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P Hoffmann* and CJ Potgieter**

*Associate Director: Potgieter Hattingh Inc.
**Director: Potgieter Hattingh Inc., P.O. Box 23083 Randburg Waterfront 2167


Bitumen rubber chip and spray seals have been used successfully in South Africa since
1982 and mostly on road rehabilitation projects.

The main advantage of bitumen rubber seals extra over a standard binder is its superior
waterproofing as well as its ability to prevent reflective cracks breaking through the newly
placed chip seals or asphalt overlays and its longevity. The higher spray rates together
with the better rheological properties of bitumen rubber modified binders provide the
following additional benefits.

• Widening of working temperature range (Fraass freezing point up to softening point).
• Reducing temperature sensitivity.
• Longevity due to anti-oxidants in tyre buffings.
• Better adhesion.
• Stress absorbing qualities.
• Better Average Least Dimension (ALD) aggregate stands because of high B-R
• Lesser stone embedment because of higher softening point.
• Resistance to binder absorption.
• Lesser pre-treatments.
• Superior elasticity and fatigue.

The aim of this paper is to present the South African design and construction procedures
which have had widespread success. This paper describes the latest design methods as
well as construction procedures of bitumen rubber chip and spray seals. Case studies are
presented to describe the performance history. It is concluded that bitumen rubber chip
seals are a viable and successful option on especially badly deteriorated roads where
normal binders are ineffective.


Seal work in South Africa in its elementary form consists of a coat of bituminous binder
sprayed on by a special bitumen distributor followed by a layer of stone. The stone or
aggregate is applied immediately after the binder and then rolled whilst the binder is still in
its hot fluid state. A second coat of bitumen together with a second layer of stone may then
be applied if a double seal is required. Both single and double seals may be finished off
with a fog spray. The aim being to achieve a dense impermeable surfacing.

Proceedings of the 26 Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2007) 9 - 12 July 2007
ISBN Number: 1-920-01702-X Pretoria, South Africa
Produced by: Document Transformation Technologies cc Conference organised by: Conference Planners

dust free riding surface for traffic with adequate skid resistance. Different B-R chip seal projects from the past were revisited by the authors to assess the quality and long-term behavior of this product in South Africa. Provide a safe all weather.5mm. which acts as stepping-stones. The excellent long-term performance over the past 20 years largely contributed to the good standing of B-R binder in South Africa. EVA. 19. The latter is carried by the aggregate. etc.5mm are normally not used for B-R since the voids are small and the B-R binder can only be sprayed at high application rate (>1. The Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI) in turn is constructed in between the old surfacing and asphalt overlay. With the advent of stress absorbing membrane high levels of waterproofing as well as crack retardation is possible.Provide a Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI) to prevent cracks from the underlying pavement reflecting through the new surfacing / overlays. 13. . . SBR.Protect the underlying layer from the abrasive and destructive forces of traffic and the environment.2mm to 9. The aggregate range from 26. The Stress Absorbing Membrane (SAM) is laid on top of the existing surfacing.8 ℓ / m2) to obtain uniformity of the spray. In practice the SAM and SAMI in South Africa is constructed as a B-R chip and spray seal[2]. This paper covers the following aspects: .0mm. Construction of B-R chip seals. Double seals consist of 19.) and is the more economical chip seal when assessed over its full life cycle. . 226 .5mm. Summary. Single or double seals with aggregates less than 9. Furthermore. B-R is especially suited to highly cracked pavements where it must be sealed and overlaid to prevent ingress of water. as in general. for single size aggregate. The primarily thin surfacings used on unstabilized bases in South Africa makes the pavement sensitive to moisture ingress and waterproofing is vital. . Design procedures for B-R chip sprays. .0mm plus 9. Justifications for the use of B-R modified binder. it cannot support the wheel loads. the main function of a surfacing seal is to: . Apart from the waterproofing the SAMI also provide an excellent method to prevent crack reflection through the asphalt overlay. . its high elasticity also helps to provide a waterproof layer over new construction of cement stabilized bases with shrinkage cracking. The aim of this paper is to present the South African design and construction procedures for B-R chip seals which have had widespread success. It is concluded in this paper that B-R chip seals outperformed conventional chip seals (penetration grade bitumen) and other modified binder seals (SBS.5mm. Whereas the bitumen provides the waterproofing membrane. Bitumen Rubber (B-R) has come to the fore in South Africa (SA) as the preferred modified binder for chip and spray applications during pavement rehabilitation for heavy traffic situations. retard crack propagation and to provide additional structural capacity in heavy traffic situations. Provide a waterproof cover to the underlying pavement.In South Africa.

227 . When the bitumen cools down in the afternoons the binder returns to its solid state but minus the lost volatiles. Although some of the base defects have reflected through.3 Longevity Because of the high softening point of B-R there is a largely reduced hardening / brittleness mechanisms and as described in 2. this is mostly accompanied by raising the Fraass brittle fracture temperature as well. We concluded that the B-R seals performed admirably over the last 20 years. the carbon-black chemical compounds used in the manufacture of tyres are excellent anti oxidants. road 343 (Brits). The combined anti-evaporation and anti-oxidants in B-R is largely responsible for the B-R binder’s superior longevity (up to 50% longer life time). Roads P1-6. 2. The upper limit of the binder at which it can be considered an elastic solid is taken as the softening point (+48oC for standard bitumen) i. the anti-ageing and longevity performed way above that of a conventional binder. The main reason for the introduction of B-R modified binder to South Africa in 1982 was to make available a superior B-R chip and spray that would successfully reduce reflection cracking and retard ageing. road MR27 (Stellenbosch). above this it is in the liquid phase. the lower end of ductility.1 Increasing the working temperature range Practitioners in SA assume the working temperature range to be that band of ambient temperatures between freezing on the lowest end and the upper extreme where the binder is in the liquid state. 2. The use of B-R binder with a softening point above 60oC is recommended in such hot climates since this ageing mechanism will be reduced from 1 500 to 100 hours per year[3]. In such cases the total working temperature range is merely lifted and not widened. National Road N2 (Somerset-West) and National Road N2 (Umdloti). The following paragraphs deal shortly with the topic. the bitumen enters the liquid phase where volatiles are lost with evaporation especially when vehicles generate hot winds in their slipstreams. Road authorities therefore expect a full justification of the use of B-R. BITUMEN RUBBER JUSTIFICATION Bitumen-Rubber binder in South Africa costs approximately 30% more than an unmodified binder resulting in a chip seal that is about 10% more expensive than a conventional seal. 343 and MR27 were revisited the past years. The first roads were road P1-6 (Potgietersrus). the more volatiles lost the quicker the ageing of the binder. Manufacturers of homogenous binders often claim that they can increase the softening point so that the binder remains a solid at elevated temperatures. Further.2 above. However. with the B-R good Fraass brittle fracture temperature it will rather flow plastically at temperatures as low as –20oC without brittle fracturing. Above this temperature. this is not the case with B-R binder.2 Reducing temperature sensitivity Conventional bitumen binders have softening points around +48oC. This reduction in exposure to the liquid phase and conservation of volatiles largely contributes to the longevity of B-R binder.2. Furthermore. Several road sections were paved in 1982 to evaluate the performance. the loss of volatiles is linked with the ageing of a binder i.e.e. The Fraass freezing point (less than –10oC) is considered the limit below which a conventional bitumen tends to brittle fracture i. 2.e. In SA some arid zones have road temperatures above 48oC for as much as 1 500 hours per year and above 60oC for about 100 hours per year.

although it must be added that the superior tensile strength of B-R binder also helps to resist the ripping open of the membrane in the vicinity of the crack. The finite element procedure was used to examine the distribution of stress in an overlay in the vicinity of a crack for situations with and without a SAMI. The number of chips remaining on the plate after impact is expressed as a percentage of the original number applied. but for B-R binder these minimums are lifted to 100% for both tests since it is so easy to achieve this with B-R. For conventional and homogenous binders the minimum percentage remaining is 95% (at 5oC) and 100% (at 50 oC). Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the effective stress distribution for a specific situation with and without the interlayer. as high as 800 micron can be effectively dampened this way. One such study focused on the use of Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMI’s)[6]. the plate is then turned around and a steel ball dropped on the plate. Comparing these stress contours on the figures. Hence it is more the reduction in stress contours that prevents crack propagation. Whenever cracking occurs. 2. 2. these assumptions do not hold as there are sharp discontinuities. heating the plate (two tests at 5oC and 50oC respectively). or relative crack movements under wheel loads. Some South African designers consider that crack activities. New overlay 100 New overlay 200 sealant) SAMI (Crack 300 100 600 100 Crack Existing surfacing Crack 100 Existing surfacing 100 100 Figure 1[6]: Effective stress distribution Figure 2[6]: Effective stress distribution in asphalt overlay (in psi) in asphalt overlay (in psi) with stress absorbing (SAMI) (SAMI) 228 .4 Better adhesion The modified Vialit adhesion test[5] is the specified test and comprises of sticking chips onto a plate. it is clear that there is a large reduction in stress levels at the top of the crack when a SAMI is used.5 Stress absorbing membrane Pavement structures are normally analysed by using multi layered models assuming homogenous isotropic linear elastic models. There have been a number of attempts to examine the problem of minimizing reflective cracking in asphalt overlays.

8mm. 10% FACT value of 335 kN and pre-coated). Thereafter the total road width was chip and spray sealed with a 13. by deliberately delaying rolling and under light traffic the chips will remain more proud and the B-R seal can be purposely constructed to accommodate more punching. This SAMI together with a 40mm B-R asphalt has successfully carried 11 x 106 E80 to date. especially the non-homogenous B-R binders. It is standard practice in South Africa to fill the SAMI voids in between the aggregate to as much as 80% full. With the individual chips being bound together with a more stiff binder the chip seal will have better load distributing characteristics since it will now act as a rigid and uniformly distributed load on top of the base. 2.4 to 2.7 Lesser stone embedment The modified binders. which is possible because of the binder’s higher stiffness. 2.8 ℓ/m2. However.6 Greater equivalent layer thickness Modified binders. Pockets here will lead to stripping should rainwater ever enter. In South Africa some aggregates (especially quartzitic sandstones from the Eastern Cape) are known to have long-term absorptive characteristics i. tear etc. On National Road N4.2mm aggregate at approximately 0. Filling SAMI voids up to 80% and not the normal chip and spray level of 45% requires about 1. The original cement treated base had measured crack activities measured up to 700 micron and deflections as high as 600 micron under a 80 kN dual wheel axle. The B-R binder spray rate was 2. this cover reduce embedment.e.2mm quartzite aggregate (with an ALD of 8. all to prevent pockets forming between the bottom of asphalt and top of seal binder. with time the lighter fractions of binder migrate into the chips. The upright position may be altered by quick rolling immediately behind the bitumen distributor or by heavy traffic during hot days early in its service life. Rehabilitation comprised the 25mm deep milling out of the asphalt and inlaying it immediately with a continuously graded asphalt. The latter technique is useful when rehabilitating lightly trafficked roads which are cracked and in a poor condition requiring a thick waterproofing seal. near Witbank. The migration or loss of binder on the 229 . an open graded asphalt failed in the slow lanes. the SAMI as seal is opened to traffic for only six weeks before overlaid with an asphalt. 2. However. wear. Alternatively a binder in its liquid state cannot bind the chips together so solidly that individual movement is prevented. hence punching-in is possible while the binder is in it’s liquid state. thus preventing individual chips from punching in. The problem that could arise out of this method is that the asphalt is still fresh and soft and that the chips could punch in. are stiffer than conventional binders. The mechanism is that during construction when the chips are spread they tend to fall upright and stay upright within this very stiff binder. The higher the softening point (such as for B-R binder) the less time the seal will be exposed to the punching in forces resulting in a reduced embedment over the seals life span. The South African designers take advantage of this condition and they reduce the design embedment of conventional binders by as much as 50% when using B-R binders.7 ℓ/m2.One of the oldest SAMI’s in South Africa was placed in 1986 and 19 years later it is still performing well[7]. after eight years the B-R binder is still successfully resisting punching-in and embedment. Chips standing upright create voids much larger than when they are lying with their least dimension vertical.6 more binder hence the very high application rates. The SAMI consisted of a 13. and especially B-R binder are used in South Africa to reduce the punching in of chips. Also.8 Resistance to binder absorption[9] Porous and dry surfacings tend to absorb binder often resulting in loss of aggregate from a new seal.01 m3/m2 and a B-R binder at approximately 1.

After construction started the road was found to be a more cracked state than it was at tender stage due to an extremely (and rare) wet rainy season. Also the portion of the seal close to Laingsburg will undergo severe temperature changes as it falls within the arid and dry “Moordenaars Karoo”. the maximum texture depth may be increased to 1mm and if a B-R is used up to 1. with resultant cost savings as shown in Table 1. After calculations it was found that if the slurry pre-treatment was left out a bitumen-rubber double seal could be constructed and at a lower cost. Normally. B-R binder is often prescribed because of its high softening point (less hours in liquid phase) and also because of its higher viscosity (reluctance to migrate) as a second line of defense in the unlikely event of the softening point of B-R be exceeded. A recent example of this type of saving is on the N1/4 from Touwsriver to Laingsburg. when the thicker B-R is preferred. Please note the difference in equivalent thickness between the 2nd and 3rd column.5mm fractions. Note that a gap grading is typically a grading with an absence of the 2. An S-E2 polymer modified double seal was initially specified. This phenomenon is encouraged by binders with a low softening point (softer binder). which is in the liquid phase for a longer period. if the texture depth is above 0.6mm. Table 1.2mm texture depth was used successfully. The real saving in this case is that construction activities need pass over the road one less time because pre-treatment is excluded. and a conventional binder is to be used.9 Lesser pre-treatment It is standard practice in South Africa to pre-treat existing surfacings before re-sealing. Structural equivalent with SAMI Equivalent bitumen Conventional dense Equivalent bitumen rubber rubber gap-graded graded asphalt (mm) gap-graded asphalt (mm) asphalt with SAMI (mm) 37 30 - 60 30 - 75 45 30 90 45 30 105 60 45 120 65 45 135 45 BR + 45 (AC) 60 150 45 BR + 60 (AC) 60 230 .10 Superior structural capacity The SAMI also enhances the asphalt’s structural capacity that provides a thinner but equivalent asphalt thickness. if the texture is too coarse.stone / binder interface results in a prematurely dried out seal. then a pre-treatment such as fog spray or slurry seal will be called for. The application of pre-coating fluids will also retard this migration action but not in the case of long-term absorption. 2. If a modified binder is used.00 to 6. 2. all because of the SAMI’s contribution to strength.

The crumbs are pulverized.0 – 4. if necessary. In the bitumen tanker or distributor it is heated. 11] Property Requirements Flash point 180 oC (minimum) Percentage by mass of saturated hydrocarbons 25 % (maximum) Percentage by mass of aromatic-unsaturated hydrocarbons 55 % (minimum) The bitumen-rubber blend. The more reliable manufacturers pre-select the type of tyre and have now standardized on 20% of rubber crumbs to simplify the process. must comply with the requirements of Table 4. and then it is sprayed using the same vehicle. and other approved materials are normally blended in a patented high-speed blender (3 000 r.m). Here the blend is elevated to temperatures of between 170 – 210oC and allowed to react for a minimum of 1.70 MB-4 0.1 Bitumen Rubber binder[2] In South Africa the rubber crumbs. Some manufacturers use the bitumen distributors as holding tanks i. steel cords and other contaminants. The base binder is usually an 80/100 penetration grade bitumen. The South African specification allows for 20 – 24% rubber and is given in Table 3.3. 11] Sieve analysis Percentage passing by Test method Sieve size (mm) mass 1. including extender oil and/or diluent. 231 .25 MB-16 Table 3. penetration grade bitumen.18 100 (minimum) 0. varying the rubber crumb content adds another variable and further complicates the manufacturing process. This blended bitumen is then pumped to a holding tank with continuous circulation and heating facilities. BS 903 30 % (minimum) carbon content Parts B11 and B12 Fibre length 6mm (maximum) Bulk Density (gm/cm3) 1.60 40 . Rubber crumb specification[2. A diluent is allowed and is a distillate of hydro-carbon. The South African specification for rubber crumbs appears in Table 2.e. Extender oil may be used to enhance the chemical digestion process and is a petroleum-derived resinous. Properties of extender oils[2.075 5 (maximum) Other requirements Test method Natural rubber hydro. the supplier must state in writing the percentage of rubber and the blending / reaction temperature he intends to use for his specific product. Prior to commencement of the work. Table 2. extender oil. chemically digested and re-circulated until the B-R conforms to the specification. Talc powder (max 4%) may be added during comminuting to ensure that the crumbs are free flowing and dry. However. The rubber crumbs are produced by processing and recycling pneumatic tyres using a mechanical comminuting process (cryogenic techniques are not used in South Africa). the blended bitumen are delivered directly to the bitumen distributor. free of fabric.10 – 1.p. CONSTRUCTION OF B-R CHIP SEALS 3.0 hours whilst the chemical digestion process is completed. high flash point aromatic hydrocarbon conforming to the SA specification as furnished in Table 2.

Figure 1 is a graph of B-R density vs.24 % Percentage of extender oil by mass of total blend 4 % (maximum) Percentage of diluent by mass of total blend 5 % (maximum) Blending / Reaction temperature 170oC . 11] Property Requirements Test method Compression recovery: MB-11 after 5 minutes 70% (minimum) after 1 hour 70% (minimum) after 4 hours 48% . Hence. If a supplier uses a diluent.s MB-13 Flow 15 mm . if parameters such as softening point. etc. The bitumen-rubber must comply with the requirements of Table 5.4. Table 4. resilience. then the time at which it must be tested must also be specified. It is South African practice to specify the time of sampling just before spraying. The contractor must provide the performance record for three recent projects of the materials he intends to use in order to assess the successful use of the materials.11] Property Requirements Percentage of rubber by mass of total blend 20 % .The actual percentage of rubber may not deviate by more than 1% from the stated value and the actual reaction temperature may not deviate by more than 10% from the stated value. is specified. compression recovery. 232 . viscosity.70 mm MB-12 The contractor must provide the engineer with time-temperature ratios in regard to the above properties of his specific product before work may start in order to determine the final process and the acceptance limits. Bitumen Rubber blend[2. No batch of bitumen rubber binder may be used unless tested and conforming to the requirements of Table 5. an ageing test may be required in which the binder is placed in an oven for 5 hours at 150oC.35% MB-10 Dynamic viscosity (Haake at 190oC) 20 .55% (minimum) Ring-and-ball softening point 55 to 62oC MB-17 Resilience (%) 13% .210oC Reaction time (reaction time commences when all the rubber 0. This information must be submitted at tender stage.40 DPa. A continuous record of both percentage rubber added and reaction temperatures must be kept on site by the contractor. The methods of testing bitumen-rubber material have been published in TG 1: The use of Modified Binders in Road Construction(11). A complication in testing B-R binder is that the chemical reaction changes whilst the product is still above 120oC. The information must include mean values obtained for the prescribed tests as well as any relevant comments.0 hours crumbs have been added to the blend) Table 5.5 . Blended Bitumen Rubber binder[2. time to demonstrate the time dependence. after which time it must comply with the above specifications.

0 88.100 100 9. extender oil must be a resinous.50 100 .30 85 – 100 4. .5mm 6.50 . . .5 82.0 79.30 85 . 0-5 0 . The bitumen and extender oil.11] Percentage by mass passing Sieve size (mm) 26.0 86. high flash point aromatic hydrocarbon conforming with the requirements in table 3.2mm 9. - Fines content: Material passing 0.3 78. .Hardness: The aggregate crushing value must not exceed 21 and when tested in accordance with South African TMH1 method B2 the 10% FACT value (dry) must be at least 210 kN and the wet to dry ratio must be at least 75%. .5 0.2 Aggregates for seals The aggregate must consist of approved crushed stone of the specified grade and size and must comply with the following requirements in regard to grading. 0-5 0 – 30 3.100 100 6. Grading: The grading must comply with the requirements set out in Table 6.100 100 - 13.0 85. hardness and shape: .30 85 . - 2.75 .35 . Table 6. . . 233 .5 a 0.5mm 19.5 0.00 0 . - 19.0 82. 0-5 0 . . The chemical composition of the base bitumen and the nature of the rubber dictate the need to introduce an extender oil.425mm sieve (max) *Note that the 26. Single-sized crushed aggregate grade[2. when combined must form a material that is chemically compatible with the rubber. .5mm stone is hardly used in seal applications and is not discussed further .7mm nominal nominal nominal nominal nominal size* size size size size 37.100 100 .20 0-5 0 .70 .0 80.50 85 . . 90. 88.5 0.30 85 .0 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Age Figure 1.36 . - 26. .0mm 13.5 0.7 Bulk 84. Bitumen Rubber time study If used. 3.

Photo 1: Spraying of Penetration Coat 234 .0mm. No B-R work must be done during foggy or rainy weather or when cold wind is blowing and the road surface temperature is below 30oC. .Weather limitations: The minimum road surface rising temperatures at which the spraying of the different types and grades of binder may be done are 25oC. 13.Overlay restrictions: When constructed to serve as a SAMI the seal must be left open to the atmosphere and be trafficked for a period of at least six weeks. 8.5 mm 30 For the Average Least Dimension (ALD) for the 19.The polishing stone value must be at least 50 unless otherwise specified or approved by the engineer.2mm and 9.0mm respectively. must comply with the requirements in Table 7.5mm aggregate must be 12.3 Construction of single and double aggregate seal[2] B-R binders are applied by means of a binder distributor. 3. Winter limitations: No B-R binder must be used for the purpose of constructing surface seals between the winter periods of 01 May to 31 August of any year. . Flakiness Index[2.0 mm 25 13. 11] Maximum flakiness index % Nominal size of aggregate Grade 1 19.0mm and 6. This allows locked in volatiles to evaporate or else these may dissolve the asphalt along the bottom contact plane of the overlay causing delamination. . The B-R tack coat must be uniformly sprayed on the properly cleaned and prepared existing surface over the full specified width of the seal (Photo 1). when tested in accordance with South African TMH1 method B3.0mm. Table 7. . Shape: The maximum flakiness index.2 mm 25 9.

until the entire surface has been covered at least three times with the wheels of the roller. If there are areas which are deficient in stone chips. rolling must commence.8l/m2 for the tack coat and 1. In Photo 2 the stone application rates can be seen.0 t per wheel must be used in the case of single seals. This prevents unnecessary punching of the 19mm stone into the underlying asphalt.8l/m2 for the penetration coat (Photo 2). The actual rates of application of binder and aggregate to be used in the construction are determined by the engineer. The aggregate must be applied uniformly by means of self-propelled chip spreaders. On the slow lane the ELV’s (Equivalent light vehicles) amounts to 55000 a day. The spraying of adjacent strips must overlap by 100mm subject to adjustment for the particular nozzle fan angle. Immediately after the B-R binder has been sprayed. The adjacent strip should not be sprayed before the preceding strip. The chip spreader must be so operated that the tack coat is covered with aggregate before the wheels of the chip spreader or truck pass over the uncovered tack coat. It is of utmost importance to chip the stones shoulder to shoulder in order construct a proper double seal. The application rates differed significantly between the slow and fast lanes as the traffic varies accordingly. 235 . The immediate application of the chips is of prime importance. A recent project on the N3/11 involved the construction of a 19mm and 9. This specific seal is also significantly more quite than most double seals as the wheels travel on the 9. Chips must not be placed on the 100mm overlap before the adjacent strip has been sprayed. A self propelled pneumatic tyred roller with a load of at least 2. from the shoulders inwards towards the crown of the road. The next step for the bitumen-rubber double seal is to compete with the thinner asphalt overlays albeit with a lower cost. Rollers must operate parallel to the centerline of the road. it must be covered with clean.5mm stone. This investigation is being done at the moment and will be reported on in good time.Where the tank of the binder distributor could become empty during spraying on gradients. after testing the aggregates and designing the seal as outlined in the next section. the spraying must be done while the binder distributor is moving uphill. excluding the 100mm overlap has been covered satisfactorily with chips. The application rates were kept to the minimum rates of 1. After the bituminous binder has set sufficiently to prevent any aggregate from being dislodged. additional material must be added by hand so as to leave a single layer of chips lying shoulder to shoulder. The spreading of the chips must be done as closely as possible behind the distributor.5mm double seal. dry aggregate. and a steel-wheeled roller may also be used in the case of double seals on condition that excessive crushing of the aggregate must not take place. Immediately after the aggregate has been applied. the surface is slowly dragged with a broom drag to ensure even distribution of the aggregate.

Climate – in humid areas the binder content is decreased. (e) The design method makes adjustment for factors such as .5mm double seal (note the stone application rates) 4. 1998)[10]. which is calculated from the corrected ball penetration test. (c) The required texture depth to provide adequate skid resistance is 0. Texture or porosity of existing surface . (d) The amount of embedment during construction may vary. (b) The amount of void loss due to traffic wear of the aggregate is dependent on the hardness of the stone and the traffic. and this is the terminal value at the end of the seal’s life. The design methods evolved from Hanson’s concept of partially filling the voids in the covering aggregate and the Average Least Dimension controls the volume of voids. The principles which are applied for seals constructed with conventional binders are as follows: (a) The minimum amount of voids to be filled with binder to prevent stone loss when there is no embedment into the underlying layer is 42% for single seals and 55% for double seals.Steep gradients – the binder content is reduced on steep uphills. which captures the best practice.7mm. but it is accepted that it is 50% of the total embedment with time. while in dry areas it is increased. 236 . Photo 2: 19mm and 9. DESIGN OF CHIP SEALS The design of chip seals is contained in TRH3: 1998 (COLTO. Mixed traffic is converted into equivalent light vehicles. .

temperature sensitivity. longevity. provides a greater application rate than for conventional binders. leaving greater voids that can be filled. This is particularly true for stiffer binders and lower traffic volumes.) imported from the tyres. Deviations from the design method for conventional binders are the following: (1) The binder property that has the most important influence on the binder application rate is its stiffness at the operating temperature. based on the softening point and traffic. For this reason it is of utmost importance that only high quality materials be used. adhesion. Great attention to detail is required since this seal is repeated for many kilometers.(f) The stone spread rate is a function of the Flakiness Index. Careful attention to the construction and the design of the B-R seals has been the underpinning philosophy for their successful use during more than 20 years. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chip and spray seals are micro thin considering the very heavy wheel loads it must carry. This is taken into account by reducing the total embedment to only 50% embedment to calculate the cold binder application rate. The coming of modified binders addressed this problem but not as successful as bitumen rubber modified binders. The superior behaviour of B-R binder is believed to come from the natural rubber digested into the bitumen’s as well as the anti-oxidants (carbon-black. 237 . reduced absorption. The correction in (1) above takes this into account. (3) The matrix formed acts more like a mat and the penetration of individual aggregate particles is less than when conventional binders are used. structural capacity. Conventional binders were found insufficient to accommodate the present traffic loadings and durability expectations. etc. 5. etc. The somewhat higher initial construction costs of B-R asphalt are negligible in view of the extended service life in difficult rehabilitation situations rendered by the chip and spray seals and SAMI’s when assessed over a full life cycle. A binder adjustment factor. The Ring and Ball softening point test sufficiently categorises the binder for this purpose. reduce embedment. because of the enhanced properties of bitumen-rubber considerably higher binder application rates can be tolerated than used in seals with conventional binders. SAMI. The properties largely enhanced by the digestion of rubber into bitumen is the widening of the temperature range. elasticity. (2) Because of the higher binder stiffness of bitumen-rubber the stone orientation is different from conventional seals. Experience has shown that. For this reason the South African procedures and specifications (as furnished in this paper) sets very high standards.

[4] TECHNICAL METHODS FOR HIGHWAYS – SOUTH AFRICA (TMH1).S... AND POTGIETER C. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . Pretoria.. REFERENCES [1] SABITA .. 238 . Swaziland. Transportek. Proceedings of the 21st South African Transport Conference. AND KLEYN e. . Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa. [10] COLTO .S. Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Works for State Road Authorities. Proceedings of the South African Transport Conference. AND COETSEE J.. 1989.J. Bitumen Rubber Asphalts and Seals – A report on full scale applications.All the consulting engineers and their technicians who diligently worked on these projects. 1998..COMMITTEE OF LAND TRANSPORT OFFICIALS-SOUTH AFRICA. Pretoria.. Standard Test Methods for Road Construction Materials. COETSEE J. Surfacing seals for rural and urban roads.J. 7. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Asphalt Pavement. BOTHA P. [8] RENSHAW R. AND UECKERMAN O. 1989.J. 1994.6... Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa. [9] POTGIETER C.J. [6] POTGIETER C. Cape Town. 2002. Manual 15. Failure of a Cape Seal in Karoo conditions and rehabilitation thereof. 1998. 1986. Swaziland. 1998.E. 1998.) who contributed largely to the importation of Arm-R-Shield bitumen rubber technology to South Africa. The authors wish to acknowledge the input by Ronnie Renshaw (Pr. [11] Asphalt Academy. Review of the performance of a Bitumen Rubber over a six-year period. SADLER D.. TG 1.All the State Road Authorities and personnel (National Roads Agency.. [3] PRINSLOO M.. Copenhagen. [2] COLTO . [5] SABITA .g. Crack Sealing: How and when.SOUTH AFRICAN BITUMEN AND TAR ASSOCIATION.M.H. 2001. CSIR.H. .. Pretoria. Modified Binders ’98 – Seminars. Bitumen Rubber Asphalt: Report on the long term performance in South Africa. [7] POTGIETER C. 1998.SOUTH AFRICAN BITUMEN AND TAR ASSOCIATION. Technical Guidelines for Seals using Homogeneous Modified Binders. Technical Guidelines: The use of Modified Bituminous Binders in Road Construction. RENSHAW R. Eng.J.COMMITTEE OF LAND TRANSPORT OFFICIALS-SOUTH AFRICA (TRH3). Provinces and Metropoles) who pioneered this fine product into South Africa. STRAUSS P. AND DE VILLIERS E.