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UNIT 1

PAST SIMPLE
El pasado simple se utiliza para describir acciones que han sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que ya
han finalizado.
Es necesario recordar que tenemos dos clases de verbos:
1. Los verbos regulares: son aquellos a los que se aaden la terminacin ed a la forma base del
verbo.
Ejemplos:
cook = cooked .
want = wanted

- Alice cooked a delicious turkey. ( Alice cocin un pavo delicioso)

2. Los verbos irregulares: son aquellos que no siguen una regla determinada para construir el
pasado por lo que deben estudiarse de memoria.
Ejemplos:
go = went
write = wrote

- Peter went to the cinema last night. (Peter fue al cine la noche anterior)

A continuacin se detalla la estructura gramatical en el pasado simple tanto con verbos regulares
como irregulares:

SHORT
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS
ANSWERS
I cooked dinner. I didn't cook dinner. Did you cook dinner? Yes, I did.
You wrote a letter. You didn't write a letter. Did you write a letter? No, I didnt.
He played soccer. He didn't play soccer. Did he play soccer? Yes, he did.
She had a dog. She didn't have a dog. Did she have a dog? No, she didnt
It cost $ 200. It didn't cost $ 200. Did it cost $ 200? Yes, it did.
We worked hard. We didn't work hard. Did we play hard? No, we didnt.
You sold a car. You didn't sell a car. Did you sell a car? Yes, we did.
They studied Math. They didn't study Math. Did they study Math? No, they didnt.

Al formular tanto oraciones negativas como interrogativas se incluir el auxiliar DID (NOT) + verbo en
su forma base, tal como se muestra en la tabla antes detallada.

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Para formular PREGUNTAS INFORMATIVAS con: where, when, what, why, how much, how many,
etc., la estructura es la siguiente:

Wh- word Auxiliary did subject base form of the verb


Where did you go?

Ejemplos:

1. A: Where did you buy your wedding dress? (Dnde compraste tu vestido de novia?)

B: I bought it on ebay. (Lo compr en ebay)


2. A: When did she go to Miami? (Cuando fue ella a Miami?)
B: She went to Miami in January. ( Ella fue a Miami en Enero.)
3. A: What did you do last night? (Qu hiciste anoche?)
B: I watched TV. (V television)

Recordemos que las expresiones de tiempo ms frecuentes en el pasado simple son:

TIME EXPRESSIONS
yesterday morning
last week/year/ month
two days/weeks/ years ago

Ejemplos:

- Linda cooked some delicious soup yesterday. (Linda cocin una sopa deliciosa ayer.)
- What time did you go to bed last night? (A qu hora te fuiste a la cama anoche?)
- I didnt do my homework three weeks ago. ( No hice mis deberes hace tres semanas)

Exercise 1
I. Put the verbs in parenthesis into the simple past. Use the auxiliary did if necessary:

1. Last year I (spend) ________ my holiday in Ireland.


2. Joel (have) ______ a great birthday party last night.
3. I (travel) __________ around by car with two friends and we (visit)______ lots of interesting
places.
4. In the evenings we usually (go) ___________ to a pub.
5. One night we even (learn) _________ some Irish dances.

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6. We (not/ drink) _____ _______ milk yesterday morning.
7. It (not / rain) __________ a lot.
8. But we (see) ________ some beautiful rainbows.
9. Where (you/ spend) _____ _______ your last holiday?
10. When (she/buy) ______ ________ her dress?

II. Choose a verb from the box and complete the following sentences using the simple past tense.

break forget give lose see sleep wear know write begin

1. They ______ my neighbors window with a ball while they were playing soccer.
2. Margaret________ the answer before I asked her the question.
3. My mother ________ a letter to me last weekend.
4. I went to bed early last night so I ________ well.
5. Sally ________ a beautiful dress at the party last night.
6. My uncle ________ his passport at the airport yesterday morning. Fortunately he found it later.
7. The concert ________ at 8:00 pm last Friday. It was awesome.
8. My son ________ the keys inside the house so we had to break a window to open the door.
9. I ________ a picture of the whole family last weekend. It reminded me good memories.
10. My father ________ my brother a car for his birthday.

III. Write questions to the underlined answers:

1. Yes, she did. She went to the beach. _______________________________________


2. Christian lived in Cuba. _______________________________________
3. Alexander bought a car. _______________________________________
4. No, they didnt. They didnt have a son. _______________________________________
5. It cost $ 300 dollars. _______________________________________
6. He went to the disco yesterday. _______________________________________
7. I bought a laptop because I needed it for my homework. ________________________________
8. Liza had three pets at home. _______________________________________
9. Yes, he did. He came home late last night. _______________________________________
10. Tina stayed at Marriott Hotel last week. _______________________________________

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PAST PERFECT
El pasado perfecto es utilizado para referirse a una accin que tuvo lugar en un momento anterior a
otra accin en pasado simple, estableciendo un orden entre ellas.

Ejemplos:
- The boys had stolen the bikes. (Los nios haban robado las bicicletas)
- I'd read the book before I saw the movie. (Yo haba ledo el libro antes de ver la pelcula)

A continuacin se presenta un cuadro con la formacin de la estructura gramatical del presente


perfecto:
SHORT
AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS
ANSWER
I had worked hard. I hadn't worked hard Had you worked hard? Yes, I had.
Youd been sick. You hadn't been sick. Had you been sick? Yes, I had.
He had lived in Italy. He hadn't lived in Italy. Had he lived in Italy? No, he hadn't.
Shed traveled abroad. She hadn't traveled abroad. Had she traveled abroad? Yes, she had.
It had been a terrible day. It hadn't been a terrible day. Had it been a terrible day? No, it hadn't.
We had called him. We hadn't called him. Had we called him? No, we hadn't.
You had written a letter. You hadn't written a letter. Had you written a letter? Yes, we had.
They had lived in Manta. They hadn't lived in Manta. Had they lived in Manta? No, they hadn't.

Al formular oraciones en pasado perfecto es necesario incluir el auxiliar had + el verbo en pasado
participio. Note que la contraccin de had es d.

Ejemplo: He had been sick: Hed been sick. (El haba estado enfermo.)

Para formular PREGUNTAS INFORMATIVAS con: where, when, what, why, how much, how many,
etc., la estructura es la siguiente:

Wh-word Auxiliary (had) subject past participle verb?

Where had he gone?

Las expresiones de tiempo que se utilizan en el pasado perfecto son:


TIME EXPRESSIONS
already
for
since
yet

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Ejemplos:
- We had already called him. (Nosotros ya lo habamos llamado.)
- They had lived in Russia for three years. (Ellos haban vivido en Rusia por tres aos.)
- He had studied since 1992. (El haba estudiado desde 1992.)
- She hadnt invited me yet. (Ella no me haba invitado todava.)

Exercise 2
I. Put the given verbs into the past perfect tense.

1. The bus ___________ (leave/ already) when we arrived to the bus stop.
2. My son ate all the soup that I __________ (make).
3. I was worried because I __________ (not/do) my homework.
4. My husband bought me the dress that I __________ (see) before.
5. He didnt have money because he __________ (pay) all the bills.
6. Michael failed the exam because he __________ (not/study) enough.
7. By the time I got home, my family _________ (go) to the beach.
8. I was late for work because I _________ (miss) the bus.
9. We lived in the house that my father __________ (build).
10. I met a friend whom I __________ (not/ see) for ages.

II. Choose the correct answer to complete the sentences SIMPLE PAST OR PAST PERFECT:

1. I saw London for the first time last week. I __________ it before.
a. hadnt seen b. didnt saw c. didnt see d. hadnt saw

2. Michael __________ the match yesterday because he had hurt his leg.
a. hadnt played b. didnt play c. didnt played d. hadnt play

3. They had a big party because they __________ all their exams successfully.
a. passed b. had passed c. had pass d. pass

4. When Michael arrived home, the burglars _________.


a. had already left b. left c. had leave d. did leave

5. By the time we bought the tickets, the movie _________.


a. started b. had already started c. had start d. starts

6. When I _________ back from London in 1996, the country had changed a lot.
a. come b. had comes c. came d. comes

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7. Susan told me that she _________a new car.
a. had bought b. buys c. did bought d. had buy

8. We didnt recognize Thomas because he __________ older.


a. getting b. had gotten c. gets d. gotten

9. What _________ before he turned on the TV?


a. had he did b. had he done c. he did d. did he did
b.
10. _________ the instructions before they turned on the machine?
a. Had they read b. They did read c. They read d. Did read

III. Circle the correct answer simple past or past perfect:

1. Michael didnt have / hadnt had money because he had lost/ lost his wallet.

2. Tina was/ had been tired because she had studied/ studied too much.

3. I found/ had found the cell phone that my brother had lost/ lost.

4. When he arrived/ had arrived, the class started / had already started.

5. We had felt/ felt very hungry because we didnt eat/ hadnt eaten anything yet.

6. When I got/ had gotten to the airport, I discovered that I forgot/ had forgotten my passport.

7. My mother was/ had been very pleased to see that I had cleaned/ cleaned the house.

8. I opened/ had opened my handbag to find out that I forgot/ had forgotten my wallet.

9. It didnt rain/ hadnt rained for three months so the garden was/ had been completely dry.

10. My son was / had been sick last night because he ate/ had eaten too much.

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UNIT 2
SECOND CONDITIONAL
El segundo condicional se lo utiliza para expresar una situacin hipottica o irreal en el presente,
es improbable que la situacin se cumpla en algunos casos. Para su formacin utilizamos la palabra
if" (si).

Ejemplos:

- If I worked harder, I would pass the exam


Si yo trabajara ms, pasara el examen

- We would phone her if we had her number.


Nosotros la llamaramos si tuviramos su nmero.

A continuacin las estructuras que se utiliza en el segundo condicional:

If Condition (Past simple), Result Clause (would + infinitive)

If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.


Si yo ganara la lotera, (yo) viajara alrededor del mundo.

Result Clause (would + infinitivo) if Condition (Simple Past)

I would travel around the world. if I won the lottery.


Yo viajara alrededor del mundo si (yo) ganara la lotera

Ejemplos:
- If I got a pay rise, I would buy a flat.
Si tuviera un aumento, me comprara un departamento.
- Rachel would learn to play the guitar if she had more time.
Rachel aprendera a tocar la guitarra si tuviera ms tiempo.
- If you didnt have so much work you wouldnt be so serious.
Si no tuvieras tanto trabajo, no estaras tan seria / tan serio.

- I wouldnt give you so many sweets if you didnt ask me.


No te dara tantos dulces si no me pidieras.

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Es importante mencionar que en el segundo condicional, se emplea WERE para todas las
personas del verbo to be.

Este es uno de los usos ms importantes de este segundo condicional y se suele traducir por "Si yo
fuera t"

Ejemplos:

- If he were a millionaire, he would lend me the money.


Si l fuera millonario, el me prestara dinero.

- You look tired. If I were you, I would get some rest


Te ves cansado. Yo en tu lugar, descansara.

Exercise 3
I. Match the sentences from column A with column B so they can have meaning.
A B

1. My parents would help me if... a. ...I were going to a fancy dress party.

2. I would color my hair blue if... b. ...I were dying of hunger.

3. Paul would tell you my secret if... c. ...she did all her exams well.

4. I wouldnt eat monkey meat unless d. ...I had problems at school.

5. Rachel would marry Martin if... e. ...I missed the bus.

6. Her teacher would be very pleased if... f. ...he though my life was in danger.

7. I wouldnt take a taxi home unless... g. ...he had a lot of money and he was old enough.

8. If I had enough money I h. she would be very happy.

9. We would speak English if i. would buy a big house.

10. If Susan passed the exam j. we lived in Australia.

II. Complete the sentences in the SECOND CONDITIONAL, using the verbs in parenthesis:

1. If I _________________ (be) you, I _________________ (get) a new job.

2. If we _________________ (not / be) friends, I _________________ (be) angry with you.

3. If she ______________ (not / be) always so late, she ________________(be) promoted.

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4. If we _________________ (win) the lottery, we _________________ (travel) the world.

5. If I _________________ (speak) perfect English, I ________________(have) a good job.

6. She _________________ (be) happier if she _________________ (have) more friends.

7. They ________ (have) more money if they _____________ (not / buy) so many clothes.

8. We _________________ (come) to dinner if we _________________ (have) time.

9. She _________________ (call) him if she _________________ (know) his number.

10. She _________________ (pass) the exam if she _________________ (study) more.

III. Complete the sentences with your OWN ideas in the SECOND CONDITIONAL:

1. I would buy an airplane if _____________________________________.

2. If I won the lottery, I _________________________________________.

3. If I were a child, I ____________________________________________.

4. I would go to the beach if _____________________________________.

5. If I lived in Canada, I _________________________________________.

6. I wouldnt study if ___________________________________________.

7. If I didnt have a house, I______________________________________.

8. I wouldnt buy a car if ________________________________________.

9. If I had more free time, I _____________________________________.

10. I would be happier if _________________________________________.

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UNIT 3
PHRASAL VERBS
Se denominan phrasal verbs a las expresiones idiomticas que se forman de la combinacin de un
verbo + preposiciones o adverbios. Esto da como resultado nuevos verbos compuestos con un
significado distinto al que nos da el diccionario para los verbos individuales.

Ejemplo:
- El verbo put significa poner, pero si le agregamos el complemento off, tenemos put
off que significa postergar o posponer.

Es importante mencionar que un mismo phrasal verb puede tener varios significados. As por
ejemplo, turn on significa encender, abrir, etc.

A continuacin una lista de phrasal verbs comunes:

break down: fallar, averiarse


give up: renunciar a
put off: posponer
take off: sacarse
look after: cuidar
grow up: crecer
pass away: morir
put away: guardar, ordenar
get up: levantarse
run away: escapar
run out of: quedarse sin
put on: ponerse
find out: descubrir
turn on: encender
turn off: apagar

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Exercise 4
I. Match the following phrasal verbs with their meanings:
a. ... to remove something, especially a piece of clothing from
1. give up
your/somebody's body.

2. run out of b. ... to be responsible for or to take care of something/ somebody.

3. break down c. ... to start the flow of electricity, gas, water or something.

4. take off d. ... to stop trying to do something.

5. look after e. ... to finish a supply of something.

6. turn on f. ... to die.

g. ... to become larger and change from being a child to being an


7. put on
adult as time passes.

8. find out h. to discover something by accident.

9. pass away i. to stop working because of a fault.

10. grow up j. to dress yourself in something.

II. Choose the right phrasal verb to complete these sentences:

1. My car ______ on the highway so we couldnt get to work on time.


a. put on b. found out c. broke down d. turned on

2. The doctor suggested him to ______ smoking.


a. look after b. pass away c. grow up d. give up

3. Susan _______ her shoes and walked on the grass.


a. passed away b. grew up c. put on d. took off

4. Ive ________ milk. I have to go to the supermarket and buy some.


a. got up b. run out of c. turned off d. found out

5. I have a box where you can ________ the childrens toys.


a. put away b. put on c. turned on d. turned off

6. Its sad for parents to see their children ________ faster than they expect.
a. put on b. grow up c. run out of d. take off

7. It was hard for her to ______ that her husband had cheated on her.
a. pass away b. find out c. put on d. get up

8. What time do you usually ________ in the morning to go to school?


a. get up b. grow up c. put on d. take off

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9. Can you ________ the radio, please? I need to study for my exam.
a. turn off b. break down c. run away d. look after

10. Sue _______ from home to avoid familiar problems.


a. turned on b. gave up c. ran away d. put off

III. Complete the sentences using a phrasal verb from the box

ran away grew up put on look after found out

put away put off give up gets up passed away

1. Dont forget to ______ ______ your toys in the box after you finish playing.
2. I need to _______ ______ my jacket because it is cold outside. Can you wait for me, please?
3. Michael usually _______ ______ at 7:00 a.m. every morning.
4. Martha _______ ______ from her home at the age of thirteen. Her parents looked for her
desperately and after some days they could find her.
5. Dont worry about your baby. I can _______ ______ him while youre away.
6. Her mother _______ ______ last year because of a heart attack. She was a kind woman.
7. The meeting was _______ ______ until later because there werent enough people.
8. Laura _______ ______ in Boston, thats why she can speak English perfectly.
9. We _______ ______ later that we had been at the same school. It was an interesting coincidence.
10. Ann didnt _______ ______ her job after she found out she was pregnant. Shes a strong woman.

VERBS: LIKE, HATE AND LOVE


WOULD LIKE AND WANT

Recordemos que anteriormente se analiz el uso de los verbos seguidos de gerundio (- ing) e
infinitivo. En el caso de los verbos like, hate y love; estos pueden ir seguidos de otro verbo que puede
estar en gerundio o infinitivo, la nica diferencia es en su significado.

Ejemplos:
- I like dancing with my friends: disfrutar
- I like to dance with my friends: querer hacer algo porque considero que es positivo
- Susan loves eating in a restaurant. or Susan loves to eat in a restaurant.
- I hate washing the dishes every night. or I hate to wash the dishes every night.

Mientras que al usar would like y want, el verbo a continuacin siempre ir en infinitivo. La expresin
would like puede expresar una idea en presente o un deseo en un futuro.

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Ejemplos:
- I would like to eat something light. (Me gustara comer algo ligero)
- I want to study for the exam tonight. ( Quiero estudiar para el examen hoy en la noche)

Exercise 5
I. Circle the correct answer:

a. Sofia and Thomas ________ to have three children in the future. likes/ would like
b. Tina ______ to get a masters degree in two years. love/ wants
c. I _____ doing the washing up. Its annoying. likes/ hate
d. My brother _____ listening to pop music. He enjoys it a lot. like/ loves
e. She _____ playing soccer every weekend. She cant miss it. would like/ likes
f. Ann _____ to learn Spanish and Japanese. love / wants
g. Fred _____ walking his dog in the park. would like/ loves
h. They ______ waiting in lines because they say its a waste of time. loves/ hate
i. Susan _______ to watch horror films. likes/ want
j. My mother _____ taking care of young children. hates/ want

II. Unscramble the following sentences. Include the s if necessary


a. ( would like/ a new car/ David / to have) ______________________________________
b. ( like/ reading/ Sarah/ poetry) ______________________________________
c. ( to study/ History/ hate/ Andrea) ______________________________________
d. ( Brandon / to live/ want/ abroad) ______________________________________
e. ( Do / like / you/ dancing salsa/ ?) ______________________________________
f. ( hate/ getting up / My husband/ early) ______________________________________
g. ( Irene / every weekend / making / love/ parties) ____________________________________
h. ( putting away/ hate/ the toys/ in the box/ I) ____________________________________
i. ( looking after/ My sister/ like/ her little children) ____________________________________
j. (put off/ The boss / the meeting/ would like) ____________________________________

III. Complete these sentences with your own ideas using a verb in gerund or infinitive:
a. I love ____________________________________________________________
b. My friend hates ____________________________________________________
c. My dog likes ______________________________________________________
d. I like ___________________________________________on the weekends.
e. I want _______________________________________ in five years.
f. My father loves ___________________________________________________
g. I hate __________________________________________________________
h. My friend likes ___________________________________________________
i. My mother wants _________________________________________________
j. I would like ____________________________________ in ten years.

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UNIT 4
PASSIVE VOICE: SIMPLE PAST
Una oracin podemos enfocar la accin del verbo en el sujeto o en el objeto. Cuando la accin del
verbo recae sobre el sujeto, se dice que la oracin est en voz activa.
Ejemplo:
- My friend carried his bags to her car.
(Mi amiga llev sus bolsos a su auto.)

Cuando la accin del verbo recae en el objeto, se dice que la oracin est en voz pasiva.
Ejemplo:
- The bags were carried by my friend to her car.
(Los bolsos fueron llevados por mi amiga a su auto.

Para construir la voz pasiva es necesario que la oracin en voz activa cuente con objeto directo, es
decir que responda a la pregunta "qu cosa?"
Ejemplo:
- Juan lost the notebook. (Juan perdi el cuaderno)
Qu cosa perdi Juan? (El cuaderno (ste es el objeto directo))

De esta manera podremos cambiar a voz pasiva, que en este caso la oracin sera:
The notebook was lost by Juan. (El cuaderno fue perdido por Juan)

Para cambiar una oracin de voz activa a voz pasiva en el pasado simple debemos tener en cuenta
que luego de colocar al objeto al inicio de la oracin se utilizar was o were (dependiendo del objeto
ya sea este singular o plural) + verbo en pasado participio.

El objeto directo pasara a ser nuestro sujeto en la oracin en voz pasiva.

Voz activa Subject + verb + object (complement) time complement

Helen wrote a book last year.

A book was written by Helen last year.


Voz pasiva Object + be + verb (p. part.) + agent + subject + time complement

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A continuacin algunos ejemplos del cambio de voz activa a pasiva en el pasado simple:

VOZ ACTIVA VOZ PASIVA

Isabel Allende wrote a novel. A novel was written by Isabel Allende.

Michael didn't clean the kitchen. The kitchen wasn't cleaned by Michael.

Did you send the letters? Were the letters sent by you?

James sold three books yesterday. Three books were sold by James yesterday.

Exercise 6
I. Identify whether these sentences are ACTIVE OR PASSIVE.

a. They explained the lesson. ____________________


b. My dog ate a sandwich yesterday. ____________________
c. These cars were produced in German. ____________________
d. Mathematics was taught by Professor Brown. ____________________
e. The letters were written by Joseph. ____________________
f. Lots of houses were destroyed by the earthquake. ____________________
g. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. ____________________
h. The bus broke down on the high way. ____________________
i. They closed their workbooks. ____________________
j. Our houses were built long time ago. ____________________

II. Choose the correct answer to complete these sentences in the PASSIVE OR ACTIVE VOICE:

1. The telephone _________ by Alexander Graham Bell.


a. invented b. to invent c. were invented d. was invented

2. The police _______ the thief last week.


a. wasnt found b. didnt find c. werent found d. not found

3. This car ________. It's too old.


a. didnt steal b. wasnt stolen c. werent stolen d. not steal

4. Paul _______ a letter to the president.


a. sent b was sent c. were sent d. to send

5. A new restaurant________ last week down the corner.


a. opened b. were opened c. was opened d. to open

6. That cake ________ by Linda. Somebody else did it.


a. didnt make b. not made c. werent made d. wasnt made

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7. Someone ________ my purse.
a. stole b. was stolen c. were stolen d. be stolen

8. When _____ the telephone ______ ?


a. did / invent b. was/ invented c. did/ invented d. were/invented

9. _____ you_____ the door?


a. did/ close b. were/ close c. was/ closed d. did/ closed

10. The package ________ on time and thats why we are in a big trouble.
a. werent sent b. wasnt sent c. didnt send d. didnt sent

III. Change the following sentences to the passive voice:

1. Michael bought a new car last week. __________________________________________

2. Liza wrote a letter. __________________________________________

3. They didnt open the box. __________________________________________

4. Samantha took this photograph yesterday.___________________________________________

5. The police caught the thieves yesterday. __________________________________________

6. Where did you buy those magazines? __________________________________________

7. My son sent a postcard from Canada. __________________________________________

8. John Lennon didnt write this song. __________________________________________

9. They didnt repair my car last week. __________________________________________

10. Did they sell the house? __________________________________________

END OF FIRST PARTIAL

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UNIT 5
RELATIVE CLAUSES
Las Clusulas Relativas se usan para definir o identificar el sustantivo que las precede. Estas
clusulas se introducen con Pronombres o Adverbios Relativos.

who won the competition?


Ejemplos: Do you know the man
sustantivo Relative Clause
En este ejemplo who es el pronombre relativo.

when I met you.


Ill never forget the day
sustantivo Relative Clause

En este ejemplo when es el adverbio relativo.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS


Los pronombres y adverbios relativos son:

who que, quin, el cual, la cual, los cuales, las cuales (para personas)
whom a quien, al cual, a la cual, a los cuales, a las cuales (para personas)
whose + noun cuyo, cuya, cuyos, cuyas (para personas)

which que, lo que, el cual, lo cual, la cual, los cuales, las cuales (para cosas)

that que, el que, la que, los que, las que (para personas y cosas)

what lo que

donde, en el que
where
cuando, en que
when
por lo que, por qu
why

a. Who tiene las funciones de sujeto y su antecedente (el sujeto al que refiere) debe ser una persona,
aunque puede ocasionalmente referir un animal personificado, como por ejemplo en cuentos.

The man who called is my husband. El hombre que llamo es mi esposo.


The doctor who helped you is my father. El doctor que te ayudo es mi padre.

b. Whom es muy formal y se emplea en lenguaje escrito. Su uso no es muy comn en lenguaje
hablado.

The girl whom I wanted to see wasnt there. La chica a quin yo quise ver no estuvo all.
The man whom I invited didnt come. El hombre a quien invite no vino.

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c. Whose expresa posesin y pertenencia y se refiere nicamente a personas,
(tambin excepcionalmente a animales y a nombres colectivos).

The family whose house we stayed in was very friendly. La familia en cuya casa estuvimos era muy
amigable.
I met a woman whose job is interesting. Conoc a una mujer cuyo trabajo es interesante.

d. Which se emplea como sujeto y como complemento y se refiere solamente a cosas o animales:

The car which is in the garage is mine. El carro que est en el garaje es mo.
This is the car which I go to work in. ste es el carro con el cual voy a trabajar.

e. That se emplea como sujeto o complemento directo y puede referirse a personas, cosas o
animales:

The letter that came yesterday is from my mother. La carta que lleg ayer es de mi madre.
The man that came to our house is my teacher. El hombre que vino a nuestra casa es
mi profesor.

f. What generalmente hace referencia a acciones o situaciones.

I know what you're thinking. S lo que ests pensando


Nobody knows what will happen tomorrow. Nadie sabe qu pasar maana

g. Where indica lugar.

I visited the town where I was born. Visit la ciudad donde yo nac.
The school where they study is very strict. La escuela donde ellos estudian es muy estricta.

h. When hace referencia a un tiempo

I always remember the day when we got married. Siempre recuerdo el da en que nos casamos.
Christmas Day is a day when people eat turkey. Navidad es un da cuando la gente come pavo.

i. Why se refiere a una razn.

That is why she refused the offer. Eso es por lo que ella rechaz la oferta.
I dont know why you didnt come. No s por qu t no viniste.

Who, that y which pueden ser el sujeto o el objeto de una clusula relativa.
Observa:
Marianne is the girl who invited us to the party

Who es el sujeto: She invited us to the party

Marianne is the girl who we met last night

Who es el objeto: We met her last night

18
Exercise 7
I. Join the two sentences by using who for people and that for things.

Examples:

1. Thats the woman. 2. She works in the post office.


Thats the woman who works in the post office.

1. Thats the building. 2. It was destroyed in the fire.


That is the building that was destroyed in the fire.

a. 1. Hes the man. 2. He painted my house


___________________________________________________________
b. 1. What is the name of the boy? 2. He telephoned you.
___________________________________________________________
c. 1. What happened to the money? 2. It was on my desk.
___________________________________________________________
d. 1.Theyre the people. 2. They offered Sue a job.
___________________________________________________________
e. 1. The car has now been found. 2. It was stolen.
___________________________________________________________
f. 1. Shes the person. 2. She gives me a lift to work every day.
___________________________________________________________
g. 1. The lock has now been repaired. 2. It was broken.
___________________________________________________________
h 1. Most of the people are very nice. 2. They work in Peters office.
___________________________________________________________

II. Complete the sentences by using who for people and that for things.

1. John Murray is the man _____ owns the Grand Hotel.


2. The man _____ we spoke to wasnt very nice.
3. This is the sweater _____ I bought on Saturday.
4. What is the name of the company _____ you work for?
5. A bi-lingual person is someone _____ speak two languages equally well.
6. Peter is the boy _____ I saw in the supermarket yesterday.
7. Are these all the letters _____ came in the mornings post?
8. Have you found the money _____ you lost?
9. The people _____ used to live in that house have moved.
10. I dont like films _____ are very violent.

19
III. Answer the questions by using whose.

Example: Whos Mrs. Barnes? (Her husband teaches at Annies school.)


Shes the woman whose husband teaches at Annies school.

1. Who is Jim Owen? (His flat was broken into.)


_____________________________________________________________

2. Who are Mr. and Mrs. Peters? (Their children were injured in the accident.)
_____________________________________________________________

3. Whos that girl? (Her brother works in the post office.)


_____________________________________________________________

4. Who are those people? (Their credit cards were stolen)


_____________________________________________________________

5. Who are you? (My mother phoned the police.)


_____________________________________________________________

IV. Complete the sentences by using where, when or why.


1. Did they tell you the reason _____ they wanted you to do that?
2. Whats the name of the restaurant _____ you had lunch?
3. I can remember the time _____ there wasnt cell phone.
4. Is that the hospital _____ you had your operation?
5. I dont understand the reason _____ he was late.
6. Do you remember the day _____ your car broke down on the motorway?

V. Complete the sentences with whose, who, which, or where.


1. Tom, ______________________sister is a teacher, is in my class.
2. The White House, ______________________the US president lives, is in Washington.
3. The cats, ________________ house is broken, are mine.
4. My brother, ______________________works in Warsaw, earns a lot of money.
5. Molly, ______________________father is from Paris, speaks French very well.
6. Venice, ______________________is in Italy, is a very old city.
7. The man, __________________ daughter is my best friend, is the president of the company.
8. John Lennon, ______________________was born in 1940, was a member of The Beatles.
9. My car, ______________________I bought last month, broke down again.
10. The Ritz Hotel, ______________________we stayed last year, is very expensive.

VI. Match the column A with the column B in order to make a clause.
A B
1. A banana is a fruit _____ a. which carries a lot of people.
2. A hat is a thing _____ b. which is very small.
3. A pony is a horse _____ c. who designs houses
4. A dentist is a person _____ d. which is long and yellow.
5. A bus is a big car _____ e. that people wear on their heads
6. An architect is a person _____ f. who pulls teeth.

20
UNIT 6
WILL vs. BE GOING TO
Forma del futuro con WILL

(SUJETO) POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION

PRONOMBRE S +will + verb (base form) + S +wont + verb (base form) Will + s + verb (base
c +c form) + C?

I I will clean the room. I wont clean the room. Will you clean the room?

you / we / they You will have a lot of money. You wont have a lot of money. Will we have a car?

he / she / it He will finish the report. He wont finish the report. Will he finish the report?

Uso del futuro will


Para expresar un decisin espontnea

Ejemplo: Wait, I will help you. (Espera, te ayudar.)

Cuando no estamos muy seguros acerca de predicciones del futuro, usamos expresiones tales
como: probably, possibly, perhaps, maybe, I think, I hope.

Ejemplos: He will probably come back tomorrow. (Probablemente l regresar maana.)

I think I will travel to The United States next year.

(Pienso que viajar a Los Estados Unidos el prximo ao.)

Perhaps you will be surprised to know about it.

(Quiz estars sorprendido de saber acerca de esto.)

Para promesas

Ejemplo: I will be on time, dont worry!. (Estar a tiempo, no te preocupes)

Para ofrecimientos
Ejemplo: Ill bring snacks for the movie day this Friday. (Traer snacks para el da de la pelcula
este viernes)

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FUTURE BE GOING TO

Forma del futuro be going to

(SUJETO) POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION

PRONOMBRE S + be + going to + verb S + be + not (isnt/arent) + Be + s + going to + verb +


going to + verb C?

I I am going to speak. I am not going to speak. Am I going to speak?

you / we / they You are going to speak. You are not going to speak. Are you going to speak?

he / she / it He is going to speak. He is not going to speak. Is he going to speak?

Uso del futuro be going to

Para hablar de planes futuros. Algo que ya ha decidido hacer.


Ejemplo: I am going to study harder next year. (Voy a estudiar ms duro el prximo ao)

Para hacer predicciones basadas en evidencias en el presente.


Ejemplo: The sky is absolutely dark. It is going to rain. (El cielo est completamente oscuro. Va a
llover.)

Exercise 8

I. Write sentences by using the future will. Choose the appropriate verb from the box for each
sentence.

buy go help win stay do take cook understand get

1. We _______________ you if you want.


2. Are you thirsty? I ___________ you a drink.
3. I think our team _____________ the match on Sunday.
4. Maybe she _____________ a language course in England.
5. Dont worry! I _____________ the tickets for the concert.
6. Perhaps she _______________ this for you.
7. Maybe we ______________ at home next holiday.
8. She hopes that he _______________ dinner tonight.
9. Im sure they ________________ your problem.
10. They ________ probably __________ to the party.

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II. Write negative or interrogative sentences by using the future will.

1. (I / answer / the question) _________________________________________________________

2. (she / read / the book) Maybe_____________________________________________________

3. (where / we / meet) ______________________________________________________________?


4. (we / send / the postcard)__________________________________________________________
5. (Vanessa / catch / the ball) ________________________________________________________

6. (James / open / the door) _________________________________________________________

7. (what / they / eat / tonight) _________________________________________________________?

8. (You / have / fish) _______________________________________________________ for lunch?

9. (she / give / him / the apple)________________________________________________________


10. (when / she / be / back) ___________________________________________________________?

III. Answer the questions by using be going to. These people have already planned their activities.

Example: Why did you buy that cake?


(I / celebrate / my husbands birthday) Im going to celebrate my husbands birthday.

1. What does she need the telephone for?


(she / call / her boyfriend) _________________________________________________________
2. Why are they wearing sport suits?
(they / play / squash) _____________________________________________________________
3. Why has Fiona bought chocolates?
(She / visit / her grandma) _________________________________________________________
4. Why do you need a map?
(we / walk / in the mountains) ______________________________________________________
5. What do you need the cloth and the bucket for?
(we / wash / the car) _____________________________________________________________
6. Why are you running about with the toothbrush?
(I / brush / my teeth) _____________________________________________________________
7. Why is daddy not coming with us?
(he / repair / the car) _____________________________________________________________
8. Hurry up!
(they / light / the bonfire) __________________________________________________________
9. Why are all these tapes on the table?
(we / learn / Greek) ______________________________________________________________
10. What do you need the pen for?
(I / write / some postcards) _________________________________________________________

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IV. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb by using the future be going to.

Example: Jim (not / travel) isnt going to travel to Spain next Summer.

1. It (rain) _________________________________________________.
2. They (eat) ______________________________________________ stew.
3. I (wear) ______________________________________________ blue shoes tonight.
4. We (not / help) __________________________________________ you.
5. Jack (not / walk) __________________________________________ home.
6. (cook / you) ______________________________________________________ dinner?
7. Sue (not / share) __________________________________________________ her biscuits.
8. (leave / they)____________________________________________________ the house?
9. (take part / she) ________________________________________________ in the contest?
10. I (not / spend) _________________________________________ my holiday abroad this year.

V. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb: Use will or be going to.

1. A: Gabriel, do you want to come with us?


B: OK. I ___________________(go) with you.

2. A: Does Sue have plans for Friday night?


B: Yes. She ______________________(see) a movie.

3. A: I need somebody to wash my car.


B: Thats no problem. I ________________(do) it.

4. A: I dont know how to solve this math problem.


B: Its easy. I __________________(help) you.

5. A: What are you doing next Summer?


B: We ________ probably __________(visit) Mexico city?

6. A: Have you decided what to do about your job?


B: Yes. I __________________________(not / quit) my job. Its very difficult to get a new one.

7. Luis starts classes at 7:00. Its 6:45. Hes leaving his house now. He ___________________ (arrive)

very late.

8. A: I have decided to have a party.


B: who ________ you ___________________(invite)?

9. A: Do you prefer tea or coffee?


B: I _______________(have) some coffee, please.

10. A: What are your plans for the holidays?


B: We _____________________(visit) our parents.

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VI. Circle the correct form of the verb in each sentence.

1. Im sorry. I cant talk now. Ill call / am going to call you later.

2. My sister will have / is going to have a baby in June.

3. A: Sorry. I cant take you to the airport. B: Dont worry. I will get / am going to get a taxi.

4. Ive decided to repaint my bedroom. Ill paint / m going to paint it white.

5. Were going to have dinner at 7:00 pm. After that, maybe we will watch / we are going to watch a
movie.

6. When I retire, I will travel / am going to travel to Europe to visit the most beautiful tourist places.

7. Anne and Tom decided not to study languages next year. Anne will study / is going to study
medicine and Tom will take/ is going to take a gap year.

8. Bye July. Ill phone / m going to phone you as soon as I get home!

9. We have thought about it and we have decided that we will get / are going to get married this year.

10. Mrs. Padilla, those bags seem very heavy. Ill help / m going to help you carry them.

25
UNIT 7
PRESENT PERFECT REVIEW
El presente perfecto se usa en el idioma ingls para narrar hechos que ya han ocurrido en
el pasado, pero no se menciona un tiempo exacto.
El presente perfecto tambin se usa para hablar de hechos que empezaron en el pasado y
continan hasta ahora.

El presente perfecto es tambin usado para hablar de acciones que han sido completadas
recientemente.

Ejemplos:
- I have already sent the letter. Yo ya he enviado la carta.(no digo cuando)
- She has been here four times. Ella ha estado aqu cuatro veces.
- I have worked here since 1998. He trabajado aqu desde 1998.(contino trabajando)
- Paul has just painted his room. Paul ha acabado de pintar su cuarto.(hace unos
minutos)

Conjugacin:

PRONOUNS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE QUESTIONS


Sujeto Auxiliar (have o has) + Verbo Auxiliar (havent o hasnt) + Auxiliar (have o has) + Sujeto +
(pasado participio) Verbo (pasado participio) Verbo (pasado participio)

I have eaten havent eaten Have you eaten ?

YOU have eaten havent eaten Have you eaten ?

HE has eaten hasnt eaten Has he eaten ?

SHE has eaten hasnt eaten Has she eaten ?

IT has eaten hasnt eaten Has it eaten ?

WE have eaten havent eaten Have we eaten ?

YOU have eaten havent eaten Have you eaten ?

THEY have eaten havent eaten Have they eaten ?

Oraciones Afirmativas
Para formar oraciones afirmativas en Presente Perfecto debemos utilizar el auxiliar HAVE o HAS
acompaado por el verbo principal en su Pasado Participio (ya sean verbos regulares o verbos
irregulares).

26
Sujeto + Auxiliar (have o has) + Verbo (pasado participio) + Complemento

I have bought a new dress for the party. Yo he comprado un nuevo vestido para la fiesta.
You have studied the lesson for two hours. T has estudiado la leccin por dos horas.
He has eaten pizza many times this month. l ha comido pizza muchas veces este mes.
She has lost the keys again. Ella ha perdido las llaves nuevamente.

Recuerde que las terceras personas del singular (He, she, it) deben conjugarse con el auxiliar
HAS.

Exercise 9

I. Circle has or have according to the subject.

1. My co-worker have / has achieved some objectives.


2. The appointment have / has been postponed.
3. My boss have / has sent my duties through Internet.
4. The messenger have / has forgotten the parcels on the desk.
5. My friends have / has called me several times today.
6. I have / has answered some phone calls in my new job.
7. The Directors have / has assigned me other tasks.
8. I have / has performed some different activities.
9. My secretary have / has written the reports.
10. My customers have / has read my emails but nobody has replied yet.

Oraciones Negativas
Para construir oraciones negativas en Presente Perfecto, utilizamos la forma negativa del auxiliar, es
decir HAVE NOT o HAS NOT acompaado por el verbo principal en su Pasado Participio.
Usualmente se utilizan las contracciones:

Have + not = havent o has + not = hasnt

Sujeto + Auxiliar (havent o hasnt) + Verbo (pasado participio) + Complemento

I havent visited my grandparents this year. Yo no he visitado a mis abuelos este ao.

You havent finished the homework yet. T no has terminado el deber todava.

He hasnt used the computer today. l no ha usado la computadora hoy da.

She hasnt taken a shower yet. Ella no se ha baado todava.

27
II. Put the words in the correct order and write negative sentences in Present Perfect Tense.
Example: on / plane / the / arrived / has / time
The plane hasnt arrived on time.

1. the / accomplished / project / objectives / its / has


_______________________________________________________
2. the / suggestion / have / managers / the / accepted
_______________________________________________________
3. ideas / the / has / auditor / new / recommended
_______________________________________________________
4. programs / audience / have / TV / the / increased / the
_______________________________________________________
5. my / has / years / paid / brother / taxes / the / 5 / in / last
_______________________________________________________
6. the / made / good / leaders / decisions / have
_______________________________________________________
7. degrees / graduate / their / reached / students / have / the
_______________________________________________________
8. trainers / good / have / the / courses / designed
_______________________________________________________
9. recently / has / better / Jennifer / got / a / job
_______________________________________________________
10. my / taken / parents / the / have / Europe / tour / to
_______________________________________________________

Preguntas de Si / No
Para formar una interrogacin, colocamos el auxiliar (have o has) al comienzo de la oracin, luego el
sujeto y posteriormente el verbo principal tambin en Pasado Participio:

Auxiliar (have o has) + Sujeto + Verbo (pasado participio) + Complemento?

Have you studied for the final exam this month? Has estudiado para el examen final este mes?
Have they arrived punctual to the class this level? Han llegado puntuales a la clase este nivel?
Has he cleaned his room? Ha limpiado su cuarto?
Has she called her daughter today? Ha llamado a su hija hoy da?

Para responder este tipo de preguntas en forma corta, necesitamos usar el sujeto y el auxiliar ya sea
en forma afirmativa o negativa.

Ejemplo:
- Have you finished the project?
Yes, I have. No, I havent.

- Has Paula eaten her lunch?


Yes, she has. No, she hasnt.

- Have they painted their house?


Yes, they have. No, they havent.

- Has the dog slept in the sofa?


Yes, it has. No, it hasnt.

28
III. Answer the following questions in short form.

1. Have you answered the question? ________________________________


2. Has Jenny locked the door? ________________________________
3. Has Patricio called us? ________________________________
4. Have you seen the picture? ________________________________
5. Have your parents got the letter? ________________________________
6. Has it rained a lot? ________________________________
7. Have we sung the song? ________________________________
8. Has Maureen watched the film? ________________________________
9. Has Bob read many books? ________________________________
10. Have you ever been to London? ________________________________

IV. Write questions in Present Perfect Tense by using the words in parenthesis. Dont forget to use the
past participle form of the verb.

Example: (your mother / dinner / cook ) Has your mother cooked dinner?

1. (you / a truck / drive) ________________________________________________


2. (perform / in / play / a / Karla) ________________________________________________
3. (my friends / achieve / goals / their) ________________________________________________
4. (taxes / pay / his / Ken) _______________________________________________
5. (Ron and you / race / win / the) ________________________________________________
6. (travel / to Colombia / Yadira ) ________________________________________________
7. (eat / sushi / you) ________________________________________________
8. (watch / Titanic / your parents) ________________________________________________
9. (finish / the homework / your friend) ________________________________________________
10. (call / your mother / you) ________________________________________________

Preguntas Informativas
Para formar una pregunta informativa, colocamos la pregunta informativa de acuerdo al tipo de
informacin requerida, seguido del auxiliar (have o has), luego el sujeto y posteriormente el verbo
principal tambin en Pasado Participio:

Wh + Auxiliar (have o has) + Sujeto + Verbo (pasado participio) + Complemento?

Where have you gone this week?

How long has she worked in that company?

29
Ejemplos:

- What have you learnt in your English class?


I have learnt new vocabulary.

- Where has your friend bought her books?


She has bought her books in the library.

- How long have they studied for the test?


They have studied for the test for two hours.

- Who has finished the English homework?


Everybody has finished the English homework.

- How many times have you been to Peru?


Ive been there three times.

V. Choose the correct answer.

1. How long has Mary driven her motorcycle?


a. Not bad. b. For two years. c. Lately. d. In 2006.

2. What have you eaten these days?


a. Vegetables. b. studied a lot. c. For two hours. d. The teacher.

3. What has your husband done lately?


a. At home. b. My parents. c. In summer. d. Read a book.

4. Where have you spent vacation?


a. In August. b. My family. c. At the beach. d. Swimming.

5. Who has left the books on the desk?


a. Henry. b. Since 1999. c. At the office. d. Dictionaries.

6. Where have the ladies come from?


a. At 5 pm. b. In Christmas. c. July and me. d. Italy.

7. Which movie has received the best review?


a. In February. b. At the university. c. Les Misrables. d. From Ecuador.

8. How have you been lately?


a. For one hour. b. Fine. c. My mother. d. At home.

9. How often has the manager come before 9 am?


a. Twice a month. b. In winter. c. Jason. d. For one year.

10. Why have you applied for the job?


a. My parents. b. In October. c. Twice. d. Because I have the
qualifications.

VI. Write questions based on the underlined words.


Example:
They have lived in Manta for five years. How long have they lived in Manta?

1. I have been in the garden for one hour. _________________________________________


2. My sister has cooked dinner. _______________________________________________

30
3. Sue has read the book twice. _______________________________________________
4. My friend has crashed his car. _______________________________________________
5. Jeanneth has been on holiday for eight days. ______________________________________
6. Freddy has done his homework. _______________________________________________
7. Gabriel has stopped at the corner. _______________________________________________
8. Sarah has bought five books. _______________________________________________
9. Jason has talked to his teacher. _______________________________________________
10. Catherine has cleaned the house because she is having a party tonight.
____________________________________________________

FOR and SINCE

For y Since sirven para delimitar el tiempo de la accin del verbo, establecen cuando la accin ha
concluido.

FOR DURANTE/POR
SINCE DESDE

Ejemplo:
- I have lived here for four years. Yo he vivido aqu durante 4 aos.
- I have lived here since 2011. Yo he vivido aqu desde el 2011.
- He hasnt studied for eight years. El no ha estudiado durante ocho aos.
- He hasnt studied since 2009. El no ha estudiado desde el 2009.

Observe que usamos for para expresar la duracin de una accin, y since para indicar cundo
comenz la accin.

VII. Complete these sentences. Use for o since.

1. I haven't phoned home _________ Christmas.


2. We've been here _________ 10 minutes.
3. I have worked for International House _________ eight years.
4. I haven't visited my home town_________ I left school.
5. I haven't been to the cinema_________ ages.
6. I have studied non-stop_________ 9:15.
7. I have had a driving license_________ I was eighteen.
8. She hasn't had a day off_________2010.
9. Johan has been in England_________ more than two weeks now.
10. Peter has been our best friend _________we were nine.

31
ALREADY and YET

ALREADY YA
YET TODAVIA NO, AUN

Already se utiliza en oraciones positivas e interrogativas para expresar que una accin ya ocurri o
que se lleva a cabo. Se coloca antes del verbo en participio pasado o al final de la oracin.

Ejemplo:
- I have already done my homework Yo ya he hecho mis deberes.
- Mary has visited London already. Mary ya ha visitado Londres.
- Has Ron already written the essay? Ya ha escrito Ron su ensayo?
- Have you made your bed already? Ya tendiste tu cama?

Yet se utiliza en oraciones negativas e interrogativas para expresar que una accin todava no ha
concluido. Yet se coloca al final de la oracin.

Ejemplo:
- I haven't done my homework yet. Yo todava no he hecho mis deberes.
- Have you studied Unit 3 yet? Ya has estudiado la unidad 3?

VIII. Use the following words and write sentences in Present Perfect. They can be positive, negative
or interrogative.
1. your wife / the baby / had / yet / has / ? _____________________________________________
2. No / hasnt / the baby / she / yet / had _____________________________________________
3. already / Rita / has / breakfast / had _______________________________________________
4. made / I / the / already / have / reservation___________________________________________
5. have /already / we / bought / some staff ___________________________________________
6. the time / I / to choose / havent / had / yet / the color __________________________________
7. lunch / had / We / yet / havent ___________________________________________________
8. for the baby / have / some names / you /yet / thought of / ? ______________________________
9. made / I / of names / already / have /a list ___________________________________________
10. you / finished / Have / already / project / the ? _______________________________________

IX. Write complete answers to the following questions. Use already in positive answers and yet in
negative answers.

Examples: - Have you eaten at the new seafood restaurant? Yes, I have already eaten there.
- Has your sister been to Montaita? No, she hasnt visited it yet.
1. Has Liz played tennis this month? Yes, __________________________________
2. Has your car been fixed yet? No, ___________________________________
3. Have you bought that new laptop? No, ___________________________________
4. Have your neighbors cut the old tree? Yes, __________________________________
5. Have you driven your car today? Yes, __________________________________
6. Have Charles and Ann gone to Brazil? No, __________________________________

32
7. Has Tom seen that film? Yes, __________________________________
8. Has the teacher given the results of the exams? No, __________________________________
9. Have you had lunch yet? Yes, __________________________________
10. Has your daughter read Harry Potter book? No, ___________________________________

JUST, EVER and NEVER

JUST ACABAR DE
EVER ALGUNA VEZ
NEVER NUNCA

Just se utliza para expresar acciones que han sucedido recientemente. Se coloca despus del
auxiliar have o has.
Ejemplo:

- I have just done my homework. Yo he acabado de hacer mis deberes.

Ever se utiliza en preguntas. Se coloca antes del verbo en participio pasado.


Ejemplo:

- Have you ever been to Spain? Has estado alguna vez en Espaa?

Never se utiliza en oraciones afirmativas, pero el significado es negativo. Cuando usamos never ya
no se usa not.
Ejemplo:

- I have never been to China. Nunca he estado en China.

INCORRECT I havent never been to China.

X. Use just, ever or never to complete the following sentences.

Example: - Sonia and Carlos have just had a baby girl. They are really happy.

1. Have you _____________ ridden a motorcycle?


2. Has David _____________ flown a plane?
3. The employees have _____________ received a bonus. They are not happy in their jobs.
4. Peter has _____________ bought a new car. It is a sports car.
5. My sister has _____________ been to Manchester. Shed like to visit it someday.
6. The intern has _____________ finished his classes. Hes free now.
7. Has your daughter _____________ been late for school?
8. Ive been to Canada but Ive _____________ been to The United States.
9. The President has _____________ won the election again.
10. Im not hungry. Ive ____________ had lunch with Tim.

33
UNIT 8
REPORTED SPEECH (STATEMENTS)
Reporte Directo e Indirecto

Cuando queremos comunicar o informar de lo que otra persona ha dicho, hay dos maneras de
hacerlo: utilizando el reporte directo o el reporte indirecto.

Reporte Directo (Direct Speech)

Cuando queremos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho, utilizamos el reporte directo.
Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas y deber ser palabra por palabra.

Ejemplos:

- I am going to Cuenca next week, she said.


"Voy a Cuenca la semana que viene," ella dijo.

- Do you have a pen? he asked.


"Tienes un bolgrafo?" l pregunt.

- Alicia said, "I love to dance."


Alicia dijo, "Me encanta bailar."

- Christian asked, "Would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow night?"
Christian pregunt, "Te gustara cenar conmigo maana por la noche?"

Reporte Indirecto (Indirect Speech)

El reporte indirecto, a diferencia del reporte directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra
por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el reporte indirecto, el tiempo verbal cambia. Para reportar lo
que otra persona ha dicho se usan los verbos: SAY o TELL

Ejemplos:

*Reporte de Oraciones

- Paola said (that) she was a new student.


Paola dijo que ella era una nueva estudiante.

- They told me (that) they would bake a cake for their parents.
Ellos dijeron que hornearan una torta para sus padres.

- The boy said (that) he could play soccer very well.


El nio dijo que l poda jugar futbol muy bien.

- The teacher told us (that) she would come back in one hour.
La profesora dijo que ella volvera en una hora.

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A continuacin se presenta un cuadro explicativo de los cambios de los tiempos verbales.

REPORTE DIRECTO REPORTE INDIRECTO

Present Simple Past Simple


"He's American" she said. She said he was American.
"I'm happy to see you," Maria said. Maria said that she was happy to see me.

Present Continuous Past Continuous


"Daniel is living in Loja," she said. She said Daniel was living in Loja.
He said, "I'm making dinner." He told me that he was making dinner.

Past Simple Past Perfect Simple


"We went to the movies last night," he said. He told me they had gone to the movies last night.
Luis said, "I didn't go to work yesterday." Luis said that he hadn't gone to work yesterday.

Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous


"I was working late last night," Vicki said. Vicki told me she'd been working last night.
They said, "We weren't waiting long." They said that they hadn't been waiting long.

Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple


Heather said, "I've already eaten." Heather told me that she'd already eaten.
"We haven't been to China," they said. They said they hadn't been to China.

Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous


"I've been studying English for two years," he said. He said he'd been studying English for two years.
Sofia said, "We've been dating for over a year Sofia told me that they'd been dating for over a
now." year.

Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple (*NO CHANGE)

"I'd been to Chicago before for work," he said. He said that he'd been to Chicago before for work.

Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous (*NO CHANGE)


She said, "I'd been dancing for years before the She said she'd been dancing for years before the
accident." accident.

Se puede usar "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra
persona. Thates opcional

Nota: Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado, es decir que todava es verdad o que es
en el futuro, no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal.

Ejemplos:

-"I'm 30 years old," she said. She said she is 30 years old.
-"I'll cut my hair tomorrow," Nina said. Nina said she is cutting her hair tomorrow.

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Reporte Indirecto con los verbos modales:

El tiempo verbal cambia en el reporte indirecto tambin con algunos de los verbos modales:

REPORTE DIRECTO REPORTE INDIRECTO


Will Would
Freddy said he would go to the movies
"I'll go to the movies tomorrow," Freddy said.
tomorrow.
Can Could
Debora said, "Andres can work tomorrow." Debora said Andres could work tomorrow.
Must Had to
"You must wear your seatbelt," mom said. My mom said we had to wear my seatbelt.
Shall Should
Tomas told me he should take care of the
"I Shall take care of the baby" Tomas said.
baby.
May Might/Could
Sandra said she might not be in class
Sandra said, "I may not be in class tomorrow."
tomorrow.

Los adverbios y expresiones adverbiales de lugar y tiempo cambian de la siguiente forma:

REPORTE DIRECTO REPORTE INDIRECTO


today that day
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
last week / year the previous week / year
a / two week / yearago a / twoweek / year before
tomorrow the next /following day
the day after tomorrow in two days' time
next week /year the following week / year
here there
now then
this that
these those

Cundo usar Say or Tell?

Say y Tell tienen significados similares. Los dos significan comunicarse verbalmente con
alguien. Pero se los usa en forma diferente.
You say something
You tell someone something

Ejemplos:
Susan said (that) she was busy. Susan told Jim (that) she was busy.
George said (that) he had a new computer. George told us (that) he had a new
computer.
They said (that) they werent home that day. They told me (that) they werent home that
day

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Exercise 10

I. Change the following sentences from direct speech to indirect speech.


Example: The teacher: The exam will not be difficult.
The tracher said that the exam would not be difficult

1. Juan:"Marcelo is at home."
___________________________________________________________________

2. Max:"Francis often reads a book."


___________________________________________________________________

3. Susan:"I'm watching TV."


___________________________________________________________________

4. Simon:"David was ill."


___________________________________________________________________

5. Patricia:"The girls helped in the house."


___________________________________________________________________

6. Ricardo:"I am going to ride a skateboard."


___________________________________________________________________

7. Stefani and Carlos:"We have cleaned the windows."


___________________________________________________________________

8. Charlie:"I didn't have time to do my homework."


___________________________________________________________________

9. Mrs. Salas:"My mother will be 50 years old."


___________________________________________________________________

10. Jane:"The boss must sign the letter."


___________________________________________________________________

II. Choose the correct option to complete the reported statements.

1. Sofia: "I love chocolate."


Sofia said (that) she __________ chocolate.
a. loved b. loves c. was loving

2. Patricio: "I went skiing."


Patricio said (that) he _________ skiing.
a. went b. had gone c. have gone

3. Maria: "I will eat steak for dinner."


Maria said (that) she __________ eat steak for dinner.
a. willing b. will c. would
4. Juan: "I have been to Loja twice."
Juan said (that) he __________ to Loja twice.
a. had been b. has been c. was being

5. My teacher: "I have had three cars."


My teacher said (that) he __________ three cars.
a. has b. has had c. had had

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6. My friends: "Were going to go to Tonsupa next holiday."
My friends said (that) they __________ going to go to Tonsupa next holiday.
a. were b. was c. are

7. Sebastian: "I don't like spinach."


Sebastian said (that) he __________ like spinach.
a. doesn't b. don't c. didn't

8. Mary: "I have never been to London."


Mary said (that) she __________ never been to London.
a. had b. has c. have

9. Daniela: "I was swimming with my friends last weekend."


Daniela said (that) she _________ swimming with her friends last weekend.
a. has been b. had been c. have been

10. Tim: "I have two beautiful cats."


Tim said (that) he had ___________some cats.
a. have b. has c. had

III. Finish the sentences using reported speech. Dont forget to change the expressions of time.

Example: Sarah: I was writing a letter yesterday.


Sarah told me that she had been writing a letter the day before.
1. Jack: Im doing my Math homework now
Jack said that __________________________________________________.
2. Michael: David has already been here three times.
Michael told me that _____________________________________________.
3. Peter and Helen: Our teacher will go to the museum tomorrow
Peter and Helen told me that _______________________________________.
4. Liz: I went to the swimming pool yesterday.
Liz told me that __________________________________________________.
5. Charlie: Somebody stole my car a few weeks ago.
Charlie said that _________________________________________________.
6. Sylvia: I must finish the report this Friday.
Sylvia said that __________________________________________________.
7. Roco: My husband works here every day.
Roco told us that _______________________________________________.
8. My parents: We didnt travel to Europe Last year.
My parents said that _____________________________________________.
9. Tom: I use these markers in class.
Tom told me that ________________________________________________.
10. Helen: My boyfriend is going to come next Friday
Helen told me that ______________________________________________.

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ANSWER KEY
UNIT 1
Exercise 1
I. II.
1. spent 1. broke
2. had 2. knew
3. traveled / visited 3. wrote
4. went 4. slept
5. learnt 5. wore
6. didnt drink 6. lost
7. didnt rain 7. began
8. saw 8. forgot
9. did you spend 9. saw
10. did she buy 10. gave
III.
1. Did she go to the beach?
2. Where did Christian live?
3. What did Alexander buy?
4. Did they have a son?
5. How much did it cost?
6. When did he go to the disco?
7. Why did you buy a laptop?
8. How many pets did Liza have?
9. Did he come home late last night?
10. Where did Tina stay last week?

Exercise 2
I. II. III.
1. had already left 1. a a. didnt have / had lost
2. had made 2. b b. was / had studied
3. hadnt done 3. b c. found/ had lost
4. had seen 4. a d. arrived / had already started
5. had paid 5. b e. felt / hadnt eaten
6. hadnt studied 6. c f. got/ had forgotten
7. had gone 7. a g. was/ had cleaned
8. had missed 8. b h. opened/ had forgotten
9. had built 9. b i. hadnt rained/ was
10. hadnt seen 10. a j. was / had eaten

UNIT 2
Exercise 3
I. II.
1. d 1. were would get
2. a 2. werent friends would be
3. f 3. werent would be
4. b 4. won would travel
5. g 5. spoke would have
6. c 6. would be - had
7. e 7. would have didnt buy
8. i 8. would come - had
9. j 9. would call - knew
10. h 10. would pass studied

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III. POSSIBLE ANSWERS
1. I had a lot of money 6. I were a millionaire
2. would travel around the world 7. would rent one to live in.
3. would play more often with my friends 8. I didnt have enough money
4. I didnt have to work. 9. would stay home more often.
5. would speak English fluently. 10. I didnt have to work so much.

UNIT 3
Exercise 4
I. II. III.
1. d 1. c 1. put away
2. e 2. d 2. put on
3. i 3. d 3. gets up
4. a 4. b 4. ran away
5. b 5. a 5. look after
6. c 6. b 6. passed away
7. j 7. b 7. put off
8. h 8. a 8. grew up
9. f 9. a 9. found out
10. g 10. c 10. give up

Exercise 5

I. II.
a. would like a. David would like to have a new car.
b. wants b. Sarah likes reading poetry.
c. hates c. Andrea hates to study History.
d. loves d. Brandon wants to live abroad.
e. likes e. Do you like dancing salsa?
f. wants f. My husband hates getting up early.
g. loves g. Irene loves making parties every weekend.
h. hate h. I hate putting away the toys in the box.
i. likes i. My sister likes looking after her little
j. hates children.
j. The boss would like to put off the meeting.

III. POSSIBLE ANSWERS


a. going to the beach.
b. working on the weekends
c. eating meat.
d. sleeping late
e. to have a house
f. driving his car
g. washing the dishes
h. going shopping
i. to drive a car.
j. to have my own business

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UNIT 4
Exercise 6
I. II.
a. active 1. d
b. active 2. b
c. passive 3. b
d. passive 4. a
e. passive 5. c
f. passive 6. d
g. active 7. a
h. active 8. b
i. active 9. a
j. passive 10. b

III.
1. A new car was bought by Michael last week.
2. A letter was written by Liza.
3. The box wasnt opened.
4. This photograph was taken by Samantha yesterday.
5. The thieves were caught by the police yesterday.
6. Where were those magazines bought?
7. A postcard from Canada was sent by my son.
8. This song wasnt written by John Lennon.
9. My car wasnt repaired by them last week.
10. Was the house sold by them?

UNIT 5
Exercise 7
I. Join the two sentences by using who for people and that for things.

1. Hes the man who painted my house.


2. What is the name of the boy who telephoned you?
3. What happened to the money that was on my desk?
4. Theyre the people who offered Sue a job.
5. The car that was stolen has now been found.
6. Shes the person who gives me a lift to work every day.
7. The lock that was broken has now been repaired.
8. Most of the people who work in Peters office are very nice.

II. Complete the sentences by using who for people and that for things.

1. who 6. who

2. who 7. that

3. that 8. that

4. that 9. who

5. who 10. that

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III. Answer the questions by using whose.
1. Hes the man whose flat was broken into.
2. They are the couple whose children were injured in the accident.
3. Shes the girl whose brother works in the post office.
4. They are the people whose credit cards were stolen.
5. Im the person whose mother phoned the police.

IV. Complete the sentences V. Complete the sentences VI. Match column A with
by using where, when or with whose, who, which, or column B in order to make a
why. where. clause
1. why 1. whose 1. d
2. where 2. where 2. e
3. when 3. whose 3. b
4. where 4. who 4. f
5. why 5. whose 5. a
6. when 6. who 6. c
7. whose
8. who
9. which
10. where

UNIT 6

Exercise 8

I. Write sentences by using the future will. II. Write negative or interrogative sentences by
Choose the appropriate verb from the box using the future will.
for each sentence.
1. will help 1. I will not / won't answer the question.
2. will get 2. Maybe she will not / won't read the book.
3. will win 3. Where will we meet?
4. will take 4. They will not / won't send the postcard.
5. will buy 5. Vanessa will not / won't catch the ball.
6. will do 6. James will not / won't open the door.
7. will stay 7. What will they eat tonight?.
8. will cook 8. Will you have fish for lunch?
9. will understand 9. She will not / won't give him the apple.
10. will go 10. When will she come back?

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III. Answer the questions by using the future IV. Complete the sentences with the correct form
be going to. These people have already of the verb by using the future be going to.
planned their activities.

1. She is going to call her boyfriend. 1. is going to rain


2. They are going to play squash. 2. are going to eat
3. She's going to visit her grandma. 3. am going to wear
4. Were going to walk in the mountains. 4. are not going to help
5. We're going to wash the car. 5. is not going to walk
6. I am going to brush my teeth. 6. Are you going to cook
7. He is going to repair the car. 7. is not going to share
8. They are going to light the bonfire. 8. Are they going to leave
9. We are going to learn Greek. 9. is she going to take part
10. I'm going to write some postcards. 10. I'm not going to spend

V. Complete the following sentences with the VI. Circle the correct form of the verb in each
correct form of the verb: Use will or be going to. sentence.

1. will go / ll go 1. ll call
2. is going to see / s going to see 2. is going to have
3. will do / ll do 3. will get
4. will help / ll help 4. m going to paint
5. will ----- visit / ll ------- visit 5. will watch
6. am not going to quit / m not going to quit 6. am going to travel
7. will arrive / ll arrive 7. is going to study / is going to take
8. are -----going to invite 8. ll phone
9. will have / ll have 9. are going to get
10. are going to visit 10. ll help

UNIT 7
Exercise 9

I. Circle has or have according II. Put the words in the correct order and write negative
to the subject. sentences in Present Perfect Tense.

1. has 1. The Project hasnt accomplished its objectives.


2. has 2. The managers havent accepted the suggestion.
3. has 3. The auditor hasnt recommended new ideas.
4. has 4. The TV programs havent increased the audience.
5. have 5. My brother hasnt paid taxes in the last 5 years.
6. have 6. The leaders havent made any good decisions.
7. have 7. The graduate students havent reached their degrees.
8. have 8. The trainers havent designed good courses.
9. has 9. Jennifer hasnt got a better job recently.
10. have 10. My parents havent taken the tour to Europe.

43
III. Answer the following questions in IV. Write questions in Present Perfect Tense by using
short form. the words in parenthesis. Dont forget to use the past
participle form of the verb.

1. Yes. I have. / No, I havent. 1. Have you driven a truck?


2. Yes, she has. / No, she hasnt. 2. Has Karla performed in a play?
3. Yes, he has. / No, he hasnt . 3. Have your friends achieved their goals?
4. Yes, I have. / No, I havent. 4. Has Ken paid his taxes?
5. Yes, they have. / No, I havent. 5. Have Ron and you won the race?
6. Yes, it has. / No, it hasnt 6. Has Yadira traveled to Colombia?
7. Yes, we have. / No, we havent 7. Have you eaten sushi?
8. Yes, he hasnt. / No, he hasnt. 8. Have your parents watched Titanic?
9. Yes, he has. / No, he hasnt. 9. Has your friend finished the homework?
10. Yes, I have. / No, I havent. 10. Has your mother called?

V. Choose the correct answer. VI. Write questions based on the underlined words.

1. b 1. Where have you been for an hour?


2. a 2. Who has cooked dinner?
3. d 3. How many times has Sue read the book?
4. c 4. Who has crashed his car?
5. a 5. How long has Jeanneth been on holiday?
6. d 6. What has Freddy done?
7. c 7. Where has Gabriel stopped?
8. b 8. How many books has Sarah bought?
9. a 9. Who has talked to his teacher?
10. d 10. Why has Catherine cleaned the house?

VII. Complete these sentences. Use VIII. Use the following words and write sentences in
for o since. Present Perfect.

1. since 1. Has your wife had the baby yet?


2. for 2. No, she hasnt had the baby yet.
3. for 3. Rita has already had breakfast.
4. since 4. I have already made the reservation.
5. for 5. We have already bought some staff.
6. since 6. I havent had the time to choose the color yet.
7. since 7. We havent had lunch yet.
8. since 8. Have you thought of some names for the baby yet?
9. for 9. I have already made a list names.
10. since 10. Have you finished the project already?

44
IX. Write complete answers to the following questions. Use X. Use just, ever or never to
already in positive answers and yet in negative answers. complete the following sentences.
1. Yes, she has already played tennis his month. 1. ever
2. No, it hasnt been fixed yet. 2. ever
3. No, I havent bought it yet. 3. never
4. Yes, they have (already) cut it already. 4. just
5. Yes, Ive already driven my car today. 5. never
6. No, they havent gone there yet. 6. just
7. Yes, he has already seen it (already). 7. ever
8. No, she hasnt given them yet. 8. never
9. Yes, Ive already had lunch (already) 9. just
10. No, she hasnt read it yet. 10. just

UNIT 8
Exercise 10

I. Change the following sentences from direct speech to indirect speech.


1. Juan said that Marcelo was at home.
2. Max told me that Francis often read a book.
3. Susan said that she was watching TV.
4. Simon said that David had been ill.
5. Patricia told me that the girls had helped in the house.
6. Ricardo said that he was going to ride a skateboard.
7. Stefani and Carlos told me that they had cleaned the windows.
8. Charlie said that he hadn't had time to do his homework.
9. Mrs. Salas told me that her mother would be 50 years old.
10. Jane said that the boss had to sign the letter.

II. Choose the correct option III. Finish the sentences using reported speech. Dont forget to
to complete the reported change the expressions of time.
statements.
1. a 1. he was doing his Math homework then.
2. b 2. David had already been there three times.
3. c 3. their teacher would go to the museum the following day.
4. a 4. she had gone to the swimming pool the day before.
5. c 5. somebody had stolen his car a few weeks before.
6. a 6. she had to finish the report that Friday.
7. c 7. her husband worked there every day.
8. a 8. they hadnt traveled to Europe the previous year.
9. b 9. he used those markers in class.
10. c 10. her boyfriend was going to come the following Friday.

45