Presentation on Differentials

• A differential is a device usually but not device, necessarily employing gears, capable of transmitting torque and rotation through three shafts, almost always used i one of two ways. h f l l d in f • In one way it receives one input and provides way, two outputs; this is found in most automobiles. • In second way it combines two inputs to create an output that is the sum, difference, or average, of the inputs inputs.

• A vehicle's wheels rotate at different speeds, mainly when turning corners. Th diff h i The differential i d i i l is designed to d drive a pair of wheels with equal torque, whilst allowing them to rotate at different speeds. • In vehicles without a differential, such as karts, both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed, usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. • When cornering the inner wheel needs to travel a cornering, shorter distance than the outer wheel, so with no differential, the result is the inner wheel spinning and/or the outer wheel dragging, and this results in difficult and gg g, unpredictable handling, damage to tires and roads, and strain on (or possible failure of) the entire drivetrain.

Functional d F i l description i i
• The following description of a differential applies to a "traditional" rear-wheel-drive car or truck: " di i l" h ld i k • Torque is supplied from the engine, via the transmission, q pp g , , to a drive shaft (British term: 'propeller shaft', commonly and informally abbreviated to 'prop-shaft'), which runs to the final drive unit and contains the differential. • A spiral bevel pinion gear takes its drive from the end of the propeller shaft and is encased within the housing of shaft, the final drive unit. • This meshes with the large spiral bevel ring gear known gear, as the crown wheel

• The crown wheel and pinion may mesh in hypoid orientation orientation, • The crown wheel gear is attached to the differential carrier or cage, which contains the 'sun' and 'planet' wheels or gears, sun planet which are a cluster of four opposed bevel gears in perpendicular plane, so each bevel gear meshes with two neighbours, and rotates counter to the third, that it faces and does not mesh with with. • The two sun wheel gears are aligned on the same axis as the crown wheel gear, and drive the axle half shafts connected to the vehicle's driven wheels. • The other two planet gears are aligned on a perpendicular axis which changes orientation with th ring gear's rotation. hi h h i t ti ith the i ' t ti • Other differential designs employ different numbers of planet gears, gears depending on durability requirements As the requirements. differential carrier rotates

• As the differential carrier rotates, the changing axis orientation of the planet gears imparts the motion of the ring gear to the motion of the sun i f h i h i f h gears by pushing on them rather than turning against them • The same teeth stay in the same mesh or contact position), b b i i ) but because the planet gears are not h l restricted from turning against each other, within that motion the sun gears can countermotion, counter rotate relative to the ring gear and to each other under the same force.

• A locking differential, diff-lock or locker is a variation on the standard automotive differential. A locking differential may provide increased traction compared to a standard, or "open" differential by restricting each of the two wheels on an axle to the same rotational speed without regard to available traction or differences in resistance seen at each wheel.

• A locking differential is designed to overcome the chief limitation of a standard open differential by essentially "locking" both wheels on an axle together as if on a common shaft This forces both wheels to shaft. turn in unison, regardless of the traction (or lack thereof) available to either wheel individually. • When the differential is unlocked (open differential), it allows each wheel to rotate at different speeds (such as when negotiating a turn) turn), thus avoiding tire scuffing. An open (or unlocked) differential always provides the same torque (rotational force) to each of the two wheels, on that axle. So although the wheels can rotate at different speeds, they apply the same rotational force, even if one is entirely stationary, and the other spinning. (Equal torque, unequal rotational speed).

• By contrast, a locked differential forces both left and right wheels on the same axle to rotate at the same speed under nearly all circumstances, without regard to tractional differences seen at either wheel. Therefore, each wheel can apply as much rotational Th f h h l l h t ti l force as the traction under it will allow, and the torques on each side-shaft will be unequal.(Unequal q q q torque, equal rotational speeds) • A locked differential can provide a significant traction advantage over an open differential, but only when the traction under each wheel differs significantly. i ifi tl

• Automatic lockers lock and unlock automatically with no direct input from the driver. Some automatic locking differential designs ensure that engine power i always transmitted to b h wheels, i is l i d both h l regardless of traction conditions, and will "unlock" only when one wheel is required to spin faster than y q p the other during cornering. • They will never allow either wheel to spin slower than the differential carrier or axle as a whole The whole. most common example of this type would be the famous "Detroit Locker," also known as the "Detroit No-Spin," hi h N S i " which replaces th entire diff l the ti differential ti l carrier assembly.

• sometimes referred to as "lunchbox lockers," employ the stock differential carrier and replace only the internal spider gears and shafts with interlocking plates. Both types of automatic lockers will allow for a degree of differential wheel speed while turning corners in conditions of equal traction but will traction, otherwise lock both axle shafts together when traction conditions demand it. • Pros: Automatic action, no driver interaction necessary, no stopping for (dis-) engagement necessary • Cons: Intensified tire wear, noticeable impact on driving behaviour (most people often tend to understeer). understeer)

• Some other automatic lockers operate as an "open", or unlocked differential until wheelspin is encountered and then they lockup This style lockup. generally uses an internal governor to sense a difference in wheel speeds. An example of this would b GM' "G L k “ ld be GM's "Gov-Lok.“ • Some other automatic lockers operate as an "open," or unlocked differential until high torque is applied and then they lockup. This style generally uses internal gears systems with very high friction. An example of this would be ZF "sliding pins and cams" available for use in early sliding cams VWs.

•A" l "selectable" l k allows the d i bl " locker ll h driver to l k lock and unlock the differential at will from the driver s seat. driver's seat This can be accomplished via compressed air (pneumatics) like ARB's "Air Locker" or vacuum, electronic solenoids oc e o acuu , e ect o c so e o ds (electromagnetics) like Eaton's "ELocker" and Nissan Corporations electric locker found as optional equipment on the Frontier (Navarra) & Xterra, or some type of cable operated mechanism as is emplo ed on the "O Locker " employed "Ox Locker."

• Pros: Allows the differential to perform as an "open" differential for improved driveability, maneuverability, provides full l ki capability bili id f ll locking bili when it is desirable or needed. • Cons: Mechanically complex with more parts to fail. Some lockers require vehicle to stop for engagement. Needs h d human i interaction and i d forward-thinking regarding upcoming terrain. Un skilled Un-skilled drivers often put massive stress on driveline components when leaving the differential in locked operation on terrain not requiring a l k i i locker.

• The internal spider gears of an open differential may also be welded together to create a locked (spooled) axle; however, ho e er this method is not recommended as the welding process seriously compromises the metallurgical composition of the welded components, and can lead to failure of th unit under stress. If it i d i bl t h f il f the it d t is desirable to have a spooled axle, the better option is to install either a minispool, which uses the stock carrier and replaces only the internal components of th diff i t l t f the differential, similar i ti l i il in installation to the lunchbox locker, or a full spool which replaces the entire carrier assembly with a single machined piece. A f ll spool i perhaps th strongest hi d i full l is h the t t means of locking an axle, but has no ability to differentiate wheel speeds whatsoever, putting high stress on all affected d i li components. t ll ff t d driveline t

• A limited slip differential (LSD) is a modified or derived type of differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in angular velocity of the output shafts, but imposes a mechanical bound on the disparity. In an automobile, such limited slip differentials are sometimes used in place of a standard differential, where they convey certain dynamic advantages, at th expense of greater complexity. d t t the f t l it


• When controlling the differential action between left and right wheels during cornering or when either of the wheels spins due to slip or bumping, cams will expand the pressure rings to press the friction plates together, thus enabling the driving torque be transmitted to the nonspinning wheel too for more stable driving.

• Pressure rings with V-grooves are assembled in the case of the g g mechanical differential. The four lugs (protrusions) on the periphery of the pressure rings fit in the grooves provided inside the differential. • case when the pressure rings are assembled, and the pressure rings can slide in axial directions. • The tips of the pinion shaft are chamfered to assemble the pinion shaft into the V-grooves. • The pressure rings, f h forming V-shaped cams. Similar to the h d l h pressure rings, the friction plates and spring plates also have four lugs (protrusions) on the periphery and these lugs fit in the grooves provided inside the differential case when the plates are assembled.

• On the internal circumference of the friction disks and spring plates there are 4 or 6 lugs (protrusions)which fit in the grooves provided on the outer circumference of the id th side gears, and th f i ti d the friction di k and spring plates disks d i l t can slide in axial directions. • Th These f i ti plates, f i ti di k spring plates, spring friction l t friction disks, i l t i disks are alternately arranged and form a clutch as a whole. • The spring plates and spring disks act as Belleville springs and provide initial torque. • thrust washers are inserted between the side gears and differential case halves to adjust clearance. • in the axial direction and prevent thrust from the side gears to work against the pressure rings.

• The torque transmitted from the crown gear to the differential case is then transmitted to the pressure rings p g via their four lugs (protrusions) causing the pressure rings and the differential to rotate as a unit. • The torque is further transmitted from the pressure rings to the V-shaped cams of the pinion shaft causing reaction force F opposing the rotational direction and load P Fcotθ in the axial directions to be applied on the P=Fcotθ cam faces. • The reaction force F opposing the rotational direction is transmitted through the pinion gears to the side gears in the same way as a conventional differential. The force P in axial directions push open the pressure rings and act as engaging load for the multi-plate clutchs


• During normal straight-ahead driving where the right and left wheels rotate at the same speed speed, the differential case and side gears rotate together, just as in conventional differentials. • As a result, driving torque is distributed equally , g q q y to the right and left side gears.

• The right differential bevel gear tries to turn faster than the differential case, however, since the right differential bevel gear is braked by the clutch, a part of the torque is transferred from the right differential bevel gear via the clutch to the differential case as shown by the broken line. • While the left wheel is not spinning and the differential bevel gear is turning at a low speed the differential speed, differential. • case is turning at a high speed, and in contrast with the right side, t i ht id torque i t is transferred f f d from th diff the differential case ti l via the clutch to the differential bevel gear

• As a result, the left side differential bevel gear receives a torque which is transferred from the q right side differential bevel gear through the clutch, differential case, left side clutch and left side diff id differential b l gear, i l bevel • I addition t th t q t In dditi to the torque transferred f f d from th the differential bevel pinion via the differential bevel gear. gear


Viscous Differential
• Th li it d slip diff The limited li differential (LSD) automatically ti l t ti ll limits the differential action and distributes torque to the left and right wheels adequately to enhance driving stability when the left and right wheels are rotating at speeds different from each g p other during driving on a slippery road (muddy, snow-covered or slushy road) or cornering.

• Th V/C ( i The (viscous coupling) type LSD h li ) has outer plates and inner plates arranged alternately. • Each outer plate is splined to the inside of the differential case at its outer periphery and each inner plate is splined to the outer circumference of the l f side gear at i i h left id its inner periphery. i h • The outer plates are held in position by spacer rings p p y p g while the inner plates can slide in the axial direction along the spline teeth. • The space between the differential case and the left side gear is filled with a mixture of high viscosity silicone oil and air and hermetically sealed with Xy rings.

• D i normal straight-ahead d i i where th During l t i ht h d driving h the right and left wheels rotate at the same speed, the differential case and side gears rotate together, just as in conventional differentials. As a result, driving torque is distributed equally to , g q q y the right and left side gears.

• When a speed difference occurs between the right and left wheels, the differential case and the left side gear do not rotate at the same speed any more. The speed difference between th b t them corresponds t th t b t d to that between b th th wheels. both the h l • Because of the shear force caused in the silicone oil, a differential torque is then generated which limits differential generated, action. For example, if the left wheel spins due to small road resistance, a speed difference occurs between the right and left wheels. Since there is the V/C between the differential case and l ft side gear. d left id • A differential torque corresponding to the speed difference is generated in the V/C This differential torque is transferred V/C. from the left wheel to the right wheel.

• As a result, a greater driving torque is distributed to the right wheel which is rotating at al lower speed. d • When the right wheel spins the differential spins, torque is transferred from the right wheel to the left wheel. Also in this case, a torque greater by the differential torque than the torque to the spinning wheel is transmitted to the wheel rotating at the lower speed.

Viscous Differential


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