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Air pollution monitoring, assessment, and

control technologies for Saudi Arabia - An


integrated approach

Tahir Husain, PhD, P. Eng.


Professor, Environmental Engineering
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

The Saudi International Environmental Technology


Conference 2012
KACST, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
May 13-15, 2012
Outline

1. Economic Growth and energy demand


2. Air quality monitoring status in Saudi Arabia
3. Environmental assessment
4. Environmental technologies
5. Future research strategy
Health Effects
Suspended particulate matters - PM10 and PM2.5 have the greatest
effects on health because these can be inhaled.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - Primary agents of ozone
formation and some of them can cause cancer.
Carbon monoxide (CO) - Highly poisonous gas because of its
ability to block delivery of oxygen to the organs and tissues.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - Lung irritant that can lead to acute
respiratory disease in children.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) - Poisonous to both plants and animals.
Children and elderly are especially sensitive to SO2.
Lead and other heavy metals - Can lead to brain damage.
Accumulates in the body and impairs tissues and organs.
Ozone and the photochemical oxidants Ground level ozone
damages lung tissue and is implicated in many lung disorders.
National Policy for Science and Technology

The National Policy for Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia


outlines the specific future directions for the general system of
science and technology in all sectors. In this regard, the Council of
Ministers under resolution No. (112) dated 27/4/1423 approved
National Policy for Science and Technology(NPST) under the
auspices of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
(KACST). NPST is consistent with the objectives of the national
development plans and policies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

KACST plays an important leading role in the transfer of


technologies in various fields to support all government
agencies in the Kingdom.
National Strategic Plan
KACST five-year national strategic plan addresses
following environmental technologies:

1. Municipal solid-waste remediation technologies;


2. Food-contamination avoidance technologies;
3. Air-pollution monitoring and assessment
technologies;
4. Greenhousegas avoidance, monitoring, and
assessment technologies;
5. Desertification monitoring and assessment
technologies.
Strategic Objectives Air Quality

To develop a national strategic plan on air


quality management and assessment to protect
human health and ecosystems by integrating
monitoring, modeling and database tools with
the participation of various stakeholders such
as PME, Saudi Aramco, Royal Commission
for Jubail and Yanbu; SWCC, SEC, etc.
Energy Growth Driver
Industrial
Population Economic
Production
Annual rate of 4.3% 2008;
Saudi Arabia
3.2% 0.1% 2009; 3.1% 2009
Growth Rate
(2004 - 2010) 3.8% 2010.
*Source: Center for Engineering Research, 2006

More than 70% power are currently generated by natural gas and
crude oil in KSA

*Source: Electricity & Cogeneration Regulatory Authority (ECRA), 2009


Electricity Peak demand forecast
At current pace, energy peak demand is
expected to exceed 120 GW by 2030.
Domestic consumption of fossil fuels is
expected to nearly triple by 2030.
SEC Planned Retiring Capacity

*Source: H.E. Dr. Hashim Yamani, GCF, 2011


PME Air Quality Standards
Averaging Time Maximum Concentration Allowable
Exceedences

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)


1 hour 730 g/m3 (0.28 ppm) twice per 30 days
24 hours 365 g/m3 (0.14 ppm) once a year
1 year 80 g/m3 (0.03 ppm) (none)
Inhalable Particulate (IP)
24 hours 340 g/m3 once a year
1 year 80 g/m3 (none)
Photochemical Oxidants (Defined as Ozone, O3)
1 hour 295 g/m3 (0.15 ppm) twice per 30 days
Nitrogen Oxides (Defined as Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2)
1 hour 660 g/m3 (0.35 ppm) twice per 30 days
1 year 100 g/m3 (0.05 ppm) (none)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
1 hour 40 mg/m3 (35 ppm) twice per 30 days
8 hours 10 mg/m3 (9 ppm) twice per 30 days
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
1 hour 200 g/m3 (0.14 ppm) twice per 30 days
24 hours 40 g/m3 (0.03 ppm) once a year
Fluorides (F-)
30 days 1 g/m3 (0.001 ppm) (none)
PME Source Emission Limits

Total particulate matter 43 ng/j (0.1 lb/MBTU)


SO2 1 g/j (2.3 lb/MBTU)
NOx For oil fired facilities 130 g/j (0.3 lb/MBTU)
NOx for gas fired facilities 86 ng/j (0.2 lb/MBTU)
Power Generation Stations and
Transmission Lines
Total Estimated Emission in the Eastern Region from Power Plants (All values in t/y)

Pollutant 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
SO2 26882 30110 34623 38147 42274 50921 55567 57167 59601 67171
NOx 44439 47809 44149 53398 54345 54452 60283 68226 70010 68486
CO 13059 14032 12891 15631 15876 15830 17536 19911 20450 20013
PM 1883 2078 2079 2415 2533 2716 2975 3199 3193 2948

Total Consumption and Emissions Generated from Power Stations (all values in t/y)
Western Region - Saudi Arabia
Emissions (t/y)
Year Consumption in Litres CO2 N20 SO2 PM
1998 6,612,924,940 17,860,358 10,900 161,619 285
1999 5,687,785,093 15,367,815 8,475 127,500 244
2000 5,692,292,715 15,381,315 8,287 125,108 244
2001 6,544,315,546 17,683,605 9,526 143,809 281
2002 7,093,151,843 19,327,191 12,355 182,928 769
2003 8,158,731,113 22,701,515 18,893 273,402 2,222
2004 8,631,899,236 24,122,461 21,097 303,492 2,648
2005 9,495,238,156 26,470,300 23,090 332,652 2,739
2006 14,026,393,849 39,711,014 40,283 574,408 5,779

Ref. Air Quality Baseline Survey Program for Saudi Arabia, PME, 287 pages + appendices, 2007
Refineries in Saudi Arabia
Riyadh Refinery (Saudi Aramco) 120,000 bbl/d
Rabigh Refinery (PetroRabigh) 400,000 bbl/d
Jeddah Refinery (Saudi Aramco) 100,000 bbl/d
Ras Tanura Refinery (Saudi Aramco) 550,000 bbl/d
Yanbu' Refinery (Saudi Aramco) 225,000 bbl/d
Yanbu Refinery (SAMREF) (Saudi Aramco/Exxon Mobil) 400,000 bbl/d
Yanbu' Refinery (Saudi Aramco/ConocoPhillips) 400,000 bbl/d
YASREF Refinery (Yanbu' 2014) (Saudi Aramco/Sinopec) 400,000 bbl/d
Jubail Refinery (SASREF) (Saudi Aramco/Shell) 305,000 bbl/d
Jubail Refinery (Saudi Aramco/TOTAL) 400,000 bbl/d
Emission from Petroleum Sectors 2005
Data SO2
t/y
Refineries 150,000
Gas processing plants 170,000
Burn pit disposal of crude oil associated
hydrocarbon gas at the well head 20,000
Other sources 60,000
Total emissions (t/y) (rounded off) 400,000
Saudi Arabian Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC)

SABIC was established in


1976.
In 2008, SABIC was
Asia's largest and the
world's 4th largest
petrochemical company
The production in 1985
was 6.3 million metric
tons (mmt); by the end of
2008 it had reached 56
mmt and by 2020, SABIC
intends to produce over
135 mmt per year.
Jubail Complex - 2005 Data
Saudi Arabian Mining Company (MAADEN)

Ma'aden was established in


1997.Its activities initially
focused in the precious metals
but now expanding its activities
with the development of its
Phosphate Project, Aluminium
Project, and Industrial Mineral
with processing facilities at Ras
al Khair. Mining City of North
with multi-billion dollars
investment is also being
established.
Bauxite and Phosphate Processing in Ras al Khair
4-5 metric tons of PG e generated for every ton of phosphoric acid
produced. 12-15 Mtpy of PG will be generated which will be stockpiled.

1-3 tons of red mud sludge per ton of alumina produced. Expected red mud
will be above 5-10 Mt which will also be stockpiled

Bauxite Mine
Az Zabirah

550 km
4.0
Railway

Caustic
Soda Alumina 0.4 Excess
Refinery Alumina

1.4
2100-
2400 MW Crude oil
Aluminum
Power Plant
Smelter
4.6

0.74
Downstream
400-
1000 MW

Ras Az Zawr
Deepwater
Port
Saudi Power
Grid

Unit: Mtpy
Desalination
Saudi Arabia relies on desalination to meet its large demand for water; its current
desalination capacity 3 MCM per day (690 mgd) which amounts to more than 30% of
the worlds capacity. There are 25 major plants operated by the Saline Water
Conversion Corporation (SWCC), 21 of these are located on the Red Sea coast and
produce 42% of the desalination capacity. Four large plants are located on the Gulf
coast in the east in Al-Jubail, Al-Khobar, and Al-Khafji. The Jubail desalination plant
is the largest in the world, with a capacity of 253 mgd.
Technical Information Air Emissions (t/y)

Water Fuel Environment


Plants Production Type Fuel used al SO2 NOx PM V Ni Pb
Billion m3/y (t/y) Control

Al-Jubail 331,000 gas 3,727,000 none 45 44,300 neg neg neg neg
Heavy
Jeddah 135000 oil 2,362,000 cyclone 180,000 29,000 6,300 50.00 17.00 1.20
Al-Khobar 73,000 gas 1,520,000 none 18 18,100 neg neg neg neg
Crude
Shuaiba 69,000 oil 674,000 none 38,000 7,800 3,700 55.00 18.00 2.00
Yanbu Heavy
SWCC 3,400 oil 848,000 cyclone 63,000 9,800 2,000 11.00 3.00 0.40
Heavy
Yanbu RO na oil 953,000 na 67,000 8,400 6,200 25.00 8.00 1.00
Crude
Asir 19,000 oil 330,000 none 19,000 2,800 1,800 32.00 11.00 1.00

Total 367,063 120,200 20,000 173 57 6


Yearly Mean NOx Level
PME Limits: 1 hour 660 g/m3 (0.35 ppm) twice per 30 days 1 year 100 g/m3 (0.05 ppm) (none)
180
Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Makkah Yanbu #REF!

160

140
Concentration in ppb

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
Yearly Mean PM10 Level in g/m3
1 year 80 g/m3 (none)
180
Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Makkah Yanbu #REF!

160

140
3
Concentration in g/m

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
Highest O3 Level
1 hour 295 g/m3 (0.15 ppm) twice per 30 days
600
Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Makkah Yanbu #REF!

500
3
Concentration in g/m

400

300

200

100

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
3
Highest SO2 in g/m
1 hour 730 g/m3 (0.28 ppm) twice per 30 days 24 hours 365 g/m3 (0.14 ppm) once a year

1200
Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Makkah Yanbu #REF!

1000
3
Concentration in g/m

800

600

400

200

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
Yearly Mean SO2 g/m3
1 year 80 g/m3 (0.03 ppm) (none)
90
Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Makkah Yanbu #REF!

80

70
3
Concentration in g/m

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
Highest CO Level in g/m3
1 hour 40 mg/m3 (35 ppm) twice per 30 days 8 hours 10 mg/m3 (9 ppm) twice per 30 days

25000
Riyadh Jeddah Dammam Makkah Yanbu

20000
3
Values in g/m

15000

10000

5000

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
Integrated Approach
1. Emission monitoring for stationary and mobile sources to
help in identifying cost-effective emerging monitoring
technologies and modify adapt selected technologies in Saudi
Arabia
2. Source emission modeling and database development
3. Air quality dispersion modeling and its integration with
monitoring activities
4. Research on environmental and health risk assessment and
risk management
5. Estimation of the impacts of abatement alternatives on
ecosystems and human health by introducing fuzzy set logic
and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach.
Existing Technology Emission Modeling Existing technology
and Central
Source monitoring (point. Ambient air and meteorological
Database
area, and line sources) monitoring
Development
Emerging technology Emerging technology
EIA, Inspections,
Source emission standards Monitoring and reporting
Control &
Ambient air quality objective
Enforcement Control & compliance

urban/industrial complex Air Quality Long-range Transport


(Local dispersion models) Modeling (Regional models)

Risk characterization (impact) Risk Assessment & Exposure assessment Health,


ecosystems,
Management materials,
Risk management (control) Exposure-response
Models agriculture
relationships

Multi-criteria Decision-making
and Uncertainty Analysis Sustainable Economic Development
and Protection of Human Health

EMISSION REDUCTION, TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, AND CAPACITY BUILDING

Decision Support Technology Stakeholders & Capacity


Software Database Partnership Building

Integrated Air Quality Monitoring, Assessment, and Technology Development


Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

1. Saudi Aramco stations in downwind from major Aramco


facilities (Abqaiq, Berri, Dhahran, Jeddah, Rabigh,
Rahimah, Riyadh, Shedgum, Udhailiyah, and Yanbu).
2. Seven fixed monitoring stations and two mobile stations in
Jubail by RCJ.
3. Four air quality stations, as well as a mobile station by RCY
4. KACST operated five station between 1999 to 2004 in Riyadh
5. A network nine stations: two in Dammam, and one each in
Hofuf, Riyadh, Jeddah, Yanbu, Makkah, Abha, and the PME
Centre in Asir and a mobile station operated by PME
Riyadh Air Quality Network Expansion Plan
National Air Quality Database - PME
Environmental Technologies
Air Pollution Control Technology
Air Pollution Continuous Monitoring Technology
Air Emissions/Off-Gas Treatment technologies
Noise and Vibration Protection and Abatement
Waste Management Technology
Waste Recycling Technologies
Hazardous Waste Management Technologies
Water Pollution Control Technology
Water Pollution Continuous Monitoring Technology
Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate Treatment Technologies
Technologies for Resource/Energy Recovery from Sewage Sludge
Energy-Saving Technology at Business-Related Buildings
On-Site Green Techniques (OGT)
Soil and Groundwater Contamination Survey and Countermeasure
Technologies
Soil, Sediment, Bedrock and Sludge Treatment Technologies
Characteristics and Functionalities of Database
1. A rich database containing environmental pollution control, monitoring and
mitigation technology, case application history,
2. Detailed description of each technology
3. Applicability with the target contaminant groups
4. Limitations and advantages
5. A detailed discussion of data elements is needed for operation of the
technology
6. Case application performance
7. The cost information and cost analysis
8. References
9. Technology specific web sites for real time information
10. A list of vendors offering the technology
11. Points of contact information
12. Health and safety issues related to each technology
13. Other related database and additional info sources
14. Interactive data entry
15. Advance and formal search engine
16. Technologies screening matrix
Figure 4
Details

File TechnologyDetails
Description Health&Safety Applicability Limitations SiteInformation PointsofContact

DataNeeds Performance Cost References VendorInfo. Help

GroundWatertreatmenttechnology
Airsparging
Air sparging is an in situ technology in which air is injected through a contaminated
aquifer. Injected air traverses horizontally and vertically in channels through the soil
column, creating an underground stripper that removes contaminants by
volatilization.

Return Figures
Existing Technology Emission Modeling Existing technology
and Central
Source monitoring (point. Ambient air and meteorological
Database
area, and line sources) monitoring
Development
Emerging technology Emerging technology
EIA, Inspections,
Source emission standards Monitoring and reporting
Control &
Ambient air quality objective
Enforcement Control & compliance

urban/industrial complex Air Quality Long-range Transport


(Local dispersion models) Modeling (Regional models)

Risk characterization (impact) Risk Assessment & Exposure assessment Health,


ecosystems,
Management materials,
Risk management (control) Exposure-response
Models agriculture
relationships

Multi-criteria Decision-making
and Uncertainty Analysis Sustainable Economic Development
and Protection of Human Health

EMISSION REDUCTION, TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, AND CAPACITY BUILDING

Decision Support Technology Stakeholders & Capacity


Software Database Partnership Building

Integrated Air Quality Monitoring, Assessment, and Technology Development


EIA, Inspection, and Enforcement
Environmental and Health Risk Assessment
Multi-criteria Decision Making Tools for Sustainable
Development and Health Protection

Problem Identifications

Define goal and objectives

Criteria selection Alternatives Selection

Formulate the hierarchic tree

Develop screening matrix


Calculate Adjust
criteria values
scores for
the
No
alternativ
es Calculate criteria weights

Yes

Apply additive value model

Rank the alternatives based on


overall scores
Future Research Strategy
Population density, exposure pattern,
terrain, traffic, road network, and source
data

PM2.5 and PM10 data collection and Intake Calculations Data from air quality network in Riyadh
lab analysis City and other sources

Risk characterization (impact) Risk Assessment and Exposure assessment Health,


Management ecosystems,
materials,
Risk management (control) Exposure-response agriculture
relationships

Multi-criteria Decision-making and Cost-benefit and Cost-


Uncertainty Analysis valuation Analysis Sustainable Economic Development and Protection
of Human Health

Pollution Control Options, Abatement Measures, and Risk Reduction

Pollution Control Options Environmental Technology Stakeholders & Partnership Abatement Measures
Database
Recommendations
1. For proper air quality assessment technology research
for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia monitoring,
modeling, and databases should be interfaced through
a decision support system.
2. KACST and PME should develop a joint collaboration
on the air quality monitoring and assessment
technology road map. KACST should provide
leadership role in scientific research while PME
should lead in monitoring and database activities.
3. Participation of stakeholders is important in the
effectiveness of environmental technology program
and integrated approach towards sustainable
development in the Kingdom.