 54%

Final Exam 30%

Grade Pointers

Letter grades are assigned according to the table in your

syllabus.

Grades may be adjusted upward, but never downward.

Read the college academic integrity statement!

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

equation is.

Example

In algebra, you were asked to solve equations like P(x) = 0.

1 What is a solution to this equation?

2 How do we classify these equations?

Definition 1.1

An equation containing the derivatives of one or more dependent

variables, with respect to one or more independent variables, is

said to be a differential equation (DE).

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

statements about slopes.

Example

graph y = f (t) is given by the

equation m(t). Find a differential

equation to model this situation.

rise dy

Since Slope = run = dt the equation is:

dy

= m(t)

dt

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

important part in differential equations.

Example

balloon at time t. If this radius is

increasing at the constant rate of 2

mm/sec, give a differential

equation for the situation.

dy

=2

dt

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

differential equations.

Example

time t, and suppose that P is

increasing at a rate proportional to

P itself. Find a differential

equation for P.

dP

= P

dt

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Classification of DEs

Just as with polynomial equations, differential equations can be

classified based on the form of the equation.

Classification by Type

Differential equations can be classified into two distinct types:

Ordinary Differential Equations

are equations which have a single independent variable.

Partial Differential Equations

are equations with multiple independent variables.

Classification by Order

Differential equations can also be classified by the order of the

equation. The order of a DE is the highest order derivative

appearing in the equation.

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

linear or non-linear.

Linear Differential Equations

Below is the general nth order linear ODE.

d ny d n1 y dy

an (x) + an1 (x) + + a1 (x) + a0 (x)y = g (x)

dx n dx n1 dx

Notice the following properties, which make this linear.

All coefficients depend only on x.

The function y and its derivatives appear to at most the first

power.

The function g (x) depends only on x.

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Classification Exercises

differential equations.

Example

3 sin(x)y xy 0 = 3x

Example

2

dy

2x + 3y = x

dx

Example

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Various DE Notations

for derivatives. Since we are focused on differential equations, it is

important to know these various representations.

Representations of a Derivative

dy d 2 y dny

Leibniz Notation: dx , dx 2 , ..., dx n

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Explicit Solutions

Now that we know more about what DEs are, it is time to ask

about their solutions.

Definition 1.2

Any function defined on an interval I and possessing at least n

continuous derivatives on I , which when substituted into an nth order

differential equation reduces the equation to an identity, is said to be a

solution of the equation on the interval.

Example

2 Rx 2 2

Verify that the function y = e x 0 e t dt + e x is a solution to

the ODE y 0 + 2xy = 1.

Particular Solution

In fact, this is a particular solution from an infinite family of

solutions.

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Implicit Solutions

You are familiar with explicitly and implicitly defined functions.

The same phenomena appears in solutions to DEs.

Definition 1.3

A relation G (x, y ) = 0 is said to be an implicit solution of an ODE

F (x, (x), 0 (x), . . ., (n) (x)) = 0 on an interval I , provided there exists

at least one function that satisfies the relation as well as the

differential equation on I .

Example

Show that G (x, y ) = x 3y 2 + 4 = 0 is an implicit solution to the

ODE y 0 = 6y

1

.

Example

Can you find two explicit solutions to this DE?

Syllabus Introduction and Examples Definitions and Terminology Conclusion

Important Concepts

1 Classification of Differential Equations by:

Type

Order

Linearity

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