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Grammar 1A

Present Tenses: Present simple. Present continuous; Stative Verbs


1.1| PRESENT TENSES
Complete the tables below with the uses of Present Simple and Present Continuous. The first letter
has been hinted for you.
1.1A| PRESENT SIMPLE
use example
1. General t and Superconductors are materials that conduct electricity and do not
f_ create electrical resistance.
Emotional and physical changes in adolescence mean that
teenagers often behave unpredictably.
2. P_ states A good relationship combines love, trust and friendship.
Alice works for an insurance company.
3. H actions, often with He frequently responds angrily to even the slightest criticism.
a of f
TIME EXPRESSIONS: always, usually, generally, mainly,
traditionally, regularly, normally, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom,
never, whenever, nowadays, these days, from time to time, every
now and then, most/much of the time, as a rule, on a daily basis,
forty times a minute, every hour on the hour, in quick
succession, once in a blue moon,
NOTICE! We cannot use never again with the present simple:
X I never speak to you again. | Im never speaking to you again.
4. T ,s The fast train to London leaves at 7.39 and gets into Paddington
at 8.45. Then you catch the Heathrow Express to the airport it
goes every fifteen minutes.
5. E_ form The bus isnt quicker than the train but it does stop right outside
the factory.
Actually, I do like going by bus for short distances.

1.1B| PRESENT CONTINUOUS


use example
1. An activity which is in Im cooking lunch for the kids, can I call you back later?
p as we speak
TIME EXPRESSIONS: now, right now, for now, currently, at the
moment, just, for the time being, at present, today, this week,
temporarily, etc.
NOTICE! In these cases we dont use the present continuous:
Here is coming the postman. | Here comes the postman.
There is going the last bus. | There goes the last bus.
2. T states Janet is away on maternity leave, so I am organizing the
conferences and book launches.

HINTS: now, at the moment, at present, just, etc.


3. T ,c or That group is becoming more well known.
d The latest economic statistics from the European Central Bank
show that both unemployment and inflation are falling in the
Eurozone countries, and that the economy is growing at an
annual rate of 2.6%.
4. R actions, often to The neighbours are always slamming doors and shouting during
show a the night. Its so annoying.
Mark is continually losing his keys.
HINTS: always, continually, constantly, forever

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5. A_ Were seeing a musical at the theatre next week. [Weve got
the tickets.]
Computer City has announced that it is opening four new shops
next month. [It has finished most of the preparations]

NOTICE! With events that are beyond human control (the weather),
we dont use present continuous.
It is snowing tomorrow. | It is going to snow tomorrow. / It
will snow tomorrow. (P )

1.1 C| PRONUNCIATION: -S ENDINGS

We pronounce s endings on simple present verbs (likes, watches, reads), plural nouns (dogs, cats,
horses), and possessives (Georges, Lauras, its) in three ways: /s/, /z/, and /z/ or /z/.
In words that end in the hissing, sibilant sounds: /s/, /z/, //, //, /t/, /d/ add the syllable /z/ or /z/.
In words ending in a voiced sound and vowels: /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, //, /m/, /n/, //, /l/, /r/ add the sound /z/,
as in zoo.
In words ending in a voiceless sound: /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, // add the sound /s/, as in so.
I. Circle the word with the underlined letter(s) pronounced differently from those of the others.
1. A. requests B. questions C. calculates D. attacks
2. A. promise B. purpose C. increase D. please
3. A. bruises B. garages C. clothes D. pages
4. A. decision B. decisive C. describe D. generous
5. A. anniversary B. possessive C. positive D. criticise

II. Circle the word with the main stress pattern placed differently from that of the others.
6. A. teenage B. precise C. usual D. household
7. A. formula B. scenario C. according D. conducted
8. A. bewilder B. remember C. responding D. usually
9. A. contribute B. dynamics C. imagine D. devastate
10. A. specific B. pragmatic C. interesting D. contemporary

1.2 | STATIVE VERBS


Stative verbs describe unchanging states, rather than changing actions or events. Therefore, they are not
normally used in the Continuous.

1.2A| COMMON STATIVE VERBS


Wants and
Appearances Emotions Mental States Perception and the Senses Possession
Preferences
appear abhor agree favor ache belong desire
be admire amaze feel (= believe) feel consist need
concern adore amuse figure (= assume) hear contain prefer
exist appeal annoy find (= believe) hurt have want
indicate appreciate assume guess notice own wish
look care astonish hesitate observe pertain
mean desire believe hope perceive possess Other
parallel despise bore imagine see
represent detest care imply sense cost
resemble dislike consider impress smart depend
seem doubt deem infer smell deserve
signify empathize deny know sound equal
envy disagree mean taste fit
fear disbelieve mind include
forgive entertain (= amuse) presume intend
hate estimate realize lack
hope expect recognize matter
like fancy recollect measure
love forget suspect owe
pity remember think (= believe) refuse
regret revere tire suffice

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respect see (= understand) understand weigh
satisfy suit wonder
sympathize suppose
trust

1.2B| WHEN STATIVE VERBS CAN BE USED IN THE CONTINUOUS

List of common stative verbs that are sometimes used in the continuous

ache be empathize have indicate perceive sense


admire bore entertain hear lack presume smell
agree consider expect hesitate like realize sympathize
amuse cost favor hope look refuse taste
annoy deny feel hurt love represent think
anticipate depend figure imagine mean see weigh
attract disagree find imply mind sound wonder
assume doubt guess impress notice weigh
appeal include observe
Those verbs can express different meanings or temporary actions when it is used in the Continuous.
The table shows some of the common differences in use:

verb use in present form use in continuous form


Madonna is currently appearing / often appears
The new treatment for influenza doesn't
appear in a musical on Broadway. (appear = take part,
appear to work. (appear = seem)
perform)
You son is being very obedient at the moment.
be Your son is a very obedient child, isnt he?
[He is behaving obediently.]
feel I feel what we did was wrong. (opinion) I am feeling exhausted. (physical reaction)
My uniform doesnt fit me. [It isnt in the We are fitting a new kitchen next week.
fit
right size.] [installing]
Shes having a baby. [Shes pregnant.]
She has a baby. [It is already born.]
have Shes having an operation/a good time/a meal/a
She has a big car. (possession)
bath. (actively involved in)
More schools include Shakespeare on their More schools are including Shakespeare on
include
syllabuses. (state) their syllabuses. (change / development)
love, Most people love / like eating out. [They like She is loving / is liking every minute of her
like in general.] holiday. [She likes specifically.]
Youre always meaning to call us, but you never
mean The sign means slow down.
do. (= are intending)
Im seeing her later. [I have an appointment]
I see what youre on about. (see =
see Youre seeing things theres nobody at the
understand)
window. (see = imagine)
I'm thinking of going in August. / Your trouble is
think Do you think it's a good idea? (opinion)
you think too much. (think = consider)
Im weighing the ingredients for the cake.
weigh She weighs 70 kilos.
(action of weighing)
With verbs describing physical feelings (ache, feel, hurt) we can use the simple or continuous with little
or no difference in meaning:
o My head aches / is aching.
o How are you feeling? / How do you feel now?
o My wrist hurts / is hurting again.
Sense verbs (hear, notice, see, smell, taste, etc.)
o I (can) taste cream in this. (there is cream in the dish; involuntary action)
I am tasting the cream. (the cream may be off; intentional action)
o I see a man standing at the corner of the street. (involuntary sense)
I am seeing a new man at present. (= going out with; intentional action)
o Can you keep the noise down? I am hearing / listening to the music. (intentional action)

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