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History of India

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This article is about the history of the Indian subcontinent with India in focus prior to the partition of
India in 1947. For the modern Republic of India, see History of the Republic of India.
For Pakistan and Bangladesh in focus, see History of Pakistan and History of Bangladesh.
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History of India

Ancient[show]

Classical[show]

Early Medieval[show]

Late Medieval[show]

Early Modern[show]

Modern[show]

Related articles[show]

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Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)[show]

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)[show]

Chalcolithic (3500–1500 BC)[show]

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)[show]

Iron Age (1300–230 BC)[show]

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)[show]

Late Medieval Period (1206–1600)[show]

Early Modern Period (1526–1858)[show]

Colonial States (1510–1961)[show]

Sri Lankan Kingdoms (544 BC–AD 1948)[show]

National histories[show]

Regional histories[show]

Specialised histories[show]

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The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent;
the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of
the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation;[1] the rise
of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;[2][3] the onset of a succession of powerful dynasties and
empires for more than three millennia throughout various geographic areas of the subcontinent,
including the growth of Muslim dominions during the Medieval period intertwined with Hindu
powers;[4][5] the advent of European traders and privateers, resulting in the establishment of British
India; and the subsequent independence movement that led to the Partition of India and the creation
of the Republic of India.[6]
Considered a cradle of civilisation,[7] the Indus Valley Civilisation, which spread and flourished in the
north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1300 BCE, was the first major civilisation
in South Asia.[8] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature
Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.[9] This civilisation collapsed at the start of the second
millennium BCE and was later followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilisation. The era saw the
composition of the Vedas, the seminal texts of Hinduism, coalesce into Janapadas (monarchical,
state-level polities), and social stratification based on caste. The Later Vedic Civilisation extended
over the Indo-Gangetic plain and much of the subcontinent, as well as witnessed the rise of major
polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Gautama

Buddha and Mahavira propagated their Shramanic philosophies during the fifth and sixth century
BCE.
Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries
BCE. From the 3rd century BCE onwards Prakrit and Pali literature in the north and
the Tamil Sangam literature in southern India started to flourish.[10][11] Wootz steeloriginated in south
India in the 3rd century BCE and was exported to foreign countries.[12][13][14] During the Classical
period, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among
which the Gupta Empire stands out. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual
resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian
civilisation, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia,
while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Middle East and
the Mediterranean. Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to
the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia (Greater India).[15][16]
The most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred
on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire,
and Gurjara Pratihara Empire. Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the
middle of the fifth century, most notable being the Chalukya, Chola, Pallava, Chera, Pandyan,
and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully
invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Maldivesand Bengal[17] in the 11th century.[18][19] The early
medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in
the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced.[20]
Muslim rule started in parts of north India in the 13th century when the Delhi Sultanate was founded
in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks;[21] though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into
modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the 8th century.[22]The Delhi Sultanate ruled the major
part of northern India in the early 14th century, but declined in the late 14th century. This period also
saw the emergence of several powerful Hindu states, notably Vijayanagara, Gajapati, Ahom, as well
as Rajput states, such as Mewar. The 15th century saw the advent of Sikhism. The early modern
period began in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empireconquered most of the Indian
subcontinent.[23] The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which
provided opportunities for the Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and Mysore Kingdom to exercise control
over large areas of the subcontinent.[24][25]
From the late 18th century to the mid-19th century, large areas of India were annexed by the British
East India Company of the British Empire. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian
Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British
Crown and witnessed a period of rapid development of infrastructure, economic decline and major
famines.[26][27][28][29][30] During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence
was launched with the leading party involved being the Indian National Congress which was later
joined by other organisations. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in
1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and
the princely states all acceded to one of the new states.

Contents
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 1Chronology of Indian history
 2Prehistoric era (until c. 1500 BCE)
o 2.1Stone Age
o 2.2Indus Valley Civilisation
o 2.3Dravidian origins
 3Vedic period (c. 1500 BCE–600 BCE)
o 3.1Vedic society
o 3.2Sanskritisation
o 3.3Iron Age Kingdoms
o 3.4Sanskrit Epics
 4"Second urbanisation" (c. 600 BCE–200 BCE)
o 4.1Mahajanapadas
o 4.2Upanishads and Shramana movements

5Vijayanagara Empire o 6.[32] The division into Ancient-Medieval-Modern periods .1Notes o 11.8Independence and partition (c. Muslim and British civilisations.5European exploration and colonialism  8Modern period and independence (after c.4Famines o 8.3Delhi Sultanate o 6.4Bhakti movement and Sikhism o 6.2Historiography o 12. 200 BCE–1200 CE) o 5.6Sangam Period  5Classical to early medieval periods (c. Another influential periodisation is the division into "ancient.3Bengal Renaissance o 8.3Sources  12Further reading o 12.2Maratha Empire o 7.5Maurya Empire o 4.3Early medieval period (c. 1850 CE) o 8. distinguished three phases in the history of India.3Primary  13External links Chronology of Indian history[edit] See also: Outline of South Asian history [show]Chronology of India James Mill (1773–1836).[31] Romila Thapar notes that the division into Hindu-Muslim-British periods of Indian history gives too much weight to "ruling dynasties and foreign invasions". but has also been criticised for the misconceptions it gave rise to.5The Indian independence movement o 8.3Magadha dynasties o 4. This periodisation has been influential. 1526 – 1858 CE) o 7. 1947–present)  9Historiography  10See also  11References o 11.2British Raj (c. 320–650 CE) o 5.2Citations o 11. 650–1200 CE)  6Late medieval period (c.1Early classical period (c.4Persians and Greeks in northwest South Asia o 4. although this periodisation has also been criticised. 1946 – 1947) o 8. classical. medieval and modern periods".2Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests o 6. o 4. 1858 – 1947) o 8.6Regional powers  7Early modern period (c.3Sikh Empire o 7. 1200 – 1526 CE) o 6.[32] neglecting the social-economic history which often showed a strong continuity. in his The History of British India (1817).7After World War II (c.2Classical period (c.6World War II o 8. 200 BCE–320 CE) o 5.1Growth of Muslim population o 6. namely Hindu.1General o 12.1The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences o 8.1Mughal Empire o 7.4Other kingdoms o 7.

000 years ago.[55] Indus Valley Civilisation[edit] Main article: Indus Valley Civilisation . 1500 BCE)[edit] Stone Age[edit] Main article: South Asian Stone Age Further information: Bhimbetka rock shelters. Evidence of anatomically modern humans in the Indian subcontinent is recorded as long as 75. and Nepal. and Mehrgarh Bhimbetka rock painting.[42][43][44] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India.[35][36]Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. Madhya Pradesh. or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500. The Edakkal Caves are pictorial writings believed to date to at least 6. Edakkal Cave. India. Pakistan.[45][46][47] The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period.[52] Neolithic agricultural cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE.000 years ago. somewhere between 500.[33][note 1] Prehistoric era (until c.[48][49] from the Neolithic man.000 and 200.[50] The Stone Age carvings of Edakkal are rare and are the only known examples from South India. while the south was never completely conquered. represented by the Bhirrana findings (7570–6200 BCE) in Haryana. Pakistan.000 years ago.[37][38] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[39] and some of its major civilisations. when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12. Bhirrana.000 BCE) writings of Edakkal Caves in Kerala.[40][41] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the Palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.000 years old).overlooks the fact that the Muslim conquests occurred gradually during which time many things came and went off. spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE.[39][53][54] and later in Southern India.000 years ago.000 BCE. The first confirmed semi-permanent settlements appeared 9.[51] Traces of a Neolithic culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India. in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE.[32] According to Thapar. which are not strictly related to a change of ruling powers. Stone age (6.[34] Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era. a periodisation could also be based on "significant social and economic changes". India (c. radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE. The first urban civilisation of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilisation.000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh. indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilisation or settlement in Kerala. India as well as Mehrgarh findings (7000– 5000 BCE) in Balochistan. India. 30.

 The Pashupati seal. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar- Hakra River valley. 2500–1900 BCE. The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilisation. and Rhinoceros. Elephant.[40] the Ganges-Yamuna Doab.  Dholavira.[57] and south-eastern Afghanistan.[58] The Indus civilisation is one of three in the 'Ancient East' that.[56] Gujarat. It is also the most expansive in area and population. was a cradle of civilisation in the Old World. Indus Valley Civilisation  "Priest King" of Indus Valley Civilisation. showing a seated and possibly tricephalic figure. surrounded by animals.[59][60][61][62][63][64] . along with Mesopotamia and Pharonic Egypt.  Indus valley seals with Bull. the statue is carved from steatite. one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation.

Kamil Zvelebil.[71] Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Ganeriwala. Bloch and M.[65] Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley. Witzel believe that the Indo-Aryans moved into an already Dravidian speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Vedawere already composed. and Historical Vedic religion See also: Proto-Indo-Europeans. The civilisation included urban centres such as Dholavira. perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages. Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. Indigenous Aryans.[75] Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras.[78] Vedic period (c. and some elements of the Indus Civilisation may have survived. and by around 1700 BCE. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption. who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption. the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly. Haryana. seal carving). they proposed readings of many signs. Rakhigarhi. Indo-Aryan migration theory. and Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia Linguists hypothesized that Dravidian-speaking people were spread throughout the Indian subcontinent before a series of Indo-Aryan migrations. and Proto-Indo- Iranian religion [show]Spread of IE-languages [show]Indo-Aryan migration . and Balochistan provinces). The civilisation is noted for its cities built of brick. associated in the Doab region with the Ochre Coloured Pottery. along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. and produced copper. lead. Proto-Indo-European religion.[69][70] Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". Historically part of Ancient India. the early Indus Valley civilisation is often identified as having been Dravidian. Ropar. based on computer analysis. Kalibangan. The Mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE.[66] During the late period of this civilisation.The civilisation was primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification. bronze. "the general picture presented by the late Harappan phase is one of a breakdown of urban networks and an expansion of rural ones. Vedic period. and multi-storeyed houses and is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation. Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit."[67] The Indian Copper Hoard Culture is attributed to this time. roadside drainage system. an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language.[68]Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras. Punjab. it is one of the world's earliest urban civilisations. Dravidian people. However. and tin. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book "Deciphering the Indus Script.[73][74] While. marking the beginning of urban civilisation on the subcontinent. developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products. the Harappans.e. especially in the smaller villages and isolated farms.[76] While some scholars like J. 1500 BCE–600 BCE)[edit] Main articles: Indo-Aryan peoples. signs of a gradual decline began to emerge. and Mohenjo-daro in modern-day Pakistan. as well as Harappa. In this view. Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested. Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (Sindh. and Lothal in modern-day India. most of the cities were abandoned. Indo-Iranians.[77] The Brahui population of Balochistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population."[72] The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE. some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. Dravidian origins[edit] Main articles: Proto-Dravidian. i. According to historian Upinder Singh.

in part. the Aryan society began to expand from the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. many of the previous small tribal units and chiefdoms began to coalesce into Janapadas (monarchical. In terms of culture.[94] During this period. It became increasingly agricultural and was socially organised around the hierarchy of the four varnas.The Vedic period is named after the Indo-Aryan culture of north-west India. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India.[90] The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds.[83][84] The peepal tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda. Malwa.[89] At this time. guided by the royal . Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.[91][92] At the end of the Rigvedic period. Aryan society consisted of largely tribal and pastoral groups. between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas.[87][88] in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. believed to have been compiled during 2nd millennium BCE.[93] but also eventually by the excluding of indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure. lasting from about 1500 to 500 BCE. allied with other tribes of the Northwest India. many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period.[79] The Vedic period. to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts.[85] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later. a Vedic deity who presides over procreation and protection of life. like dharma. into the western Ganges plain.[96] the Battle of the Ten Kings. still sacred to Hindus.  A steel engraving from the 1850s.[82] Vedic society[edit] See also: List of Rigvedic tribes Vedic society  Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli. distinct from the Harappan urbanisation which had been abandoned.[95] In the 14th century BCE. This social structure was characterised both by syncretising with the native cultures of northern India. which depicts the creative activities of Prajapati. trace their roots to Vedic antecedents.[86] Early Vedic society is described in the Rigveda.[80][81]contributed the foundations of several cultural aspects of the Indian subcontinent. the oldest Vedic text. state-level polities). or social classes. The Vedic culture is described in the texts of Vedas. although other parts of India had a distinct cultural identity during this period.[82]Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. 1300 BCE.

[91] is believed to correspond to the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms.[97] Sanskritisation[edit] Main article: Sanskritisation Since Vedic times. which are realms. the Panchala kingdom. The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent from about 1200 BCE to the 6th century BCE is defined by the rise of Janapadas.[101] as well as with the composition of the Atharvaveda (the first Indian text to mention iron. first state level society during the Vedic period. whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya.[99][100] The Kuru kingdom was the first state-level society of the Vedic period. Panchala.[104] When the Kuru kingdom declined.[106] The later part of this period corresponds with a consolidation of increasingly large states and kingdoms. Videha. who defeats other Vedic tribes—leading to the emergence of the Kuru Kingdom. Sanskrit Epics[edit] Main articles: Mahabharata and Ramayana Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra. Kosala. Aruni.[103] The archaeological Painted Grey Ware culture. all across Northern India. corresponding to the beginning of the Iron Age in northwestern India. Kosala. beginning of Iron Age kingdoms in India — Kuru. which flourished in the Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh regions of northern India from about 1100 to 600 BCE.[98] Iron Age Kingdoms[edit] Main article: Janapada Late Vedic era map showing the boundaries of Āryāvarta with Janapadas in northern India.[103] Two key figures of the Kuru state were king Parikshit and his successor Janamejaya.[92] reaching its prominence under the king Janaka.[102] The Kuru state organised the Vedic hymns into collections.sage Vishvamitra. literally "black metal").[98] It is reflected in the tendency to identify local deities with the gods of the Sanskrit texts. called mahajanapadas. republics and kingdoms — notably the Iron Age Kingdoms of Kuru. the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture. and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas. . situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India).[98][note 2] "people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms". Videha. Panchala. a process sometimes called Sanskritisation. and Gargi Vachaknavi. around 1200 – 800 BCE. transforming this realm into the dominant political and cultural power of northern Iron Age India. and developed the orthodox srauta ritual to uphold the social order.[103][105] During the Late Vedic Period. the centre of Vedic culture shifted to their eastern neighbours. as śyāma ayas.

[113] The foundations for the Second Urbanisation were laid prior to 600 BCE.[111][112] "Second urbanisation" (c. in the Painted Grey Ware culture of the Ghaggar-Hakra and Upper Ganges Plain.[109] The existing texts of these epics are believed to belong to the post- Vedic age.[121] . 300 BCE. 600 BCE–200 BCE)[edit] During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Śramaṇa movement formed. which were sixteen powerful and vast kingdoms or oligarchicrepublics. with new urban settlements arising at the Ganges plain. the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period. Avanti. Chedi. There is no conclusive proof from archaeology as to whether the specific events of the Mahabharata have any historical basis. forming the base of the Mauryan Empire. today.[117] but differed markedly from the Kuru-Panchala region. 600 BCE to c. These Mahajanapadas evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region.[118] In this region the Shramanic movements flourished. Gandhara. Matsya (or Machcha). but now recognise that the texts (which are both familiar with each other) went through multiple stages of development over centuries.[120] make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics— Anga. although most PGW sites were small farming villages. Assaka.In addition to the Vedas. where Magadha gained prominence. Vriji. the Mahabharata may have been based on a small-scale conflict (possibly about 1000 BCE) which was eventually "transformed into a gigantic epic war by bards and poets". there were also a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India. For instance.[108] Historians formerly postulated an "epic age" as the milieu of these two epic poems.[115] with new states arising after 500 BCE[web 1] during the so-called "Second urbanisation".[116][note 3] It was influenced by the Vedic culture. the so-called "Second urbanisation" started. between c. like the Anguttara Nikaya. the principal texts of Hinduism. Surasena. After 500 BCE. Kamboja. the longest single poem in the world. Magadha. and Jainism and Buddhism originated.[115]It "was the area of the earliest known cultivation of rice in South Asia and by 1800 BCE was the location of an advanced Neolithic population associated with the sites of Chirand and Chechar". 400 BCE and 400 CE. "several dozen" PGW sites eventually emerged as relatively large settlements that can be characterized as towns.[114] The Central Ganges Plain.[113] Mahajanapadas[edit] Main article: Mahajanapadas The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful and vast kingdoms and republics of the era. Malla. Kuru. the largest of which were fortified by ditches or moats and embankments made of piled earth with wooden palisades.[109][110] Some even attempted to date the events using methods of archaeo-astronomy which have produced. estimated dates ranging up to mid 2nd millennium BCE. In the same period the first Upanishads were written. from which originated Jainism and Buddhism.[107] The Mahabharata remains. Kosala. especially the Central Ganges plain. Kashi. depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted.[119] Ancient Buddhist texts. withnessed the rise of Mahajanapadas. was a distinct cultural area. located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. albeit smaller and simpler than the elaborately fortified large cities which grew after 600 BCE in the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. and Vatsa—this period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilisation. Panchala. From c.

and History of Jainism See also: Gautama Buddha and Mahavira Further information: Upanishads. Kushinagar(Kushinara). Kosala. other states elected their rulers. existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. Avanti. this culture is characterized by the emergence of large cities with massive fortifications. proponent of Jainism.[125] Mahavira (c.g. The Mundaka launches the most scathing attack on the ritual by comparing those who value sacrifice with an unsafe boat that is endlessly overtaken by old age and death. and Ancient universities of India Upanishads and Shramana movements  A page of Isha Upanishadmanuscript. one of the earliest example of coinage in India. construction of public architecture and water channels. Early "republics" such as the Vajji (or Vriji) confederation centered in the city of Vaishali.[128] Increasing urbanisation of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals. These four were Vatsa. Indian Religions. Indian philosophy.  The Buddha's cremation stupa..[121] This period corresponds in an archaeological context to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. Especially focused in the Central Ganges plain but also spreading across vast areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent. Anyone who worships a divinity other than the Self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. significant population growth. punch-marked coins.[122][123] Upanishads and Shramana movements[edit] Main articles: History of Hinduism. ivory and carnelian carving). and Magadha. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced into four major ones by 500/400 BCE.[124][125][126] Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta (conclusion of the Vedas). The life of Gautama Buddha was mainly associated with these four kingdoms. History of Buddhism. increased social stratification.[127] The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and . 563–483 BCE). 549–477 BCE). founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement. and the introduction of writing in the form of Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts. Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. a system of weights. by the time of Gautama Buddha. wide-ranging trade networks. Around 800 BCE to 400 BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads. specialized craft industries (e. while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits.A Kuru punch-marked coin. Some of these kings were hereditary. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit. and Gautama Buddha (c.

Prince Ajatashatru. judicial. astronomy. accorded status as the 23rd Tirthankara. the founder of Buddhism.[130] Around the same time. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges. before it expanded from its capital Rajagriha — under the Haryanka dynasty and the successor Shishunaga dynasty. and the concept of liberation. mentions Magadha being ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years. religion. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism.[133] Magadha dynasties[edit] Main article: Magadha See also: Haryanka dynasty and Shishunaga dynasty Magadha dynasties  The Magadha state c. conquering Anga in what is now eastern Bihar and West Bengal. The Nanda Empire extended across much of northern India. King Bimbisara was overthrown and killed by his son. Early sources. c. was a historical figure. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is heavily mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts.  Coins during the Shishunaga dynasty of Magadha. The Hindu epic Mahabharata calls Brihadratha the first ruler of Magadha. Gautama Buddha. Jain orthodoxy believes the teachings of the Tirthankaras predates all known time and scholars believe Parshvanatha (c. originated from Magadha.[131] However. and Mujavats.death. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science. Mahapadma and his eight sons. and Gangaridai . 872 – c. 600 BCE – 413 BCE. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy. the first of the so-called Nine Nandas. the Jain Agamas and the Hindu Puranas. Rishabhanatha was the 1st Tirthankara. was assassinated by Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Kalasoka. Mahabharata and Puranas. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Angarespectively. The Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. its first capital was Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) then Pataliputra(modern Patna). and two of India's greatest empires. who continued the expansionist policy of Magadha. Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahā-Janapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") or kingdoms in ancient India. Alexander the Great. Their administrations were divided into executive.[135] The earliest reference to the Magadha people occurs in the Atharva-Veda where they are found listed along with the Angas. Persians and Greeks in northwest South Asia[edit] See also: Achaemenid Empire. lived much of his life in Magadha kingdom. 772 BCE). from the Buddhist Pāli Canon. He attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya. 600 BCE.[136] The Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana.[132] The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the shramana movement.[134] followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. Gandharis. gave his first sermon in Sarnath and the first Buddhist council was held in Rajgriha. Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism.[129] Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in the Sramana religions. and philosophy and were considered the Indian "Golden Age". the concept of samsara. The last Shishunaga ruler. During this period. mathematics. and military functions. Nanda Empire. the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire.

the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours. Gandhara and the trans-India region (modern Afghanistan and Pakistan). Central Asian. and after learning about the might of the Nanda Empire.[138] Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila became a centre where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled. was convinced that it was better to return.[141] By 326 BCE. Maurya Empire[edit] Main article: Maurya Empire See also: Chandragupta Maurya. and Ashoka the Great Further information: Arthashastra and Edicts of Ashoka Maurya Empire . Kautilya. The region of Gandhara. and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture. or present-day eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan. King of the Persian Achaemenid Empire crossed the Hindu-Kush mountains to seek tribute from the tribes of Kamboja. which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism. during the reign of Darius I of Persia. Coenus. The Persian and Greek invasions had repercussions in the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent. exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River.Asia in 323 BCE. Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. as part of the far easternmost territories. There he defeated King Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum.[140] Persian ascendency in North-western South Asia ended with Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in 327 BCE. after the meeting with his officer. Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab. 325–323 BCE.[137] In 530 BCE Cyrus the Great. Bindusara. Coin of Alexander the Great on horseback fighting Emperor Porus. much of the north- western subcontinent (present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The area remained under Persian control for two centuries. became a melting pot of Indian.[139] During this time India supplied mercenaries to the Persian army then fighting in Greece. Persian. His army. Alexander. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further East. Greco-Buddhism.[142] Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai of Bengal.[138] By 520 BCE.

Archaeologically.[144] The empire began to decline after his death and the last Mauryan ruler. the region of Kalinga (around modern day Odisha) remained outside Mauryan control. the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government.[144] Bindusara was succeeded by Ashoka. this period falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware(NBPW). This filled Ashoka with remorse and lead him to shun violence. However. However.[145] His campaign against the Kalingans in about 260 BCE. By the time he died in c.  The Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great. 272 BCE. and was the largest on the Indian subcontinent.[147] During this period. At its greatest extent.  Ashokan pillar at Vaishali. and subsequently to embrace Buddhism. a large part of the subcontinent was under Mauryan suzerainty. A significant amount of written records on slavery are found. 3rd century BCE. lead to immense loss of life and misery. to the Hindu Kush mountains in what is now Afghanistan. The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society. it reached beyond modern Pakistan.[143] Chandragupta's son Bindusara succeeded to the throne around 297 BCE. usury was customary. To the west.[12] Sangam Period[edit] Main article: Sangam Period See also: Three Crowned Kings and Tamilakam . the Mauryan Empire stretched to the north up to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east into what is now Assam. a high quality steel called Wootz steel was developed in south India and was later exported to China and Arabia. whose reign lasted for around 37 years until his death in about 232 BCE. The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE) was the first empire to unify India into one state. was assassinated by Pushyamitra Shunga to establish the Shunga Empire.[146] Although there was no banking in the Mauryan society.[145] The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are the primary written records of the Mauryan times. though successful. Brihadratha. perhaps interfering with their trade with the south. The empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya assisted by Chanakya (Kautilya) in Magadha (in modern Bihar) when he overthrew the Nanda Dynasty. suggesting a prevalence thereof.

although a host of kingdoms ruled over India in these centuries. depending on the chosen periodisation. monks. three Tamil Dynasties.[149] The scholars of the Sangam period rose from among the common people who sought the patronage of the Tamil Kings. The time between the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE and the end of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century CE is referred to as the "Classical" period of India. from 230 BCE. Also. During this period. Sangam writers came from diverse classes and social backgrounds and were mostly non-Brahmins. collectively known as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam: Chera dynasty. Chola dynasty and the Pandyan dynasty ruled parts of southern India.[11] During this period. ruled by Chera dynasty. Classical period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire. wars and culture of the Tamil people of this period.[150] Classical to early medieval periods (c. 200 BCE–1200 CE)[edit] Main articles: Classical India and Medieval India Ancient India during the rise of the Shunga and Satavahana empires. They belonged to different faiths and professions like farmers. and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty. 200 BCE–320 CE)[edit] . but who mainly wrote about the common people and their concerns.Tamilakam.[151] It can be divided in various sub- periods. priests and even princes and quite few of them were even women. beginning with Simuka. Chola dynastyand the Pandyan dynasty. the Sangam literature flourished from the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE in southern India. The Gupta Empire (4th–6th century) is regarded as the "Golden Age" of Hinduism. merchants. artisans.[148] The Sangam literature deals with the history. located in the tip of South India during the Sangam Period. India's economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world.[152][153] Early classical period (c. During the Sangam period Tamil literature flourished from the 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE. from 1 CE to 1000 CE.[150] Unlike Sanskrit writers who were mostly Brahmins. having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth. politics.

. India. Northwestern kingdoms and hybrid cultures[edit] Main articles: Indo-Greek kingdom. Indo-Parthian Kingdom. larger stone sculptures. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi and was used to write the Sanskrit language. Art. controlling vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. 1st century BCE. and architectural monuments such as the Stupa at Bharhut. philosophy. They fought battles with the Kalingas.[154] Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. such as Bhagabhadra. after the fall of the Maurya Empire. The empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi. but later emperors. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga. and possibly the Panchalas and Mitras. There were ten Shunga rulers. and Indo-Sassanids See also: Greco-Buddhism Northwestern kingdoms and hybrid cultures  The Heliodorus pillar. Its capital was Pataliputra. is the first known inscription related [155] to Vaishnavism in India. This helped the empire flourish and gain power. West Bengal.Shunga Empire[edit] Main article: Shunga Empire Shunga royal family. The Shungas originated from Magadha. The Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronising Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images. Satavahanas. commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus. modern Vidisha in Eastern Malwa. The Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. Indo-Scythians. also held court at Besnagar. education. the Indo-Greeks.

but they probably belonged to a wider groups of Iranian tribes who lived east of Parthia proper.[160]  Indo-Parthian Kingdom: The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty.[161]during or slightly before the 1st century CE. the Indo-Parthians.  Indo-Sassanid Kingdom: The Sassanid empire of Persia. the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha. These kings have traditionally been referred to as Indo-Parthians. the Indo-Scythians. They displaced the Indo-Greeks and ruled a kingdom that stretched from Gandhara to Mathura. were even related.[158][159] Later the Saka kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire from eastern India in the 4th century.  Indo-Greek Kingdom: The Indo-Greek Menander I (reigned 155–130 BCE) drove the Greco- Bactrians out of Gandharaand beyond the Hindu Kush. the "chief queen of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura. among other donations. and northwestern India.  Indo-Scythian Kingdom: The Indo-Scythians were descended from the Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southern Siberia to Pakistan and Arachosia to India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan. with many tributaries to the south and east. which means "Holder of Glory". The land routes are red. His territories covered Panjshir and Kapisa in modern Afghanistan and extended to the Punjab region. named after its eponymous first ruler Gondophares.[157] Lasting for almost two centuries. saying there was "none equal to Milinda in all India". 1st century CE. but during their last few years of existence the capital shifted between Kabul and Peshawar. For most of their history. becoming a king shortly after his victory. the leading Gondopharid kings held Taxila (in the present Punjab province of Pakistan) as their residence and ruled from there. and the water routes are blue. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Scythian Western Satraps were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty. where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo- Sassanids. and the Indo-Sassinids. carried goods and ideas between the ancient civilisations of the Old World and India. .[156] The classical Buddhist text Milinda Pañha praises Menander.  The Mathura lion capital. The capital describes. by Queen Ayasia. the kingdom was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Indo-Greek kings. ancient trade routes that linked India with the Old World. The capital Sagala(modern Sialkot) prospered greatly under Menander's rule. who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire. They ruled parts of present- day Afghanistan. The Northwestern kingdoms and hybrid cultures of the Indian subcontinent included the Indo- Greeks. Trade and Travels to India[edit] Further information: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Trade and Travels to India  Silk Road and Spice trade. and there is no evidence that all the kings who assumed the title Gondophares. Pakistan. who were often in conflict with each other. satrap Rajuvula". as their coinage was often inspired by the Arsacid dynasty.

Most notable were Faxian. He is sometimes conjectured to have been part of Eudoxus's expeditions. Sanchi(UNESCO World Heritage Site). Early writings and Stone Age carvings of Neolithic age obtained indicates that India's Southwest coastal port Muziris. It is thought to have come from Bhokardan in the Satavahana realm in the first half of the 1st century CE. where spice mixtures and curries became popular with the native inhabitants. It testifies to Indo-Roman trade relationsbeginning around the 1st century BCE. art and literacy. and others.  The spice trade in Kerala attracted traders from all over the Old World to India. . had established itself as a major spice trade centre from as early as 3. including Christopher Colombus.[168]Another Greek navigator. 1. later reported in Strabo's Geography.[169] Satavahana Empire[edit] Main article: Satavahana Empire Satavahana Empire  Satavahana depiction of the city of Kushinagar in the War over the Buddha's Relics. is sometimes credited with discovering the monsoon wind route to India. Kerala was referred to as the land of spices or as the "Spice Garden of India". South Gate.[162]  Buddhism entered China through the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism in the 1st or 2nd century CE. Stupa no. promotion of trading activities.  According to Poseidonius. Poseidonius said a shipwrecked sailor from India had been rescued in the Red Sea and taken to Ptolemy VIII in Alexandria. Buddhism in particular.[167] the monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean was first sailed by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 118 or 116 BCE. travelled alongside the maritime trade. according to Sumerian records. Hippalus. the sea routes to India were controlled by the Indians and Ethiopians that became the maritime trading power of the Red Sea. During the 2nd century BCE Greek and Indian ships met to trade at Arabian ports such as Aden (called Eudaemon by the Greeks). which includes the political and social aspects of the region.  The Pompeii Lakshmiivory statuette was found in the ruin of Pompeii.[166] During the first millennium. Vasco da Gama.  Strabo. Song Yunand Xuanzang.[163]  Hindu and Buddhist religious establishments of Southeast Asia came to be associated with the economic activity and commerce as patrons entrust large funds which would later be used to benefit local economy by estate management. was sceptical about its truth. in Kerala. The interaction of cultures resulted in several Chinese travellers and monks to enter India. These travellers wrote detailed accounts of the Indian Subcontinent.[164] Indian merchants involved in spice trade took Indian cuisine to Southeast Asia.000 BCE.[165]  The Greco-Roman world followed by trading along the incense route and the Roman-India routes. promoting coinage. It was the place traders and exporters wanted to reach. Modern scholarship tends to consider it relatively credible. whose Geography is the main surviving source of the story. craftsmanship. Yijing.

seafaring and trading capabilities of the Sātavāhanas during the 1st–2nd century CE. but declared independence with its decline. They had to compete with the Shunga Empire and then the Kanva dynasty of Magadha to establish their rule.  Indian ship on lead coin of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi. testimony to the naval. The notable rulers of the Satavahana Dynasty Gautamiputra Satakarni and Sri Yajna Sātakarni were able to defeat the foreign invaders like the Western Kshatrapas and to stop their expansion. The territory of the empire covered large parts of India from the 1st century BCE onward. The Sātavāhanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty. which resulted in Buddhist monuments from Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) to Amaravati. The Sātavāhanas are known for their patronage of Hinduism and Buddhism. their struggles with the Western Kshatrapas went on for a long time. Kushan Empire[edit] Main article: Kushan Empire See also: Kanishka the Great and Vasudeva I Kushan Empire  Kushan territories (full line) and maximum extent of Kushan dominions under Kanishka (dotted line). Yavanas and Pahlavas. They were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. they played a crucial role to protect large part of India against foreign invaders like the Sakas. In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states. . In particular. The Śātavāhana Empire was based from Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. according to the Rabatak inscription. Later. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade as well as the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo- Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India.

Rowlinson commented: The Kushan period is a fitting prelude to the Age of the Guptas.[170] one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation. Abhijñānaśākuntala. Panchatantra. Indian numerals. Kanishka the Great. The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor. the empire spread to encompass much of Afghanistan. and Kama Sutra Gupta Empire – Golden Age . Aryabhatiya. Samudragupta. Mathura art. the deities of their later coinage came to reflect its new Hindu majority. their empire in India was disintegrating and their last known great emperor was Vasudeva I. Historian Vincent Smith said about Kanishka: He played the part of a second Ashoka in the history of Buddhism. Kumaragupta I. Aryabhata. Kujula Kadphises. encouraging long-distance trade.[174] Emperor Kanishka was a great patron of Buddhism. as Kushans expanded southward. however. The Kushans brought new trends to the budding and blossoming Gandhara art and Mathura art. 2nd century CE. Kumārasambhava.[173] and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinentat least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares).[177] The empire linked the Indian Ocean maritime trade with the commerce of the Silk Road through the Indus valley. Varahamihira.[175][176] They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China. 320–650 CE)[edit] Gupta Empire – Golden Age[edit] Main article: Gupta Empire See also: Chandra Gupta I.[180][181] Classical period (c. and Skandagupta Further information: Kalidasa. particularly between China and Rome. and Vatsyayana Further information: Meghadūta. Chandra Gupta II.[171][172] By the time of his grandson.[179] By the 3rd century. about the middle of the 1st century CE.[178] H.  Depiction of the Buddha in Kanishka's coinage.G. which reached its peak during Kushan rule. The Kushans were possibly of Tocharian speaking tribe. Vishnu Sharma.

astronomy. religion.[191][192] Vakataka Dynasty[edit] Main article: Vakataka Dynasty . Vishnu Sharma. Early Hindu numerals had only nine symbols.  Gupta Empire expansion from 320 CE to 550 CE.[186] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavours in India. which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. The latter Guptas successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Alchon Huns. and painting. but they also patronised Buddhism. until 600 to 800 CE. logic. when a symbol for zero was developed for the numeral system. Aryabhata.[189] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural centre and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma. engineering.  Meditating Buddha from the Gupta era.[184] and was marked by extensive achievements in science.[188] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa.[185] The Hindu-Arabic numerals. and Indochina. and Chandragupta II – brought much of India under their leadership. and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields. 320–550 CE). sculpture.[187] The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture. with their capital at Bamiyan. a positional numeral system. literature. Sri Lanka. and philosophy that crystallised the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.[190] However. The military exploits of the first three rulers – Chandragupta I. technology. Maritime Southeast Asia. 5th century CE. Samudragupta. mathematics. dialectic. art. The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimise their rule.[182][183] This period has been called the Golden Age of India. Classical India refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was united under the Gupta Empire (c. originated in India and was later transmitted to the West through the Arabs. Varahamihira. much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by these events in the north. who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century.

The Vākāṭaka Empire originated from the Deccan in the mid-third century CE. an immigrant from Aryavarta. Later. 1155 – 1255 CE) dynasties. They led public works and their monuments are a visible legacy. 350–650 CE). the Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the region and recorded his travels. Tezpur (Haruppeswara) and North Gauhati (Durjaya) respectively. 655–900 CE) and Kamarupa-Palas (c. Their state is believed to have extended from the southern edges of Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra River in the south as well as from the Arabian Sea in the western to the edges of Chhattisgarh in the east. which grew into a large kingdom that spanned from Karatoya river to near present Sadiya and covered the entire Brahmaputra valley. architecture and literature. 600–650 CE). Bhaskar Varman (c. at times Purnea and parts of West Bengal. 900–1100 CE).[199] Pallava Dynasty[edit] Main article: Pallava Dynasty . All three dynasties claimed their descent from Narakasura. parts of Bangladesh and. They were the most important successors of the Satavahanas in the Deccan and contemporaneous with the Guptas in northern India.The Ajanta Caves are 30 rock-cutBuddhist cave monument built under the Vakatakas. Davaka was later absorbed by Kamarupa. after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa- Palas). 1120 – 1185 CE) and Lunar II (c. North Bengal.[197] Ruled by three dynasties Varmanas (c.[198] In the reign of the Varman king. the Kamarupa tradition was somewhat extended till c. 1255 CE by the Lunar I (c. Mlechchha dynasty (c. The rock-cut Buddhist viharas and chaityas of Ajanta Caves (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) were built under the patronage of Vakataka emperor. The Vakatakas are noted for having been patrons of the arts.[193][194] Kamarupa Kingdom[edit] Main article: Kamarupa Madan Kamdev ruins Samudragupta's 4th-century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa (Western Assam)[195]and Davaka (Central Assam)[196] as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire. from their capitals in present- day Guwahati (Pragjyotishpura). Harishena.

an indication to which is provided by the titles and epithets assumed by its rulers. the Chalukya and the Rashtrakuta empires. the dynasty was founded by Mayurasharma in 345 CE which at later times showed the potential of developing into imperial proportions. a notable ruler with whom even the kings of Gupta Dynasty of northern India cultivated marital alliances. Kanchipuram and other places. great patronisers of Sanskrit development in the South of the Indian subcontinent. The Kadambas were contemporaries of the Western Ganga Dynasty and together they formed the earliest native kingdoms to rule the land with absolute autonomy. alongside the Guptas of the North. The Pallava reign saw the first Sankrit inscriptions in a script called Grantha. The practice of dedicating temples to different deities came into vogue followed by fine artistic temple architecture and sculpture style of Vastu Shastra. Kadambas of Halasi and Kadambas of Hangal.[202] Kadamba Dynasty[edit] Main article: Kadamba Dynasty Kadamba shikara (tower) with Kalasa (pinnacle) on top. The Kadamba fame reached its peak during the rule of Kakusthavarma. The Pallavas used Dravidian architecture to build some very important Hindu temples and academies in Mamallapuram. for over five hundred years during which time they branched into minor dynasties known as the Kadambas of Goa. The Pallavas. their rule saw the rise of great poets. during the 4th to 9th centuries were.[200] Early Pallavas had different connexions to Southeast Asian countries. King Mayurasharma defeated the armies of Pallavas of Kanchipossibly with help of some native tribes. Kadambas originated from Karnataka.[201] Pallavas reached the height of power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about six hundred years until the end of the 9th century. Doddagaddavalli. India.The Shore Temple (a UNESCO World Heritage site) at Mahabalipuram built by Narasimhavarman II. The dynasty later continued to rule as a feudatory of larger Kannada empires. Alchon Huns[edit] Main article: Alchon Huns Alchon Huns .

[203] The Huns were defeated by alliance of Indian rulers.[204] Empire of Harsha[edit] Main articles: Harsha and Pushyabhuti dynasty Harsha ruled northern India from 606 to 647 CE. . Led by the Hun military leader Toramana. Some of them were driven out of India and others were assimilated in the Indian society. Toramana's son Mihirakula.  Vishnu nicolo sealrepresenting Vishnu with a worshipper (probably Mihirakula). who were members of the Pushyabhuti dynasty and ruled Thanesar. 4th–6th century CE. The Indo-Hephthalites (or Alchon Huns) were a nomadic confederation in Central Asia during the late antiquity period. in present-day Haryana. Maharaja (Great King) Yasodharman of Malwa and Gupta Emperor Narasimhagupta in the 6th century. The inscription in cursive Bactrian reads: "Mihira. they overran the northern region of Pakistan and North India. a Saivite Hindu. though the description is disputed as far as the authenticity is concerned. Vishnu and Shiva".  The defeat of the Alchon Huns under Mihirakula by King Yashodharman at Sondani in 528 CE. He was the son of Prabhakarvardhana and the younger brother of Rajyavardhana. moved up to near Pataliputra to the east and Gwalior to the central India. Hiuen Tsiang narrates Mihirakula's merciless persecution of Buddhists and destruction of monasteries. British Museum. The Alchon Huns established themselves in modern-day Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century.

praising his justice and generosity. Sun Temple.[205] At the height of his power.[207] The Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the court of Harsha and wrote a very favourable account of him. After the death of Harsha's father and brother. attracting scholars. It is one of the largest temple complex on the Indian Subcontinent. giving him the title of Maharaja when he was merely 16 years old.[210] and the collapse of the Empire of Harsha in the 7th century CE. and Tripartite struggle Surya Sun temples of Late Classical India Martand Sun Temple Central shrine. Decline of Buddhism in India. describes his association with Thanesar. Orissa.[210] which began after the end of the Gupta Empire. was built by Bhima Iof Chaulukya dynasty in 1026 CE. in the 8th century CE. his Empire covered much of North and Northwestern India. Harsha converted to Buddhism from Surya worship. North India reverted to smaller republics and monarchical states. besides mentioning the defence wall.[206] His biography Harshacharita ("Deeds of Harsha") written by Sanskrit poet Banabhatta. built by Emperor Narasimhadeva I (AD 1238–1264) of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. The power vacuum resulted in the rise of the Vardhanas of Thanesar.[206] The peace and prosperity that prevailed made his court a centre of cosmopolitanism.[210] the beginning of . extended East till Kamarupa. The temple complex was built by the third ruler of the Karkota dynasty. Konark Sun Temple at Konark. it is now a World Heritage Site.Ruins of Harsha Ka Tila After the downfall of the prior Gupta Empire in the middle of the 6th century.[208][209] Early medieval period (c. 650–1200 CE)[edit] Main articles: Medieval India.[151] This period also covers the "Late Classical Age" of Hinduism. dedicated to the deity Surya. a moat and the palace with a two- storied Dhavalagriha (white mansion). Early medieval India began after the end of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century CE. who began uniting the republics and monarchies from the Punjab to central India.[206] During this time. representatives of the empire crowned Harsha emperor at an assembly in April 606 CE. and South until Narmada River. Modhera. Emperor Lalitaditya Muktapida. and ruled till 647 CE. artists and religious visitors from far and wide. and eventually made Kannauj (in present Uttar Pradesh state) his capital.

the Kalachuris of Mahakoshal. considered the epitome of classical development. royal proclivities for the cults of Vishnu and Shiva weakened Buddhism's position within the sociopolitical context and helped make possible its decline. His empire collapsed after his death. Muhammad bin Qasim's invasion of Sindh (modern Pakistan) in 711 CE witnessed further decline of Buddhism.[222] Ronald Inden writes that by the 8th century CE symbols of Hindu gods "replaced the Buddha at the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system. and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship". Buddhism and Jainism. and initiatory traditions of Buddhism.[215][216][217] He was a critic of both Buddhism and Minamsa school of Hinduism. notably the Paramaras of Malwa. Bhavya. North-Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century after the Alchon Huns invasion. leading to the Tripartite struggle. but later Indian religions. Adi Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent to propagate and spread the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta. The Chach Nama records many instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun. Jainism or more commonly Shaivism. in the four corners of the Indian subcontinent for the spread and development of Advaita Vedanta. and is credited with unifying the main characteristics of the current thoughts in Hinduism.[224] Emperor Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century. and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism.Imperial Kannauj.[218][219][220][221] and founded mathas (monasteries). From the 8th to the 10th century. which he consolidated. These .[212] In the 7th century CE.[214] In the 8th century. and ended in the 13th century with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in Northern India[211] and the end of the Later Cholas with the death of Rajendra Chola III in 1279 in Southern India.[3] This period produced some of India's finest art. Kumārila Bhaṭṭa formulated his school of Mimamsa philosophy and defended the position on Vedic rituals against Buddhist attacks. the Chandelasof Bundelkhand. after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. From the fifth century to the thirteenth. and the Palas of Bengal. Śrauta sacrifices declined. the Tomaras of Haryana. however some aspects of the Classical period continued until the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in the south around the 17th century. The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires — the Rashtrakutas of Deccan.[223] Although Buddhism did not disappear from India for several centuries after the eighth. Scholars note Bhaṭṭa's contribution to the decline of Buddhism in India. the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. Vaishnavism and Shaktism expanded in royal courts. Dignaga and others. who reports that Kumārila defeated disciples of Buddhapalkita. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire.[213] His dialectical success against the Buddhists is confirmed by Buddhist historian Tathagata. three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. Dharmadasa. and the Chauhans of Rajputana. who followed their own religions at the beginning such as Tengri. the Palas of Bengal.

they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. noted for the advancement of Hindu architecture. During this period. was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Turkic sultanates. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasiand rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnataka between 550 and 750. which exercised influence in northwestern India from 625 CE until 1003.were some of the earliest Rajput kingdoms. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. 724 CE–760 CE) was an emperor of the Kashmiri Karkoṭa dynasty. Gujarat) was one of the largest cities in Classical India. While Chandela Rajput dynasty is credited for the Khajuraho Temple Complex. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration. with the population estimated at 100. While in Odisha. Kalhanain his Rajatarangini credits king Lalitaditya with leading an aggressive military campaign in Northern India and Central Asia. the Eastern Ganga Empire rose to power.[227] The Chola empire emerged as a major power during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I who successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka in the 11th century. The earliest dynasty. famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures. Their capital at Anhilwara (modern Patan. and Kashmir from the mid-7th century to the early 11th century. overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture".[228] Lalitaditya Muktapida (r. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas.[225] One Gurjar[226] Rajput of the Chauhan clan. known as the "Badami Chalukyas". Chalukya Empire[edit] Main article: Chalukya dynasty Virupaksha temple in Dravidianstyle at Pattadakal. and then again from Kalyani between 970 and 1190. and was followed by Lohara dynasty. as well as being patrons of art and literature. most notable being Jagannath Temple and Konark Sun Temple. northern Pakistan.000 in 1000 CE. The Chaulukya dynasty of Gujarat were a branch of the Chalukyas. built 740 CE. The Chalukya Empire ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.[229][230][231] The Hindu Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan. Rashtrakuta Empire[edit] Main article: Rashtrakuta dynasty . A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers.

all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. meaning "protector". was used as an ending for the names of all the Pala monarchs. Nalanda reached its height under the patronage of the Pala Empire. Founded by Dantidurga around 753. the finest example of which is seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora.[233][237] Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style.[245][246] The Palas also built many viharas. was also an author and wrote Kavirajamarga.[236] Govinda III and Amoghavarsha were the most famous of the long line of able administrators produced by the dynasty. The Pala Empire was founded by Gopala I. but the later rulers were strongly influenced by Jainism.[238] The Rashtrakuta period marked the beginning of the golden age of southern Indian mathematics. the seating and meditation area.[244] The Pala Empire can be considered as the golden era of Bengal in many ways.[233] Pala Empire[edit] Main article: Pala Empire Ancient universities of Indiasupported by the Palas Nalanda is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. The great south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra lived in the Rashtrakuta Empire and his text had a huge impact on the medieval south Indian mathematicians who lived after him. Other important contributions are the sculptures of Elephanta Caves in modern Maharashtra as well as the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka. Though the Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism.[245] Dharmapala founded the Vikramashila and revived Nalanda. It was the centre of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450 to 1193 CE. Established by Emperor Dharmapala.[232] the Rashtrakuta Empire ruled from its capital at Manyakheta for almost two centuries. who wrote in a variety of languages from Sanskrit to the Apabhraṃśas. The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. India. the Rashtrakutas ruled from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south.[244] considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. the earliest known Kannada work on poetics. a fruitful time of political expansion.[244] The morpheme Pala. Dharmapala is believed to have conquered Kanauj and extended his sway up to the farthest limits of India in the northwest.[243] they also patronised Shaivism and Vaishnavism. architectural achievements and famous literary contributions. The Arab traveller Suleiman described the Rashtrakuta Empire as one of the four great Empires of the world. who ruled for 64 years. Maharashtra. Landscape of Vikramashilauniversity ruins. Amoghavarsha. It reached its height under the Palas.Kailasa temple at Ellora Caves.[240][241][242] it was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent.[233] At its peak.[239] The Rashtrakuta rulers also patronised men of letters.[234][235] The early rulers of this dynasty were Hindu. They maintained close cultural and commercial ties with countries of .

South India. The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan. and the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the Pegu islands. Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military.[256] The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style.Southeast Asia and Tibet. economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia. occupying the sea coasts from Burma to Vietnam. the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. especially in literature as the Western Chalukya .[244] Chola Empire[edit] Main article: Chola dynasty Chola Empire  Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c.[254] Western Chalukya Empire[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya Empire Kirtimukha relief at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi.[255] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan.E. Shimoga district. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia.[248][249] Rajendra Chola I's navies went even further.[250] the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.[251] They dominated the political affairs of Sri Lanka for over two centuries through repeated invasions and occupation. They also had continuing trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese empire in the east. the Lakshadweep (Laccadive) islands. Rajadhiraja Chola.  Brihadeeswara Templeentrance Gopurams. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the later half of the 12th century. Thanjavur.[247] They successfully united the South India under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in the Southeast Asian countries such as Srivijaya. Sumatra. 1030 CE.[253] Under the Cholas. religion and literature.[257] This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India.[252] Rajaraja Chola I and his equally distinguished son Rajendra Chola I gave political unity to the whole of Southern India and established the Chola Empire as a respected sea power. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi.[228] Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I.[255] Vast areas between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River in the south came under Chalukya control. The Arab merchant Suleiman notes the enormity of the Pala army in his memoirs. Sea trade added greatly to the prosperity of the Pala Empire. the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuris. In all of these spheres. the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the later Hoysala empire. the Hoysalas. the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. between the 10th and 12th centuries. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India. the South India reached new heights of excellence in art. as well as by the repeated embassies to China. the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka.

Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal south India. From the 10th century. halting their expansion and containing them at Sindh in Pakistan. 72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh. Additionally. but he did not seek to establish "permanent dominion" in those areas. Pakistan. following Judaism and Christianity. incorporating it as the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah. 1869 Front view of the present Somnath Temple The Somnath temple was first attacked by Muslim Turkic invader Mahmud of Ghazni and repeatedly demolished by successive Muslim invaders. In 712. The south Indian Chalukya empire under Vikramaditya II. in the mid-13th century by the Rajput Samma dynasty. each time being rebuilt by Hindu rulers. down to the Arab conquest by Muhammad bin Qasim in the early 8th century CE.[258][259] Early Islamic intrusions into the Indian subcontinent[edit] Main articles: Arab incursions into the Indian subcontinent. the Arab Umayyad Caliphate incorporated parts of what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan around 720. the Hindu kings east of Indus defeated the Arabs during the Caliphate campaigns in India. Sindh was ruled by the Rajput Soomra dynasty.[262] While Suhaldev of Shravasti. following the demise of the Rai Dynasty and the ascent of Chach of Alor to the throne. newly converted. Arab Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern- day Pakistan for the Umayyad Empire. Somnath temple in ruins. and Sanskrit like the philosopher and statesman Basava and the great mathematician Bhāskara II. Mahmud of Ghazni in the early 11th century raided mainly the north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent 17 times. often in puritanical form. particularly on the western coast where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers. and List of early Hindu Muslim military conflicts in the Indian subcontinent See also: Muslim Rajputs The early Islamic literature indicates that the conquest of the Indian subcontinent was one of the very early ambitions of the Muslims.[261] Several Islamic kingdoms (sultanates) under both foreign and. by defeating the last Hindu monarch of Sindh. Nagabhata I of the Pratihara dynasty and Bappa Rawal of the Guhilot dynasty repulsed the Arab invaders in the early 8th century. This marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion. The book Chach Nama chronicles the Brahmin dynasty's period. Raja Dahir. After several incursions. mainly from the Arabian peninsula. though it was recognised as a particularly difficult one. and later.kings encouraged writers in the native language of Kannada.[260] After conquering Persia. Rajput rulers were established across the Northwestern subcontinent (Afghanistan and Pakistan) over a period of a few centuries. Caliphate campaigns in India.[263][264] Hindu Shahi[edit] Main article: Hindu Shahi . who is said to have defeated and killed the Ghaznavid general Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud in the early 11th century.

Jayapala saw a danger in the consolidation of the Ghaznavids and invaded their capital city of Ghazni both in the reign of Sebuktigin and in that of his son Mahmud. But Subooktugeen considered himself as a wolf about to attack a flock of sheep: calling. His soldiers. After the Battle of Peshawar.[271] .[270][271] Jayapala was succeeded by his son Anandapala. (Gardez.000 horsemen and an innumerable host of foot soldiers. so that it might continually have to encounter fresh troops. also known as Hund[266] for its new capital. and later Udabhandapura. which appeared in extent like the boundless ocean. soon after Sultan Mahmud came to power and was occupied with the Qarakhanids north of the Hindu Kush. one particular point of the Hindoo line. he encouraged them to glory. near present-day Peshawar. he committed suicide because his subjects thought he had brought disaster and disgrace to the Shahi dynasty. Jaipal attacked Ghazni once more and upon suffering yet another defeat by the powerful Ghaznavid forces. were divided into squadrons of five hundred men each.[270] Sebuk Tigin. the army was hopeless in battle against the western forces. The kingdom was known as the Kabul Shahan or Ratbelshahan from 565 to 670.[270] Jayapala however. is known for his struggles in defending his kingdom against the Ghaznavids in the modern-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan region.[267][268][269] The Hindu Shahis under Jayapala. and in number like the ants or the locusts of the wilderness. however. when the capitals were located in Kapisa and Kabul. lost control of the entire region between the Kabul Valley and Indus River. consecrated by the ShahiKing Khingala. The Hindu rulers eventually exiled themselves to the Kashmir Siwalik Hills. and issued to each his commands.[271] Before his struggle began Jaipal had raised a large army of Punjabi Hindus. Ganesha.Sixth-century image of Hindu deity. his chiefs together.[270] who along with other succeeding generations of the Shahiya dynasty took part in various unsuccessful campaigns against the advancing Ghaznvids but were unsuccessful. and he was forced to pay an indemnity. When Jaipal went to the Punjab region. which were directed to attack successively.[265] The Shahis are generally split up into two eras: the Buddhist Shahis and the Hindu Shahis. which initiated the Muslim Ghaznavid and Hindu Shahi struggles. therefore. According to Ferishta: The two armies having met on the confines of Lumghan. Subooktugeen ascended a hill to view the forces of Jeipal.[271] In the year 1001.[271] However. defeated him. particularly against the young Mahmud of Ghazni. his army was raised to 100.[270] Jayapala defaulted on the payment and took to the battlefield once more. Afghanistan) The Kabul Shahi dynasties ruled the Kabul Valley and Gandhara (modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan) from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century. with the change-over thought to have occurred sometime around 870. though few in number.

The fort is gained through series of seven gates. make the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system. though the non-Muslim population was left to their own laws and customs.[278] payment of jizya tax. claimed to be the second-longest continuous wall after the Great Wall of China. the successful Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics. the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium. even influencing the non-Muslim rivals and common masses to a large extent. those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history.[274] The rise of theistic devotional trend of the Bhakti movement and the advent of Sikhism. the walls of the fort of Kumbhalgarh extend over 38 km.[272][273] leading to the Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests. The late medieval period is defined by the disruption to native Indian elites by Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans. The Mehrangarh Fort at Jodhpurwas built by Rao Jodha in 1459. which symbolises Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests with the Rajput victory over the Mughals.[279] and loss of life for the non-Muslim population.[277] cases of forced conversions to Islam.[276] The growth of Muslim dominion resulted in the destruction and desecration of politically important temples of enemy states.[272][273] They also introduced new cultural codes that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes. 1200 – 1526 CE)[edit] Main article: Medieval India Built during the course of the 15th century by Rana Kumbha.Late medieval period (c. At the same time it must be noted that overwhelming majority of Muslims in India are Indian natives converted to Islam. and Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India Like other settled. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the sub-continent. built upon new military technology and techniques. though different from both the ancient Indian culture and later westernised modern Indian culture. Growth of Muslim population[edit] Main articles: Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. one of the most famous gate being the Fateh Pol.[275] What does however. In that sense. one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia. The growth of Hindu and Muslim dynasties and empires. This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature.[280] Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests[edit] Main articles: Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests and Rajput kingdoms . This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures. agrarian societies in history. Islamic rulers in the Indian subcontinent.

much of North and West India was ruled by Rajput dynasties. and Rana Kumbha expanded his kingdom at the expense of the Sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Prithviraj Chauhan. Tughlaq had to pay a huge ransom and relinquish all of Mewar's lands. and Man Singh Tomar built the fortress which still stands there.Before the Muslim expeditions into the Indian subcontinent. Rana Sanga of Mewar. Central Asian Muslim Turks were able to break through the Rajput defence into the Northern Indian heartland. it is one of the six Hill Forts of Rajasthan.[283] During this period. the Delhi Sultanate did not attack Chittorgarh for a few hundred years.[283][284] The next great Rajput ruler. . However. The Tomaras established themselves at Gwalior. and Rajput states were established as far east as Bengal and north into the Punjab. They earned a reputation of fighting battles obeying a code of chivalrous conduct rooted in a strong adherence to tradition and Chi. However. Muhammad Ghori.[281] Kirti Stambh Chittor Fort is the largest fort on the Indian subcontinent.[282] The Mewar dynasty under Maharana Hammir defeated and captured Muhammad Tughlaq with the Bargujars as his main allies. his battles with Muslim Sultan. His reign marked one of the most significant moments in Indian history. laying the foundation of Muslim rule in mainland India. but later. After this event. the Rajputs held out against the Muslim Turkic empires for several centuries. Ghori was defeated with heavy losses. the Second Battle of Tarain saw the Rajput army eventually defeated. Vijay Stambha The Rajput Chauhan dynasty established its control over Delhi and Ajmer in the 10th century. Mewar emerged as the leading Rajput state. The Rajputs re-established their independence. The Rajputs and the south Indian Chalukya dynasty were successful in containing Arab Muslim expansion during the Caliphate campaigns in India. In the First Battle of Tarain.

Following these defeats. this was led by Rani Padmini wife of Rana Rattan Singh who was killed in the battle in 1303. it is a symbol for Rajput resistance.[291] In the 12th and 13th centuries. they were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. his defeat in the Battle of Khanwa consolidated the new Mughal dynasty in India. Chittorgarh Fort was sacked three times during the 15th and 16th centuries by Muslim armies. Akbar sent many missions against him.[287] The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate based in Delhi. . Central Asian Turks invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Hindu holdings. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves eventually rose up to become rulers.[290] However. Turks were migrating to Muslim lands and becoming Islamicized.[286] Delhi Sultanate[edit] Main article: Delhi Sultanate Delhi Sultanate  Extent of the Delhi Sultanate under five dynasties. in 1535 Bahadur Shah. commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty. But. and in 1567 Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II. but lost. In 1303 Alauddin Khalji defeated Rana Ratan Singh.[292] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India. Jauhar was committed thrice by many of the wives and children of the Rajput soldiers who died in battles at Chittorgarh Fort. Delhi. Turko-Indian[288] and Pathan origins. ruled by several dynasties of Turkic. R. establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan. and conquered large parts of the Muslim world. music. when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East. where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes. The resulting "Indo- Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture. while the Khalji dynasty conquered most of central India while forcing the principal Hindu kingdoms of South India to become vassal states. excluding the Chittor Fort.became the principal player in Northern India. and later by Rani Karnavati in 1537.[283] However. the Sultanate of Gujarat defeated Bikramjeet Singh.[285] The Chittorgarh Fort is the largest in India. This can be traced back to the 9th century. Soon. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes. who left the fort and founded Udaipur. The historian Dr. religion. Tripathi noted: The history of Muslim sovereignty in India begins properly speaking with Iltutmish. a 16th-century Rajput ruler.  Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret. before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent.[290] The context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent.P. and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. The first time. firmly resisted the Mughals. literature.[289] It ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent from the 13th century to the early 16th century. He survived to ultimately gain control of all of Mewar. His objectives grew in scope – he planned to conquer the much sought after prize of the Muslim rulers of the time. Each time the men fought bravely rushing out of the fort walls charging the enemy. Maharana Pratap of Mewar.

India's GDP per capita had increased to being almost on-par with the Middle East. and spread northwards.[298]The Sultanate suffered significantly from the sacking of Delhi revived briefly under the Lodi Dynasty. who were highly skilled in the same style of nomadic cavalry warfare as the Mongols. as a result of having similar nomadic Central Asian roots. Bhakti movement and Sikhism[edit] Main articles: Bhakti movement and Sikhism The Dasam Granth (above) was composed by Sikh Guru Gobind Singh. scholars. However. but it was a shadow of the former.000 war prisoners were put to death in one day. 100.and clothing. the Mongol invasions of India were successfully repelled by the Delhi Sultanate. The latter was a cosmopolitan civilization.[293] From 1 CE to 1000 CE. Turkic. The major narrative in the text is on Chaubis Avtar (24 Avatars of Hindu god Vishnu). India's per-capita income was lower than the Middle East from 1 CE (16% lower) to 1000 CE (about 40% lower). which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society. During the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era. the Hindu warrior goddess Chandi and a story of Rama in Bachittar Natak. reaching its zenith between the 15th and 17th century CE. and wide- ranging international networks. spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to enthrone one of the few female rulers in India. While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim elites. A major factor in their success was their Turkic Mamluk slave army. Rudra. During the Delhi Sultanate. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian. the Mongol Empire had invaded and conquered most of Asia and Eastern Europe. drawing India into a wider international network. with the population increasing nearly 50% and the GDP increasing nearly 80% by 1500. with a multicultural and pluralisticsociety. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked. Razia Sultana (1236–1240). and left in ruins after Timur's army had killed and plundered for three days and nights.[301] It originated in the seventh-century south India (now parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala).[295] In the 13th century. Brahma.[294] In terms of GDP per capita. India began to experience population and GDP growth for the first time in a thousand years. including social and economic networks. He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids. and the "other Muslims" (artists).[297] The Sultan's army was defeated on 17 December 1398.[299] The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism[300] and later revolutionised in Sikhism. Timur (Tamerlane). peoples. but by the late Delhi Sultanate era in 1500.[296] A Turco-Mongol conqueror in Central Asia. It is possible that the Mongol Empire may have expanded into India were it not for the Delhi Sultanate's role in repelling them. there was a synthesis between Indian civilization and Islamic civilization. leading to escalating circulation of goods. destroyed.[302] . between 1000 and 1500. the Indian population and economy were stagnant with no growth for a thousand years. and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. attacked the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi.[300] It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards. the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system. technologies and ideas.

[308] and the ten successive Sikh gurus. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction. where the scripture's word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs. Regional powers[edit] Regional powers . including Kalinga.[306][307]  Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak. while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.[316] The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. the first Guru. Nilakantha Somayaji and Jyeṣṭhadeva in medieval south India. Guru Gobind Singh. Shaivism (Shiva). who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta. The empire reached its peak during the rule of Sri Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious. whose ruins surround present day Hampi. while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south. The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan. became the literal embodiment of the eternal. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.[303][304][305] The movement was inspired by many poet-saints. the Sikh scripture.[313] Vijayanagara market place at Hampi.[317] Many important monuments were either completed or commissioned during the time of Krishna Deva Raya. along with the sacred tank located on the side of Krishna temple. Telugu. Tamil and Sanskrit.[315] The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada. Guru Granth Sahib. Shaktism (Shakti goddesses). first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. such as Vaishnavism (Vishnu). The Bhakti movement regionally developed around different gods and goddesses. The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India. The south Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama founded the famous Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in the 14th century which produced a lot of great south Indian mathematicians like Parameshvara. Stone temple car in Vitthala Temple at Hampi. South Indian mathematics flourished under the protection of the Vijayanagara Empire in Kerala.[312] The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara. impersonal Guru. After the death of the tenth Guru. now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka. the best known of which is the group at Hampi.[314] Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. India. Vijayanagara went into decline after the defeat in the Battle of Talikota (1565). and Smartism.[309][310][311] Vijayanagara Empire[edit] Main article: Vijayanagara Empire The Vijayanagara Empire was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty.

[328] Further east in Northeastern India was the Kingdom of Manipur.[321] In the early 16th century Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagar Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power. is one of the earliest pavilion of outdoor stadia in the Indian subcontinent.[318] However. which originated as a political heir of the Hoysala Empire and Pandyan Empire. it collapsed and split into five small Deccan sultanates.[323] In the early 16th century. the Gajapati Kingdom remained a strong regional power to reckon with. there were other regional powers present as well. and extended their rule from Cuttack in the north to Kanchi in the south. and Mughal painting Mughal Empire . The Reddy dynasty successfully defeated the Delhi Sultanate. eventually being absorbed into the expanding Vijayanagara Empire.[320] In the south. the Rajput kingdoms remained the dominant force in Western and Central India. Gajapatis became an empire stretching from the lower Ganga in the north to the Kaveri in the south.[332][333] the growth of Maratha and Sikh imperial powers over vast regions of the Indian subcontinent with the decline of the Mughals.[324] In the East. 1526 – 1858 CE)[edit] The early modern period of Indian history is dated from 1526–1858 CE. built by Pramatta Singha in Ahom Kingdom's capital Rongpur. Muslin trade in Bengal.[319] In the north. politics in Northern India was dominated by the Delhi Sultanate. corresponding to the rise and fall of the Mughal dynasty. and frequently created difficulties for the Vijayanagara. associated with a high point in the growth of regional culture and architecture. the Ahoms decisively defeated the Mughal army at the Battle of Saraighatduring the Ahom-Mughal conflicts. Mughal clothing.[329][330][331] Early modern period (c. Under Kapilendradeva. Mughal architecture.  Rang Ghar.  "Sala fighting the Lion. after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed.[325] In Northeast India. For two and a half centuries from the mid 13th century. their political heir. This period witnessed the cultural synthesis of Hindu and Muslim elements reflected in Indo-Islamic architecture. and came to an end when the British Raj was founded.[326][327] led by Lachit Borphukan.[23] Mughal Empire[edit] Main article: Mughal Empire See also: Mughal Bengal." the emblem of Hoysala Empire. and in Southern India by the Vijayanagar Empire. the Bahmani Sultanate was the chief rival of the Vijayanagara. Their power reached its zenith under Rana Sanga. during whose time Rajput armies were constantly victorious against the Sultanate armies. Hoysala administration and architecture would influence Vijayanagara Empire.[322] It was established either by a Brahman convert or patronised by a Brahman and from that source it was given the name Bahmani. which ruled from their seat of power at Kangla Fort and developed a sophisticated Hindu Gaudiya Vaishnavite culture. the Ahom Kingdom was a major power for six centuries.

He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims.[342][341] The economic and demographic upsurge was stimulated by Mughal agrarian reforms that intensified agricultural production.[340] India's GDP growth increased under the Mughal Empire.[343] the Indian population had a faster growth during the Mughal era than at any known point in Indian history prior to the Mughal era.  The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. The Mughal era is considered to be "India's last golden age".[345] and a relatively high degree of urbanization for its time. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji.500 years prior to the Mughal era.  Taj Mahal. The reign of Shah Jahan was the golden age of Mughal architecture. and they had a son. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism. During the Mughal era. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600. creating a unique Indo-Persian culture and Indo-Saracenic architecture. which at its zenith covered modern day Afghanistan. who was part-Mughal and part-Rajput.[336] The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. . built by the Mughals.4% of the world economy.[337] and surpassed China to be become the world's largest economic power. and Humayun was forced to retreat to Kabul. who was the grandson of Babar. India and Bangladesh. his son Humayun was defeated by the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri in the year 1540.[344] a proto-industrializing economy that began moving towards industrial manufacturing. Pakistan. In 1526. He erected several large monuments.[339] producing 25% of global industrial output. the rising successor states – including the Maratha Empire – which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty.[334] However. in the early 18th century. allied themselves with local maharajas. the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and. most of whom showed religious tolerance. The Mughals had a policy of integration with Indian culture. Akbar's forces defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat on 6 November 1556.[335] Jahangir more or less followed his father's policy. liberally patronising Hindu culture. with an unprecedented economic and demographic upsurge that boosted the Indian population by 60%[342] to 253% in 200 years during 1500–1700. a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan). Akbar married a Rajput princess. and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles. The Mughal emperors married local royalty. After Sher Shah's death. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled by the Mughal emperors.[336] It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent. which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. Jahangir. swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire. the Red Fort. the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra. tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus. Delhi. later on. as were future Mughal emperors.[338] and the world leader in manufacturing. After winning Battle of Delhi. with India's GDP having a faster growth rate during the Mughal era than in the 1. Babur. Agra. as well as the Moti Masjid. his son Islam Shah Suri and his Hindu general Hemu Vikramaditya had established secular rule in North India from Delhi till 1556. The famous emperor Akbar the Great.[341] India's population growth also accelerated under the Mughal Empire. the Jama Masjid. controlling 24. Mariam-uz-Zamani. and the Lahore Fort.

Historian Sir. J.N. Sarkar wrote, "All seemed to have been gained by Aurangzeb now, but in reality
all was lost."[346] The same was echoed by Vincent Smith: "The Deccan proved to be the graveyard
not only of Aurangzeb's body but also of his empire".[177] Aurangazeb is considered India's most
controversial king.[347] He was less tolerant than his predecessors, reintroducing the jizya tax and
destroying several historical temples, while at the same time building more Hindu temples than he
destroyed,[348] employing significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his
predecessors, and opposing Sunni Muslim bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.[349] However, he
is often blamed for the erosion of the tolerant syncretic tradition of his predecessors, as well as
increasing brutality and centralisation, which may have played a large part in the dynasty's downfall
after Aurangzeb, who unlike previous emperors, imposed relatively less pluralistic policies on the
general population, which may have inflamed the majority Hindu population.
The empire went into decline thereafter. The Mughals suffered several blows due to invasions
from Marathas and Afghans. During the decline of the Mughal Empire, several smaller states rose to
fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. In 1737, the Maratha
general Bajirao of the Maratha Empire invaded and plundered Delhi. Under the general Amir Khan
Umrao Al Udat, the Mughal Emperor sent 8,000 troops to drive away the 5,000 Maratha cavalry
soldiers. Baji Rao, however, easily routed the novice Mughal general and the rest of the imperial
Mughal army fled. In 1737, in the final defeat of Mughal Empire, the commander-in-chief of the
Mughal Army, Nizam-ul-mulk, was routed at Bhopal by the Maratha army. This essentially brought
an end to the Mughal Empire. In 1739, Nader Shah, emperor of Iran, defeated the Mughal army at
the Battle of Karnal.[350] After this victory, Nader captured and sacked Delhi, carrying away many
treasures, including the Peacock Throne.[351] The Mughal dynasty was reduced to puppet rulers by
1757. The remnants of the Mughal dynasty were finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of 1857,
also called the 1857 War of Independence, and the remains of the empire were formally taken over
by the British while the Government of India Act 1858 let the British Crown assume direct control of
India in the form of the new British Raj.
Maratha Empire[edit]
Main article: Maratha Empire
See also: Chatrapati Shivaji and Bajirao I
Further information: Maratha Army, Battles involving the Maratha Empire, and Maratha Navy
Maratha Empire

Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow).

Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune, it was the seat of the Peshwa rulers of the Maratha Empire until 1818.

The early 18th century saw the rise of Maratha suzerainty over the Indian subcontinent. Under the
Peshwas, the Maratha Empire consolidated and ruled over much of South Asia. The Marathas are
credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India.[352][353][354]
The Maratha kingdom was founded and consolidated by Chatrapati Shivaji, a Maratha aristocrat of
the Bhonsle clan who was determined to establish Hindavi Swarajya. Sir J.N. Sarkar described
Shivaji as "the last great constructive genius and nation builder that the Hindu race has

produced".[355] However, the credit for making the Marathas formidable power nationally goes to
Peshwa Bajirao I.
Historian K.K. Datta wrote about Bajirao I:
He may very well be regarded as the second founder of the Maratha Empire.[356]
By the early 18th century, the Maratha Kingdom had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire
under the rule of the Peshwas (prime ministers). In 1737, the Marathas defeated a Mughal army in
their capital, Delhi itself in Battle of Delhi (1737). The Marathas continued their military
campaigns against Mughals, Nizam, Nawab of Bengal and Durrani Empire to further extend their
boundaries. Gordon explained how the Maratha systematically took control over new regions. They
would start with annual raids, followed by collecting ransom from villages and towns while the
declining Mughal Empire retained nominal control and finally taking over the region. He explained it
with the example of Malwa region. Marathas built an efficient system of public administration known
for its attention to detail. It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of
raids, up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. For example, the cornerstone of the Maratha
rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors who advanced the Maratha ruler Peshwa a
portion of their district revenues at interest.[357] By 1760, the domain of the Marathas stretched across
practically the entire subcontinent.[358]
The Northwestern expansion of the Marathas was stopped after the Third Battle of Panipat (1761).
However, the Maratha authority in the north was re-established within a decade under
Peshwa Madhavrao I.[359] The defeat of Marathas by British in third Anglo-Maratha Wars brought end
to the empire by 1820. The last peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-
Maratha War. With the defeat of the Marathas, no native power represented any significant threat for
the British afterwards.[360] As noted by Charles Metcalfe, one of the ablest of the British Officials in
India and later acting Governor-General, wrote in 1806:
India contains no more than two great powers, British and Mahratta, and every other state
acknowledges the influence of one or the other. Every inch that we recede will be occupied by
them.[361][362]
The Marathas also developed a potent navy circa 1660s, which at its peak, dominated the territorial
waters of the western coast of India from Mumbai to Savantwadi.[363] For a brief period, the Maratha
Navy also established its base at the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal.[364] It would engage in
attacking the British, Portuguese, Dutch, and Siddi Naval ships and kept a check on their naval
ambitions. The Maratha Navy dominated till around the 1730s, was in a state of decline by the
1770s, and ceased to exist by 1818.[365]
Sikh Empire[edit]
Main article: Sikh Empire
See also: History of Sikhism and Ranjit Singh

Harmandir Sahib (The Golden Temple) is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs.
The Sikh Empire, ruled by members of the Sikh religion, was a political entity that governed the
Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent. The empire, based around the Punjab region,
existed from 1799 to 1849. It was forged, on the foundations of the Khalsa, under the leadership
of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh consolidated many parts of northern India into an empire. He primarily used
his highly disciplined Sikh Khalsa Armythat he trained and equipped with modern military
technologies and technique. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well
qualified generals for his army. He continuously defeated the Afghan armies and successfully ended

the Afghan-Sikh Wars. In stages, he added the central Punjab, the provinces of Multan and Kashmir,
the Peshawar Valley, and the Derajat to his empire.[366][367]
At its peak, in the 19th century, the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in
the north, to Sindh in the south, running along Sutlej river to Himachal in the east. After the death of
Ranjit Singh, the empire weakened, leading to the conflict with the British East India Company. The
hard-fought first Anglo-Sikh war and second Anglo-Sikh war marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire;
making it among the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to be conquered by the British.
Other kingdoms[edit]
Main articles: Kingdom of Mysore, Hyderabad State, Nawab of Bengal, and Rajputana
Further information: Tipu Sultan, Wodeyar dynasty, Dogra dynasty, and Nizam of Hyderabad

Mysore Palace in the evening, the official residence and seat of the Wodeyars, the rulers of Mysore of
the Mysore Kingdom, the royal family of Mysore.

Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan, one of the world's largest private residences. Built by Maharaja Umaid
Singh, the ruler of the Princely State of Jodhpur.
There were several other kingdoms which ruled over parts of India in the later medieval period prior
to the British occupation. However, most of them were bound to pay regular tribute to
the Marathas.[358] The rule of Wodeyar dynasty which established the Kingdom of Mysore in southern
India in around 1400 CE by was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in the later half of
the 18th century. Under their rule, Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined
forces of the British and Marathas, but mostly against the British, with Mysore receiving some aid or
promise of aid from the French.
The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal
Empire. However, their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried six expeditions in Bengal from
1741 to 1748 as a result of which Bengal became a tributary state of Marathas.
Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591. Following a brief Mughal
rule, Asif Jah, a Mughal official, seized control of Hyderabad and declared himself Nizam-al-Mulk of
Hyderabad in 1724. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. Both Kingdom of
Mysore and Hyderabad State became princely states in British India in 1799 and 1798 respectively.
The 18th century saw the whole of Rajputana virtually subdued by the Marathas. The Second Anglo-
Maratha War distracted the Marathas from 1807 to 1809, but afterwards Maratha domination of
Rajputana resumed. In 1817, the British went to war with the Pindaris, raiders who were based in
Maratha territory, which quickly became the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the British government
offered its protection to the Rajput rulers from the Pindaris and the Marathas. By the end of 1818
similar treaties had been executed between the other Rajput states and Britain. The
Maratha Sindhia ruler of Gwalior gave up the district of Ajmer-Merwara to the British, and Maratha
influence in Rajasthan came to an end.[368] Most of the Rajput princes remained loyal to Britain in
the Revolt of 1857, and few political changes were made in Rajputana until Indian independence in

with the exception of the French outposts of Pondichéry and Chandernagore. they eventually lost all their territories in India to the British.[378] Expansion of the British East India Company rule in India[edit] . They established ports in Malabar. Daman. Diu and Bombay. the British—who set up in the west coast port of Surat in 1619—and the French both established trading outposts in India. with their main base in Ceylon. Palaiyakkarar states emerged in Southern India. after their defeat in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancore. under the terms of the Treaty of Amritsar. their expansion into India was halted. a Portuguese fleet under Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India. Daman and Diu. The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands.[376][377] and the Portuguese colonies of Goa. was created by the Dogra dynasty.[369][370] After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to India. Goa became the main Portuguese base until it was annexed by India in 1961. However. The Rajputana Agency contained more than 20 princely states.[373] The next to arrive were the Dutch. Jaipur State. during the Travancore-Dutch War. the battle of Colachel shattered for all time their dream of the conquest of Kerala. which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. Sreedhara Menon: A disaster of the first magnitude for the Dutch. Bikaner State and Jodhpur State. After the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846. most notable being Udaipur State.1947. Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. and managed to weather invasions and flourished till the advent of the British. the Kingdom of Nepal was formed by Rajput rulers. the British government sold Kashmir to Maharaja Gulab Singh and the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Portuguese soon set up trading posts in Goa. Although these continental European powers controlled various coastal regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century.[371] Around the 18th century. In 1498. the second largest princely state in British India. Following the Dutch. Professor A.[374][375] In the words of the noted historian.[372] European exploration and colonialism[edit] Main article: Colonial India Western explorers and traders[edit] The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499).

[382] The East India Company monopolised the trade of Bengal. opposed British attempts to use these permits. which sharpened after 1801. Punjab. .[379] Gradually their increasing influence led the de jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty-free trade in Bengal in 1717. however. The border dispute between Nepal and British India. defeated the French-supported Nawab's forces. In 1854. The subsidiary alliances created the princely states or native states of the Hindu maharajas and the Muslim nawabs. Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories. the de facto ruler of the Bengal province. and Kashmir were annexed after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849. Berar was annexed. often with zamindars set in place. and the state of Oudh was added two years later. this marked the beginning of its formal rule. had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and brought the defeated Gurkhas under British influence. the Anglo-Mysore Wars (1766–1799) and later the Anglo-Maratha Wars (1772–1818) led to control of the vast regions of India. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure in Bengal. After the turn of the 19th century. As a result of the three Carnatic Wars.[381] This was combined with British victories over the French at Madras. along with wider British successes during the Seven Years' War. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from de jure Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764. reduced French influence in India. The British East India Company extended its control over the whole of Bengal.Main articles: East India Company and Company rule in India In 1617 the British East India Company was given permission by Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade in India. the British East India Company gained exclusive control over the entire Carnatic region of India.[383]The Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Bombay and Madras. North-West Frontier Province. which within the next century engulfed most of India. Wandiwash and Pondichéry that. in which the Bengal Army of the East India Company. The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah. Clive was appointed by the company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757. led by Robert Clive.[380] Map of India in 1857 at the end of Company rule. Ahom Kingdom of North-east India first fell to Burmese invasionand then to British after Treaty of Yandabo in 1826. Kashmir was immediately sold under the Treaty of Amritsar to the Dogra Dynasty of Jammu and thereby became a princely state.[384] This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. This led to the Battle of Plassey on 23 June 1757.

They were absorbed into the independent nation in 1947–48.[385] Indian indenture system[edit] Main article: Indian indenture system The Indian indenture system was an ongoing system of indenture. had differing goals. Fiji). the East India Company controlled most of the Indian subcontinent.e. The Indian Penal Code came into being. by which 3.5 million Indians were transported to various colonies of European powers to provide labour for the (mainly sugar) plantations. 1858 – 1947)[edit] Main article: British Raj The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent (in a map of 1909). The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company's rule. which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces.[388] In .[386] In the aftermath. taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. They were brutally suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it. which spread from the Indian Ocean (i.[387] British Raj (c. led. as well as the growth of Indo- Caribbean and Indo-African population. 1850 CE)[edit] The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences[edit] Main article: Indian rebellion of 1857 Attack of the mutineers on the Redan Battery at Lucknow. After 1857. and had no outside support or funding. It started from the end of slavery in 1833 and continued until 1920. the colonial government strengthened and expanded its infrastructure via the court system. Modern period and independence (after c. but only 21 had actual state governments. and only three were large (Mysore. all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown.e. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again. The rebels were disorganised. and trained. and statutes.By the 1850s. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule. Réunion and Mauritius) to Pacific Ocean (i. The Crown controlled the Company's lands directly and had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India. and were poorly equipped. a form of debt bondage. which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families. Hyderabad and Kashmir). The princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow. There were officially 565 princely states in 1947. 30 July 1857. legal procedures. This resulted in the development of large Indian diaspora.

The British goal was said to be for efficient administration but the people of Bengal were outraged at the apparent "divide and rule" strategy. and the population also grew at 1%. It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims. Muslims set up the All India Muslim League in 1906. raising interfaith [399] awareness and making Hinduism a world religion. with the Nationalist school arguing that India was poorer at the end of British rule than at the beginning and that impoverishment occurred because of the British. It also marked the beginning of the organised anti-colonial movement. However.education.[393] Several socio-religious organisations came into being at that time.[389] The Indian economy grew at about 1% per year from 1880 to 1920.[391] However.[394] The Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) sought to represent Hindu interests though the latter always claimed it to be a "cultural" organisation. Thomas Babington Macaulay had made schooling a priority for the Raj in his famous minute of February 1835 and succeeded in implementing the use of English as the medium of instruction. including canals and irrigation systems in addition to railways. telegraphy.[392] In 1905. roads and ports. founded in 1885. the largest and oldest political party Indian National Congress.[390] The British Raj invested heavily in infrastructure. from 1910s Indian private industry began to grow significantly.  [398] Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in the Western world. The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of British rule dominated by Bengali Hindus. and by distrust of Hindus. a largely Muslim eastern half.[397] Bengal Renaissance[edit] Main article: Bengal Renaissance Bengal Renaissance  Rabindranath Tagore is Asia's first Nobel laureateand composer of India's national anthem. The Bengal Renaissance can be said to have started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833) and ended with Rabindranath Tagore(1861–1941). By 1890 some 60.000 Indians had matriculated. India built a modern railway system in the late 19th century which was the fourth largest in the world. The new Viceroy Gilbert Minto and the new Secretary of State for India John Morleyconsulted with Congress leaders on political reforms. the British. When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in 1906. The Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 provided for Indian membership of the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy's executive council.[396] However. Bengal was reunified in 1911. Lord Curzon split the large province of Bengal into a largely Hindu western half and "Eastern Bengal and Assam". although many . and India. It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam.[395] Sikhs founded the Shiromani Akali Dal in 1920. attempted to keep a distance from the socio-religious movements and identity politics. historians have been bitterly divided on issues of economic history. he was removed. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government.

[401] During this period.[409] Despite persistent diseases and famines. However.500. Probable reasons include a "clash of interests of the Indian people with British interests".8 million people died.000 square kilometres (257.[411] The Indian independence movement[edit] Main articles: Indian independence movement and Pakistan Movement See also: Mahatma Gandhi and Indian independence activists The numbers of British in India were small. the dowry system. Bengal witnessed an intellectual awakening that is in some way similar to the Renaissance.000 sq mi) and caused distress to a population totalling 58.5 million people. and scientists.25 to 10 million people died. marriage. including the Great Famine of 1876–78 in which 6. One of the earliest social movements that emerged during this time was the Young Bengal movement. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 5.000. which espoused rationalism and atheism as the common denominators of civil conduct among upper caste educated Hindus. particularly with respect to women. pictured in 1877.[407] and the Bengal famine of 1943 where up to 3. all merging to form the image of a renaissance.[414] . famines in India. This movement questioned existing orthodoxies.[403] During Company rule in India and the British Raj. historians are divided over the causes of its rise. patriotic orators. scholars. literary giants. The famine ultimately covered an area of 670. often attributed to El Niño[404] and failed policies of British colonial government. One of the most important events of the 19th century was the rise of Indian nationalism. which stood at up to 200 million in 1750. journalists. were some of the worst ever recorded.[410] had reached 389 million by 1941.3 million people died. the caste system. Famines[edit] Main articles: Famine in India and Timeline of major famines in India during British rule See also: Demographics of India Victims of the Great Famine of 1876–78 in British India.[405] the Great Bengal famine of 1770 where up to 10 million people died.[412] leading Indians to seek first "self-rule" and later "complete independence". the population of the Indian subcontinent.[413] and "the revelation of India's past". yet they were able to rule two-thirds of the subcontinent directly and exercise considerable leverage over the princely states that accounted for the remaining one-third of the area.[406] the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1. and religion.stalwarts thereafter continued to embody particular aspects of the unique intellectual and creative output of the region.[412] "racial discriminations".[408] The Third Plague Pandemic in the mid-19th century killed 10 million people in India.[402] It played an important role in reawakening Indian minds and intellect across the Indian subcontinent.[400] Nineteenth century Bengal was a unique blend of religious and social reformers. and marked the transition from the 'medieval' to the 'modern'.1 million to 10.

His popular sentence "Swaraj is my birthright. 1944).[416] Bal Gangadhar Tilak. declared Swaraj as the destiny of the nation. Mahatma Gandhi. the triumvirate were popularly known as Lal Bal Pal. Bengaland Punjab shaped the demand of the people and India's nationalism. In 1907. revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian subcontinent and some others adopted a militant approach like the Indian National Army that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle. or diarchy. which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration.[419] From 1920 leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. India was controlled by the United Kingdom. However. the founder of Pakistan (Bombay. . advocated civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire and the abandonment of all things British. and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The Government of India Act 1935 was a major success in this regard. and I shall have it"[417] became the source of inspiration for Indians.[415] The civil service was increasingly filled with natives at the lower levels. Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra. civil disobedienceand economic resistance. The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of councillors to advise the British viceroy in 1861 and the first Indian was appointed in 1909. India's three big provinces – Maharashtra. and Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal. Additionally. The councillors' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. as part of the Allied Nations. with the senior officers all British and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal and Sikhs. Tilak was backed by rising public leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai.[418] World War II[edit] Main article: India in World War II During the Second World War (1939–1945).[418] The British themselves adopted a "carrot and stick" approach in recognition of India's support during the First World War and in response to renewed nationalist demands. the triumvirate were popularly known as Lal Bal Pal. an Indian nationalist leader. British India officially declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939. notably they advocated the Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods. several Indian Princely States provided large donations to support the Allied campaign during the War. sent over two and a half million volunteer soldiers to fight under British command against the Axis powers. The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in the Government of India Act 1919. Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up. on the other hand wanted reform within the framework of British rule. who held the same point of view. leader of the Indian independence movement. The British built a large British Indian Army.[420] The British Raj. led by Tilak. changed the political discourse of the Indian independence movement. The moderates.Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab. with the British holding territories in India including over five hundred autonomous Princely States. led by leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. the Congress was split into two factions: The radicals. in which elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power. with the British holding the more senior positions. Under them. The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-co-operation. India also provided the base for American operations in support of China in the China Burma India Theatre.

and in the following March. starting with that of RAF servicemen frustrated with their slow repatriation to Britain.000 Indian soldiers (including those from modern day Pakistan. and then moved to suppress the violent reaction of Congress supporters. Madras. Over 87. By 1942. which by then had already captured the Indian territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Japan gave nominal control of the islands to the Provisional Government of Free India on 21 October 1943. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Maulana Azad. played little role on the home front. a government-in-exile based in Singapore. mostly in Burma. After World War II (c. It immediately arrested over 60. in the South Asian region defending India against the Japanese and fighting the Japanese in Burma. the Indian National Army with the help of Japan crossed into India and advanced as far as Kohima in Nagaland. It controlled no Indian territory and was used only to raise troops for Japan. new elections were called in India and in eight of the eleven provinces Congress candidates won. with its leaders incommunicado. The mutinies came to a head with mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay in February 1946. against the Italians in East Africa. Indians also aided in liberating British colonies such as Singapore and Hong Kong after the Japanese surrender in August 1945. The government was ready for this move. This advance on the mainland of South Asia reached its farthest point on India territory. Japan helped him set up the Indian National Army (INA) which fought under Japanese direction. The mutinies were rapidly suppressed. in the Middle East against the Vichy French. a number of mutinies broke out in the armed services.000 national and local Congress leaders. The Indian National Congress. 1946 – 1947)[edit] In January 1946. The Muslim League rejected the Quit India movement and worked closely with the Raj authorities. Indians fought with distinction throughout the world. Congress launched the Quit India Movement in August 1942. and Karachi. 1944. although Gandhi was released in May 1944 because of his health. Key leaders were kept in prison until June 1945. Nepal. and Bangladesh) died in World War II. The region of Bengal in India suffered a devastating famine during 1940–43. followed by others in Calcutta. neighbouring Burma was invaded by Japan. Subhas Chandra Bose (also called Netaji) broke with Congress and tried to form a military alliance with Germany or Japan to gain independence. led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Also in early 1946.Indian infantrymen of the 7th Rajput Regiment about to go on patrol on the Arakan front in Burma. Bose also headed the Provisional Government of Free India. denounced Nazi Germany but would not fight it or anyone else until India was independent. including in the European theatre against Germany. Congress. in North Africa against Germany and Italy. refusing to co- operate in any way with the government until independence was granted. . retreating from the Battle of Kohima in June and from that of Imphal on 3 July 1944.

landownership. to the annoyance of the Marxist school. proverbs.[424] Richard Gordon.[425] downplays ideology.[427] The Nationalist school has focused on Congress. to Noakhali in Bengal (where Hindus were targeted by Muslims).[429] The "subaltern school". Nehru and high level politics. this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history. with a total of 12 million Hindus. seceded from Pakistan. and on to Rawalpindi in March 1947 in which Hindus were attacked or driven out by Muslims. Again. they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj. The once common "Orientalist" approach.[421] Also. the Marxists are accused of being "too much" ideologically influenced. has died out in serious scholarship.Dead and wounded after the 'Direct Action Day'.[431] More recently. and David A. Nationalist. rioting broke out between Sikhs. This school of thought is still in the process of . the Labour government decided to end British rule of India. Following the controversial division of pre- partition Punjab and Bengal. and class conflict in precolonial India and of deindustrialisation during the colonial period. was begun in the 1980s by Ranajit Guha and Gyan Prakash. this school of historiography is criticised for western bias or Eurocentrism. which developed into pitched battles as Muslim and Hindumobs rioted across Calcutta in 1946. leaving some 500. Bangladesh. and in early 1947 Britain announced its intention of transferring power no later than June 1948 and participating in the formation of an interim government. and wholly spiritual India.[422] The "Cambridge School". inscrutable. Historiography[edit] Historiography is the study of the history and methodology of the discipline of history. History of the Republic of India. Late in 1946.000 dead. Washbrook. It focuses on the colonial era before 1947 and typically emphasises caste and downplays class. in Garhmukteshwar in the United Provinces (where Muslims were attacked by Hindus). led by Anil Seal. although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership.[430] It focuses attention away from the elites and politicians to "history from below". Marxist. and subaltern. This school of historiography has received criticism for Elitism. as defining historical events. 1947–present)[edit] Main articles: Partition of India. the demand for a Muslim homeland in British India. with its image of a sensuous. after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan.[426] However. Hindu nationalists have created a version of history to support their demands for "Hindutva" ("Hinduness") in Indian society. and Gandhi's 'Quit India' begun in 1942. The term historiography also denotes a body of historical work on a specialised topic. which resulted in the outbreak of the cycle of violence that would be later called the "Great Calcutta Killing of August 1946".[423] Gordon Johnson. formerly East Pakistan and East Bengal. poetry. and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence. looking at the peasants using folklore. oral history and methods inspired by anthropology. The Marxists portrayed Gandhi's movement as a device of the bourgeois elite to harness popular. riddles. The communal violence spread to Bihar (where Muslims were attacked by Hindus). Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah proclaimed 16 August 1946 as Direct Action Day. History of Pakistan. Gandhi. In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: Cambridge. Independence and partition (c. The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent. peacefully. the year before independence. Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan (which gained independence on 15 and 14 August 1947 respectively). Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India. Along with the desire for independence. It highlighted the Mutiny of 1857 as a war of liberation.[428] The Marxists have focused on studies of economic development. tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. with the stated goal of highlighting. potentially revolutionary forces for its own ends. and History of Bangladesh The British Indian territories gained independence in 1947. songs.[421] In 1971.

[432] In March 2012. Jump up^ AL Basham (1951).[433][434][435] [436] See also[edit]  History portal  India portal  Economic history of India  History of the Republic of India  Indian maritime history  Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent  Military history of India  Outline of ancient India  The Cambridge History of India  Timeline of Indian history References[edit] Notes[edit] 1.G. Jump up^ White. 4. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series. by Carla M." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism. professor of Comparative Religion and Indian Studies at Harvard University. 6. 10. A History of India (Penguin Books: New York.67 .33 11.[113] Citations[edit] 1. pages 41–43. War. Jump up^ "Indus River Valley Civilizations". edited by Shingo Einoo. Band 1 by Nicholas Tarling p. Jump up^ See also Tanvir Anjum. p. Patrick. Eck. Subbarayappa 15. 17. 5. Temporal Divides: A Critical Review of the Major Schemes of Periodization in Indian History. Gavin. ^ Jump up to:a b Sanderson.V. 1800. A History of India. Singh p. Jump up^ Romila Thapar.15 13. 47. 2.V. Kiss of the Yogini. pg. 2009. Jump up^ Asher & Talbot 2008. Jump up^ Romila Thapar. 6.281 16. ISBN 978-81-208-1204-8. development.201 14. ^ Jump up to:a b A Social History of Early India by Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya p. Jump up^ The "First urbanization" was the Indus Valley Civilisation. University of Tokyo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 24. ^ Jump up to:a b Technology and Society by Menon R. Jump up^ Societies. Jump up^ Power and Plenty: Trade. authored in her book "India: A Sacred Geography". p. 2. 28.281 18. Retrieved 4 January 2016. Origins and Development of the Kuru State. 3. 1966) p. Jump up^ Science in India by B. Networks. and Transitions. ISBN 0-226-89483-5. that idea of India dates to a much earlier time than the British or the Mughals and it wasn't just a cluster of regional identities and it wasn't ethnic or racial. and the World Economy in the Second Millennium by Ronald Findlay. Jump up^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006. David Gordon (2003). 23. Early Sanskritization. 2003. Jump up^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p. 23. Jump up^ The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From early times to c. Sinopoli p. History-world.259 12. History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas – a Vanished Indian Religion. p. Kevin H. Olivelle. P. Diana L. Alexis (2009). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period.333 19. Jump up^ The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire in South India. Jump up^ Researches Into the History and Civilization of the Kirātas by G.org. p. pages 94–103 3. Jump up^ The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan by Yasmin Khan 7. Malden: Blackwell. 9. 273–4. Motilal Banarsidass. O'Rourke p. p. 8. Volume B: From 600 to 1750 by Craig Lockard p. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture. Jump up^ Flood. Jump up^ See also Michael Witzel.

34: 1434–1440. Retrieved 6 May 2007. "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanisation". ISBN 978-0-8369-1184-8. Jump up^ Essays on Ancient India by Raj Kumar p. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thapar 1978. London: Palgrave. p. Kate Brittlebank. 139. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 224–. 151–152. Nature.). Jump up^ "Archaeologists rock solid behind Edakkal Cave".755C. 29. The Telegraph. (2001). Jump up^ Protecting megaliths to keep history alive The Hindu daily 50. Jump up^ Thapar 1978.20. p. 44.1016/j. Jump up^ Rendell. Kimberley (May 2005). Jump up^ Mudur. 267–. p. 11.19. Jump up^ Kenoyer.S (21 March 2005). 27. 20 September 2005.. Jump up^ "The Hathnora Skull Fossil from Madhya Pradesh. R. p. (6 April 2006). B.ac. Northern Pakistan. Jump up^ Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007) [1964]. Retrieved 1 December 2007.. The Hindu.. ISBN 0-415-11762- 3. James. 46. Bondioli. Archived from the original on 29 May 2006. 32. Retrieved 6 January 2017. doi:10. British Archaeological Reports International Series.. Journal of Archaeological Science. Multi Disciplinary Geoscientific Studies. 35. M. 84. 19. C. Jonathan Mark. G. W. H. KnowHow. Jump up^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought: page 340 22. Dennell.. p. 49. ^ Jump up to:a b Possehl. Jump up^ Thapar 1978. yourarticlelibrary. globalvisiontours. 48. Asim Roy.001.. pp. Halim. L. 28. Cucina. Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. p. Tim (1999). 24. "Still a mystery". Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man.440. Cambridge University Press.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2007. Bibcode:2006Natur.100190.11. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. OCLC 56413341. (October 1990). 47.com. pp. A. P.group.net. 31. Time and Archaeology. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Geological Survey of India. Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium. L.shef. ISBN 0-86054-691-8. (9 October 2006)..an. 440 (7085): 755– 756.com. (1989). G. 40. 45. D. pp. 43. A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed. Jump up^ "Edakkal Caves".. Jump up^ Hellmut De Terra (1969). 20. Chennai. Retrieved 22 November 2007. Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley.jas. Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ABC-CLIO. Jump up^ Bongard-Levin 1979. Jump up^ "Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment". India". Retrieved 6 January 2017. Department of Archaeology. Oxford University Press. ed. Jump up^ "Indian Economy During British Rule". Metcalf. the Academy of Natural Sciences. Jump up^ Metcalf. University of Sheffield.1038/440755a. Jump up^ Robb. Jump up^ History of Mysore Under Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sultan by Joseph Michaud p. A. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 41.001401. PMID 16598247. . Jump up^ "Edakkal Caves|Places Around in Wayanad". Chauhan. "Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry" (PDF). pp. George Grant MacCurdy. R. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. 161 25. Ian Mabbett. Jump up^ A History of State and Religion in India by Ian Copland. ISBN 0-19-517422-4. Jump up^ Murray. An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective. 37. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 38. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 33. Jump up^ "Economic Impact of the British Rule in India | Indian History". OCLC 29222688. ^ Jump up to:a b Coppa. 143 26. Philadelphia. Jarrige. 42. W. historydiscussion. March 1937. Retrieved 7 May 2007. doi:10. London: Routledge. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-202-30960-6. et al. Frayer. 30. assemblage. ^ Jump up to:a b "India before the British: The Mughal Empire and its Rivals. India. p. 94–99.1146/annurev. The Ancient South Asian World.2006. Retrieved 16 October 2011. Wayanad. Jump up^ "An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian | Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region".nic. 28 October 2007. R. 36. A History of India. Jump up^ "Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan".199 21. Jump up^ Minahan. Jump up^ Parth R.. Adam Bowles: p. 34. 51. Annual Review of Anthropology. 364. 39. doi:10. Transaction Publishers. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 19 (1): 261– 282. Jump up^ Al Baldiah wal nahaiyah vol: 7 page 141 "Conquest of Makran" 23. University of Exeter. 1526–1857". T. Heuston..

75. Meadow. R. of Culture and Tourism. ISBN 978-0-19-516947-8.com. 44: "There are still remnant northern Dravidian languages including Brahui . The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate. ABC-CLIO publishers. H..1968. Georg. Dept. Archived from the original on 4 September 2006..N. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jump up^ Knorozov 1965. p. 51–52.. 58. nation. Mahadevan (2006) 74. Iravatham (6 May 2006). Jump up^ Heras 1953. H. (2016). 70 (5): 911– 922. most scholars have taken the 'Dravidian hypothesis' seriously 70. Retrieved 6 January 2017. T. Jump up^ Jarrige. Jump up^ Mallory 1989. France. Incredible India.1525/aa.S. Jump up^ "Cradle Of Civilisation". Retrieved 6 January 2017.. pp. 57. Pakistan: a global studies handbook. Quivron. Delhi: Longman. 56. "Ancient shorelines of Gujarat. India. Jump up^ "Rich heritage: Ancient civilisations offer potential for regional linkages. Retrieved 16 May 2010. p. 54. U. of Sindh. 64.pk. ISBN 978-0-8356-0720- 9. p. 51. 55. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate. "Linguistic Substrata in Sanskrit Texts". 2004. Lawrence S. Jump up^ Kenoyer 1998. 29–30. Hindustan Times. Jump up^ Parpola 1994 73. 76– 107.5. Jump up^ Bongard-Levin 1979. A.02a00070. 255. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. 60. ISBN 1-85109-801-1 61. 62. Jennifer. Jump up^ Indian Archaeology. Subhash Kak. 82. tribune. Delhi: Archaeol. p. The most obvious explanation of this situation is that the Dravidian languages once occupied nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and it is the intrusion of Indo-Aryans that engulfed them in northern India leaving but a few isolated enclaves. 69. Harappa. Jump up^ Yasmeen Niaz Mohiuddin. pp. J. Jump up^ Jennings. Jump up^ Feuerstein. Jump up^ Cole.com. "The Harappan 'Port' at Lothal: Another View". A Review. Retrieved 6 January 2017. Jump up^ Romila Thapar. The Hindu. Jump up^ Leshnik. Jump up^ Upinder Singh (2008). 65.Jha.. In search of the cradle of civilization: new light on ancient India. 80. 72. (2009).. "Stone celts in Harappa".-F. during the Indus civilisation (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences". Jarrige. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Harappan language. Jump up^ Kenoyer 1998.com. Oxford. p. American Anthropologist. C. Jump up^ Edwin Bryant. 172. Jump up^ Early India: A Concise History.52. pp. doi:10. Retrieved 20 November 2008. Killing Civilization: A Reassessment of Early Urbanism and Its Consequences. Jump up^ Gaur. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. 77 (1): 180–185. (1 May 2006). "Significance of Mayiladuthurai find". (1995). p.000 years older than thought".pk. 2006. Edwin (2001). New Series. and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. p. Prentice Hall. ISSN 0011-3891.. Jump up^ Khandekar. 96. K. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Lynn (1995). (10 July 1999). 183. Jump up^ Subramanium 2006. University of New Mexico Press. 66. "Indus Valley 2. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008.. Tariq.31 67. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 1958–1959. Retrieved 20 November 2008. Jump up^ Rahman. India. p. 53. 59. says Aziz – The Express Tribune". Jump up^ Mahadevan. JSTOR 196810. 138 77. Jump up^ MacKenzie. 81. p. 147. (October 1968)." 79. Retrieved 12 July 2013. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9 .181 68. 151. J. Wheaton. S. Govt. Excavations at Alamgirpur. ^ Jump up to:a b Singh. ISBN 978-0-8263-5661-1. see also A Note on the Muruku Sign of the Indus Script in light of the Mayiladuthurai Stone Axe Discovery Archived 4 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Jump up^ Subramanian.prevailing theory indicates Dravidian origins 71. Vora. G. Surv. Jump up^ Bryant. 78. Retrieved 6 January 2017. Illinois: Quest Books. 117 76. A History of Ancient and Mediaeval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. D. Current India Science. Nivedita (4 November 2012). A History of India: Part 1. Jump up^ "Archaeologists confirm Indian civilization is 2000 years older than previously believed | Public Radio International". "The Sindhi language" (PDF). globalpost. Jump up^ "History". p. by I. p. ISBN 978-0-19-513777-4.70. Non-Western Art: A Brief Guide. p. David Frawley (1995). Mehrgarh Field Reports 1975 to 1985 – from the Neolithic to the Indus Civilisation. This is further supported by the fact that Dravidian loan words begin to appear in Sanskrit literature from its very beginning. 63. "Peoples and languages in pre-islamic Indus valley".

. The Sanskrit epics. Volume 12. person. p. 116. pp. Jump up^ Samuel 2010. In Kenoyer. (1 August 2004). ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0 85. Arnold. Jump up^ Gupta & Ramachandran 1976. Jump up^ Singh.4. Jump up^ Singh 2009. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. and collectively in singular. ^ Jump up to:a b Singh 2009.. Proceedings of the conference on the Indus civilization. (1998). Jump up^ Samuel 2010. Jump up^ Valmiki (March 1990). Encyclopædia Britannica. Oldenbourg 1997. pp. 'a race' . p. Cengage learning. " (p. The Ancient History of India.P.. (1982). Lat. [1] 103. K. Origins and development of the Kuru State. World History. BRILL.. J. Volume 1: Balakanda. p. Notes on Rgveda 7. Routledge. ^ Jump up to:a b c Witzel 1995 104. p. Gavin D. genus. Roshan.. Boston: Ginn & Co. Taplinger. William. 31. Oxford University. The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. 'a man'. *gen-. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Hinduism: Other sources: the process of 'Sanskritization'". Indica. Jump up^ H. Religion. 37. 95. Jackson (2012).. ^ Jump up to:a b Michael Witzel (1989). A History of India Part 1. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 90. H. C. 90. 1980. p. p. . Balmiki Prasad. Jump up^ Stephen Potter. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. Terence P. Witzel. Jump up^ Witzel 1995. 108.. Part 2. 102. H. C. Robert P. 42–45. Jump up^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004. 48–51.58 107. 49. J. creature. Jump up^ Singhal. ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6 84. The City in South Asia (Routledge. Jump up^ Brockington. pp. 109. p. . 1. ^ Jump up to:a b Reddy 2003. jána. Gupta. Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. Retrieved 12 May 2007. 110. A History of India (2nd ed. p. 21. and Administration in Classical India. p. 31. 150–151. Marvels and Mysteries of the Mahabharata. Jump up^ Samuel 2010. (1996). p. Princeton. B. 2015. Jump up^ Samuel 2010. 92. 27–52 = Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 98. the Law. "The Languages of Harappa". 246. 2008). Political History of Ancient India and Nepal. and Spirituality. D. 45–51. and Gk. ISBN 81-269-0286-8. p. 86. ^ Jump up to:a b Samuel 2010.. 91. 'race' . found in Skt. 101. Jump up^ Kulke. 23.). a people or race or tribe . Jump up^ Day. 153. Goldman. The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India. pp. Jump up^ Schmidt..18. ed. who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century BCE as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century BCE. 4th. (27 April 2010). 88. 105. 44. . 42–48.12-13 115. Jump up^ Stein. Jump up^ James Heitzman. Jump up^ Witzel. man. 114. p. The state. Laurens Christopher Sargent (1974). Vol. Jump up^ "India: The Late 2nd Millennium and the Reemergence of Urbanism". Jump up^ Samuel 2010. the Arts. 94. folks. Raychaudhuri (1950). 77. 97–265. An Introduction to Hinduism. γένος. 61.. A11. Oxford: Wiley- Blackwell. Michael (2000). Caillat. Cambridge University Press. Jump up^ M. 93.. Jump up^ Nelson. A History of India. December 1995. p. m. p. Encyclopædia Britannica. 118. Pedigree: the origins of words from nature. Bombay.17. P. p. jana. 99. India's Culture: The State. Organ of the Heras Institute. vol. Paris. Eng... p. Jump up^ Abhijit Basu (2013). 48–51. B. Leadstart Publishing Pvt Ltd. ed. genus. Early Sanskritization. in plural. Recht. Jump up^ Duiker. p. p. Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. Ramayana of Valmiki. München : R. Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. A Sanskrit reader: with vocabulary and notes. genos and L. Jump up^ Flood.. 96.83. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ^ Jump up to:a b c Samuel 2010. 41–43. 113. cf. D. 89. Spielvogel. p. 200. ISBN 90-04-10260-4. 100. p. Jump up^ Romila Thapar. and Beyond. ISBN 0-919812-15-5. ISBN 0-691-01485-X. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. Springer. 117. Kölver (ed. 106. 47. James M.. 41–47.). Psychology. 61–93.254) 112. L. 18–21. 111.5–10. Rothermund. 87. Jump up^ Charles Rockwell Lanman (1912). 97. kin.

144. 125. Jump up^ Melton.). Gavin D.260 150. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-19-954025-9 127. p. Penguin Books. a contemporary of the Buddha." 130. The renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history. Spodek and D. Martin (2010). Jump up^ Mahadevan. Retrieved 6 January 2017. Jump up^ Olivelle.Tauris : London ISBN 1-86064-148-2 – Jainism's major teacher is the Mahavira. B. ^ Jump up to:a b Thapar 2003. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 91. ^ Jump up to:a b Stein... xxiv– xxix. pp. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. ed. Jump up^ Juan Mascaró (1965). Jump up^ Carl Roebuck. Jump up^ Singh. "The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B. p 213. pp. 105. 136. p. Jump up^ Flood.. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. ^ Jump up to:a b The First Spring: The Golden Age of India by Abraham Eraly p. A History of India. ^ Jump up to:a b Reddy 2003. p. Jump up^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I. Page 114 132. 124. Olivelle. 273–4. 142. ^ Jump up to:a b Romila Thapar. In Historical Roots" in the Making of ‘the Aryan’. Baumann. moksa/nirvana – the goal of human existence. p. Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in general and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. 146.org. "The second half of the first millennium BC was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterize later Indian religions. ISBN 0-306-81330-0. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 126. New Delhi. A107. H. 140. A History of India: Volume 1. R. lumbinitrust. 121. Religions of the World. Jump up^ CNG Coins 138. Jump up^ Doniger 1999. Jump up^ Fuller. 82. Malden: Blackwell. p. "Alexander's Great Battles".C. Jump up^ Romila Thapar.. George Allen & Unwin Ltd.F. ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6 . 1993. p.M. 256. Retrieved 19 May 2007. 204–205. Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. 178–180. 145.)". 260–4.119. P (1956). 120. ISBN 978-0-14- 044163-5. Upaniṣads. Thapar (ed. 59. J. pg. 4 131. 357. A History of India (2nd ed. Jim. ABC-CLIO. A History of India: Part 1. ^ Jump up to:a b Thapar 2003. (27 April 2010). D. Ancient India. History of Philosophy Eastern and Western. T.655 151. ed. ^ Jump up to:a b Flood.. Jump up^ Sen 1999. Delhi: Pearson Education. Jump up^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I. Jump up^ Romila Thapar.. 143.B. 7–. Jump up^ Essays on Indian Renaissance by Raj Kumar p. p. National Book Trust. 148.C. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. Upinder (2008). 78.. The Generalship of Alexander the Great (Reprint ed. (1996). p. 141. (3 February 2004). p. Jump up^ Anguttara Nikaya I. Timeline of Art History. 149. 147. 135. 139. 57 129. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. p. The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York. Cambridge University Press. 58. IV. An Introduction to Hinduism. ed. Gavin. 123.." Page 115 134. J.)." In Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia: The Shaping of Cities from Prehistoric to Precolonial Times. Jump up^ "Lumbini Development Trust: Restoring the Lumbini Garden". Jump up^ J. p. pp. and who died approximately 526 BC. Jump up^ Shaffer. Kenoyer (2006). p. 1324. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara – the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth). Jump up^ Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art (October 2004). 133. 261. Arnold. 188–199. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Gordon. 2008.Tauris : London ISBN 1-86064-148-2 "The extreme antiquity of Jainism as a non-vedic. p. 137. Srinivasan. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. p. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. The Upanishads. pp 252. Stephen. Jump up^ Romila Thapar. 549. pp. Oxford University Press..). 1966) p. Jump up^ Bongard-Levin 1979. Jump up^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). M. ISBN 978-1- 59884-204-3 128. 21–49. A History of India: Volume 1. 122. Patrick (2008). 70. Patrick.M. Jump up^ Laumakis. "Reurbanization: The eastern Punjab and beyond. Ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures refer to Jainism as an existing tradition which began long before Mahavira. An Introduction to Buddhist philosophy. 2003. 204–206. Jump up^ "Magadha Empire".B. indigenous Indian religion is well documented. p. "Cultures and Societies of the Indus Tradition. .

Jump up^ Ancient India by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p. Jump up^ Ancient and Medieval History of India – H. Kegan Paul. Jump up^ Daniélou 2003. and the primary rulers descended from the Yuezhi. London. Jump up^ Osmund Bopearachchi. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. ed. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Volume 1. . 177. 1906 182. Jump up^ Greatest emporium in the world. pp. 24–26. "Falk 2001. Jump up^ Grégoire Frumkin (1970). 368–371. Retrieved 22 November 2007.152. these five tribes combined under the one dominate Kushan tribe. XI. Nupam. p. 179. p. ISBN 978-1-56639-832-9. LacusCurtius. 167–176 and Hill (2009). Archived from the original on 6 December 1998. Translated by T. Jones. pp. Retrieved 22 November 2007. GGKEY:4NPLATFACBB. 121–136. one of which would become the Kushan Empire. 175. New York. 93–. George F. Meredith L. Pratapaditya Pal (1986). 1930]. Brill Archive. 156. Angus (2006). OECD Publishing by Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development. The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat. pp. Ch. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-674-99055-5. World Economy. 46. Jump up^ Runion. 121–136". Jump up^ Loewe & Shaughnessy 1999. The Mission of Sung-Yun and Hwei-S?ng.htm and Si-Yu-Ki. Ltd. Donald (1975). Kegan Paul. p. H. ISBN 978-0-520-05991-7. Jump up^ "India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Harry (2004). The Mission of Sung-Yun and Hwei-S?ng. University of California Press.-A. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 33. p. Trench. pp. Jump up^ Donkin 2003: 63 165. Historymedren. Buddhist Records of the Western World. Golden Age Of India". pp. ^ Jump up to:a b Oxford History of India – Vincent Smith 178. pp.com. 157. Jump up^ Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. JSTOR 3250214. (1995). Jump up^ Stadtner. Jump up^ Si-Yu-Ki. ISBN 978-0-415-24475-6. Jump up^ Donkin 2003: 69 163. Rhys Davids. Jump up^ The Medical times and gazette. Marymount School. ISBN 0-691-00032-8. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7. 87–88 171. 160. Trench. CSI. pp. ed. see: Hourani. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 153. 6 June 1999.V. Rao: p. Jump up^ Liu. Adas. pp. Rowlinson 180. 37 (1/2): 101–104. 185. Falk (2001).com.97 159. ISBN 978-92-64-02262-1. pp. L. Washington State University. 184. Jump up^ "Gupta Dynasty.. Buddhist Records of the Western World. Jump up^ "The History of Pakistan: The Kushans".kushan. Retrieved 22 November 2007. Trubner & Co.org. The World Economy – Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective and Volume 2: Historical Statistics. 2000 [1st pub. ancient knowledge of the monsoon winds. 318–350 174. Ltd. (2007). Samuel Beal: Travels of Fa- Hian. UNESCO. Jump up^ Maddison. The Yuezhi people conquered Bactria in the second century BCE. 176. Jump up^ http://www. Jump up^ "The Age of the Guptas and After". Kabul and Indus Valleys. 1906 and Hill (2009). 506. 162. Books 1–5).about. Trubner & Co. Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia. 181. Jump up^ Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Geographica. Archived from the originalon 16 October 2007. LONDON: John Churchill. Samuel Beal: Travels of Fa-Hian. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 154. Falk. Jump up^ Strabo's Geography2 – Book II Chapter 3. Books 1–5). Retrieved 6 January 2017. and divided the country into five chiefdoms. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 169. 2016. Jump up^ Rafi U. Algora Publishing. (Tr. W. 656. 158.org/general/other/part1. and details about Eudoxus and Hippalus. Emergence of Viṣṇu and Śiva Images in India: Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence 156. online at Google Books 170. ISBN 978-0- 87586-859-2. "A Śuṅga Capital from Vidiśā".C. Princeton University Press. pp. 168. The history of Afghanistan.G. pp. Michael. 173.D. Jump up^ World history from early times to A D 2000 by B . Jump up^ Collingham245: 2006 166. 151–. Retrieved 21 May 2013. Recognizing the importance of unification. Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B. 183. (Tr. Agricultural and pastoral societies in ancient and classical history. 2 November 2009. Peshawar. ISSN 0004-3648. London: William Heinemann. Jump up^ "Parthian Pair of Earrings". kushan. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 51– . 1867. Artibus Asiae. Jump up^ The Milinda-questions. 155. Jump up^ For more on the establishment of direct sailing routes from Egypt to India. 29. 234 161.(Original from the University of Michigan) 164. London. Jump up^ which began about 127 CE. Jump up^ Fage 1975: 164 167. Samad (2011). Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 29. 136. 172. Jump up^ Strabo (1924). Jump up^ "The World Economy (GDP) : Historical Statistics by Professor Angus Maddison" (PDF). 700. Xinrui (2001).

Sharon La Boda p.the temple of the goddess Tameshwari (Dikkaravasini) is now located at modern Sadiya about 100 miles to the northeast of Sibsagar" (Sircar 1990. Government of India. ". Encyclopædia Britannica. Jump up^ "Harsha (Indian emperor)". 201. "Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions. Annemarie Schimmel. 43. Publication Division. Si-Yu-Ki. Robert M. and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of religion. Daniel Anderson. Jump up^ "Sthanvishvara (historical region. p. 214. W. p 50. Encyclopædia Britannica (UK) Publishing.). McGovern. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. Oystein (1988). (. 1978. p.507 207. 30 December 2010. Volume 4. Ian McGready. (Tr. 1 January 1980. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2010. The Comprehensive History of Assam (1st ed. C. A. (2005) [1988]. John Grayson Kirk. Jump up^ History of India by N. p172. Dr V. 187. Trubner & Co. Pusalkar. 197.publ. 195. Courier Dover Publications. Jump up^ Schimmel.) Another of Adi Shankara's important undertakings which contributed to the unification of Hinduism was his founding of a number of monastic centers. Jump up^ The precise number varies according to whether or not some barely started excavations. 1906. Jump up^ Arnold. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 455 Somerset Avenue. Daniel P. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 200. D.186. The controversies over the end date of excavation is covered below. Jump up^ Shankara. ed. History of the World: Earliest Times to the Present Day. 203. Jump up^ Swami. See also Early Empire of Central Asia (1939). p. 2005. 41. the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta stood over and above all other forms of Hinduism and encapsulated them. Encyclopædia Britannica. Jump up^ Nilakanta Sastri. SkyKnowledge. Salkin. Usha Sharma – 2005. Student's Encyclopædia Britannica – India (2000). Buddhists.134 205. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.. Jump up^ Hall. OCLC 499315420. Jump up^ "Pallava script". Indian Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora. p 650. Mahajan. Quote: . 2015. Quote: "In other words. Dr R.. Jump up^ Michaels 2004. ed. Encyclopædia Britannica. p 339. 215. Majumdar." 216. Encyclopædia Britannica. 188. 193. 211. 198. Kamarupa consisted of the Western districts of the Brahmaputra valley which being the most powerful state. 198–201. ISBN 1-57215-421-7. Parmeshwaranand (2001). Davaka (Nowgong) and Kamarupa as separate and submissive friendly kingdoms. 189. p. Encyclopædia Britannica. Page 254. Guwahati. "Les Nomades". Jump up^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky. India)". 63–68). 209. ISBN 978-1-4724-1913-2. in Great Thinkers of the Eastern World. 194. Jump up^ "Gupta dynasty (Indian dynasty)". Trench. Madan (1990). 199. 173. "India". MA 02764. Page 248. "Kumarila Bhatta".)".com. ISBN 978-0-486-65620-5. p. ^ Jump up to:a b c International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania by Trudy Ring. Retrieved 2014-08-09. pp. History. 941. Smith. ^ Jump up to:a b c Michaels 2004. Jump up^ Early History of India. India: Assam Publication Board. USA: World Publications Group. North Dighton.. 210. ed. 192. K. pp412–413 202. K. – Volume 3". Jump up^ RN Kundra & SS Bawa. Jump up^ Ancient India. p. London. Jump up^ "Harsha". UNESCO and Spink "about 30".. Culture. (1990). 2003. Buddhist Records of the Western World. Jump up^ Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014). Jump up^ "The Story of India — Photo Gallery". 196. pp. Religionen – Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Jump up^ "Gupta dynasty: empire in 4th century". Samuel Beal). 4 213.. ISBN 8176252263. India through the ages. Number Theory and Its History. "Discovery of North-East India: Geography. Jump up^ Tej Ram Sharma. 19. 204. ISBN 0-06-270085-5. History of Ancient and Medieval India 206. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Columbia University Press. Jump up^ Barpujari. 246. 1995. Brill Academic Publishers. page 379. p. Jump up^ Hiuen Tsiang. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. John Whitney. Dr V. Jump up^ Suresh Kant Sharma. 167–168. are counted. Brahmins. Kegan Paul. The Age of Imperial Kanauj. PBS. Jump up^ Gopal. New York: Harper Collins. Dr A. Jump up^ Ore. M. Jump up^ The eastern border of Kamarupa is given by the temple of the goddess Tamreshvari (Pūrvāte Kāmarūpasya devī Dikkaravasini in Kalika Purana) near present-day Sadiya. ISBN 978-90-04-06117-0. History and Culture of Indian People. Ltd. Jump up^ Sheridan. D.. Retrieved 16 May 2010. according to Adi Shankara's argument. Jayapalan p. H. 208. page 105. such as cave 15A. ISBN 978-0-231-13281-7. Gautam. 212. pp. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of the Puranas. This then united Hinduism. The ASI say "In all. total 30 excavations were hewn out of rock which also include an unfinished one". . 191.. (1. pg. ed.S. 190.

Columbia University Press. no unchanging essence.67. Jump up^ R. Yogacharas. 2. 3. Jump up^ Kamath (2001). 234. John. Kingship and Authority in South Asia. OCLC 19373677 221. ed. The Kashmir Series: Glimpses of Kashmiri Culture – Vivekananda Kendra. at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at page 3. 55 224. this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul. ISBN 978-1- 4053-2904-0. ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5. the agnikula clas were originally Gurjaras 227. Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?. David Crystal (2004). Jump up^ Edward Roer (Translator). Jump up^ Christophe Jaffrelot (1998). 231. page 2. who affirm actual existence of external objects no less than of internal sensations. p. from note 385 onwards. As we have already observed. Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age. Sautranticas. History of Medieval India. ISBN 978-0-520- 93202-9. ISBN 978-81-265-0696-5 223. known as Gurjara and Pratihara. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. And Cycle Time in Hindu Kingship". 57). Quote – "(. Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge. Sarup & Sons. Sanskrit: anātman. Burjor (2007). 2. Jump up^ Romila 2003. There are four sects among the followers of Buddha: 1. 218.) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that the soul does not exist. who assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void. Jump up^ Avari. pp. Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds. Jump up^ Edward Roer (Translator). 2004. New Delhi ISBN 81-7625-222-0. The Buddhist Visnu. Ronald. "Ritual. some of which later came to be known as the Rajputs 226. New York: Routledge. Deepak Chopra. The Penguin Encyclopedia.". Motilal Banarsidass. Penguin Books.129 229. Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. Jump up^ Holt.. page 1353. ISBN 978-81-250-3226-7. The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit. pp. Jump up^ Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Mazumdar. pages 2–4 Katie Javanaud (2013). Volume 1. Ancient India. Jump up^ Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta. Jump up^ Philip Wilkinson (2008). University of California Press. Edward Roer (Translator). Plott et al. ISBN 81-265-0696-2. this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism". no self. ^ Jump up to:a b The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India by Balaji Sadasivan p. Culture and History. Jump up^ Pollock. Philosophy Now. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Limited. p. 233. Shankara's Introduction. Page 383 232. p. Jump up^ The Seven Spiritual Laws Of Yoga. In JF Richards. 3. David Tracy). philosopher and theologian. ISBN 978-0-231-10335-0. Put very briefly. 4. Jump up^ Sunil Fotedar (June 1984). at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at pages 3–4. Shankara's Introduction.". 1998. the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought).12. Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā. 334. Authority. page 64. State Univ of New York Press. India: People. p. A History of the Indian-Subcontinent from 7000 BC to AD 1200. pages 246–249. 204–205. ISBN 978-0-203-08850- 0. 280. Satish (2009).C. 241–242. "Shankaracharya. They were both part of a larger federation of tribes. p.15 225. Jump up^ KN Jayatilleke (2010). Steven Collins (1994). ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9. According to a number of scholars. Vaibhashikas. who agree with later (Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of exterior objects through images or forms represented to the intellect. at Google Books. Place. ^ Jump up to:a b c Chandra. (2000). Sheldon (2006). page 63. Kanyakumari (p. pp. from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived. Madhyadesha became the ambition of two particular clans among a tribal people in Rajasthan." 220. Quote: "The main current of Hinduism – if not the only one – which became formalized in a way that approximates to an ecclesiastical structure was that of Shankara"." 217. 230.D. 222. John Wiley & Sons. Shankara's Introduction. pp 352–353 228. Quote: "[Shankara] is the most famous exponent of Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy and the source of the main currents of modern Hindu thought. ISBN 978-81-208-0158-5. most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy. 19–20.. ISBN 978-81-7625-222-5 219. from 800 to 1316 A. 3. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void. John C. Columbia University Press. Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history. and Power in Premodern India. Jump up^ Inden. 2006. Culture. and life in the Chauhān dominions. p. Chauhān political institutions. India: The Ancient Past. The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India. p. ISBN 978-81-208- 0619-1. p89 . Motilal Banarsidass..

238. 1973. European Trade and Colonial Conquest. 264. S.24 256. Salma Ahmed Farooqui p. 1976. . Country. ISBN 0-521-29137-2. Jump up^ Sen 1999. Jump up^ Bilhana by Prabhakar Narayan Kawthekar p.com. John Keay. p 158 252. 403–405 257. p.A. Jump up^ PN Chopra.K.. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Majumdar 241. p 215 250. ISBN 978-1-84331-029-7. Penguin Books India. pp. Retrieved 23 September2009. 13–15. Bernard Lewis. 247. Jump up^ India. 261. Satish (2009). XXIV. Hosch p. Jump up^ Indian Civilization and Culture by Suhas Chatterjee p. Pandey. ISBN 978-81-250-3226-7. 242. Jump up^ "Mathematical Achievements of Pre-modern Indian Mathematicians". Retrieved 2 January 2016. ^ Jump up to:a b A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: by Farooqui Salma Ahmed. 2012. Allied Publishers. Dr D. 2006. p. Jump up^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p. Rice p. Part I. 380–381. 2004. (2003). Jump up^ History of Buddhism in India. 237. Jump up^ Biplab Dasgupta (1 January 2005). ^ Jump up to:a b Sen 1999.. p 43. Translation by A Shiefner 244. Jump up^ The Britannica Guide to Algebra and Trigonometry by William L.105 240. 1954.articlesgratuits. Putta Swamy T. 198. pp.[2] 263. 268. 2001. p. Sengupta (1 January 2011). p. 1973. History of Medieval India. p. Anthem Press. p 34. Brill. Wilhelm von (1981). Jump up^ Nitish K. AC Pradhan. Dr D. 266. Jump up^ Sen 1999.231. ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4. 267. 265. 270. Jump up^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. eds. Daud Ali. Peshawar. pp. Diplomacy. ISBN 978-0-12-397913-1 236. Volume 1: Section 15. Elsevier Publications. 192. A History of South India. Packard Humanities Institute.P. Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. A History. Jump up^ History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. Frontline. Fidaullah (1979). 251. Jump up^ "The Last Years of Cholas: The decline and fall of a dynasty".32 259. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e "Ameer Nasir-ood-deen Subooktugeen". 380.29 260. pp 112 ff. BN Puri. The Úakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture. 341–. ISBN 0-391-04173-8. André (2002) [first published 1996]. Dr N. Jump up^ Wink. Jump up^ History of Asia by B. M. Rao p. Jump up^ Buddhism. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Limited. Jump up^ Sehrai. B. Peshawar Museum Publications New Series. Vishwa Mitra Mohan – Indo-Scythians.. 86. (1977). Encyclopædia Britannica. 278. Jump up^ The Shahi Afghanistan and Punjab. Lambton.235. 111–112. A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India (3 Vol. 2. 43–45. Culture and Political life in early and medieval India. 3. Cambridge University Press. 243. Jump up^ History of Kannada Literature by E. Set). eds. Retrieved 30 December 2012. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4. 22 August 2007. Ferishta. p 115 249. Eaton. 48. Jump up^ World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. The Cambridge history of Islam. p 203. p 80.237 248. Band 1 by ʻAlī Jāvīd p. He therefore invaded Ghazna. MN Das. Jump up^ Epigraphia Indica. Jump up^ Richard M.63. Jump up^ Kulke and Rothermund. p 80.V. Encyclopædia Britannica. but was defeated . pp.229 253. 22 December 2000. p. p 46. G.. History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power in India. En. Holt. Jaypala of Waihind saw danger in the consolidation of the kingdom of Ghazna and decided to destroy it. Vishwa Mitra Mohan – Indo-Scythians. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Chandra. pp. 239. India's road to nationhood: a political history of the subcontinent. ISBN 81-7764-715-6 262. Jump up^ Pochhammer. Pandey. Ann K. Jump up^ Keay. Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara. Jump up^ K.. by Radhey Shyam Chaurasia p. Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States. 45–46. p. and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations by Tansen Sen p. 200–202. D. pp 1. p. 132–134 258. 269. 80. Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. The Úakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture. p. Jump up^ Narayan 2009. 1976. Sterling. Jump up^ Daniélou 2003. Jump up^ Benett 1877. 271. 246. . The Shahis of Afghanistan and Punjab. pp. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e P. p. London. chapter=Mahavira. 170. Jump up^ "Shahi Family". B.417 255. 245.297 254.

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Jump up^ Parthasarathi. Jump up^ The Discovery of India. Retrieved 2017-05-18. Jump up^ Gordon Mackenzie (1990). K. 335. JSTOR 2600793. 188–189 316. Jump up^ Asher & Talbot 2008. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence. page 261 339. p. Jump up^ The Five Kingdoms of the Bahmani Sultanate 325. Alfred A Knopf Publishing. 327. ^ Jump up to:a b Abraham Eraly (2007).88 323. Jump up^ Mann. ISBN 9264104143. 328. ISBN 978-1-139-49889- 0 340. Cchau. D. Jump up^ Maddison. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9264104143. Jump up^ Williams 2004. 175–180. Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics. A. "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". Fragmented Memories: Struggling to be Tai- Ahom in India.211 313. pp. Jump up^ Art History. p. Dynasties: A Global History of Power. Eaton p. Oxford University Press. Austin. p.1111/0020- 8833. Jump up^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206–1526) by Satish Chandra p. Patwant. 2011) 322. Jump up^ Ragini Devi 1990. "India's Deindustrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries" (PDF). Satriya. 2. Jump up^ Singh. Jump up^ Nilakanta Sastri. A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. 330. page 5. J. 334. ISBN 0-8223-8616-X. New Age International. United States: Oxford University Press. OECD Publishing. Jump up^ History of Science and Philosophy of Science by Pradip Kumar Sengupta p. Pusalker. 305. p. Jump up^ South India by Amy Karafin. page 105. pages 241–242 311. Anirban Mahapatra p. Jump up^ (Sarkar 1992:213) 329. (2000). Ramesh Chandra. 309. Jump up^ Jeffrey G. Odissi. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. Jump up^ Robb 2001. VI: The Delhi Sultanate. 21.00053. Kathakali. 115. Cambridge University Press. the other major classical Indian dances are: Bharatanatyam. and under him Orissa became an empire stretching from the lower Ganga in the north to the Kaveri in the south. Jump up^ William James (2011). 320. 177. ISBN 978-81-206-0544-2. 312. Jump up^ Majumdar. 41 (3): 500. page 17 310. Penguin Books 337. 3rd Edition. Jump up^ World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia by Marshall Cavendish Corporation p. Williamson. Kathak. Jump up^ Yasmin Saikia (19 October 2004).308. p. David Clingingsmith (August 2005). (Dorling Kindersley Pvt. pp. 239. Kuchipudi. A. A manual of the Kistna district in the presidency of Madras. The History and Culture of the Indian People. The Making of Sikh Scripture. eds. [Describing the Gajapati kings of Orissa] Kapilendra was the most powerful Hindu king of his time.. OECD Publishing.243 317. Mewar The World's Longest Serving Dynasty 321. Jump up^ "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". 332.224–. p. McGill Queens University Press. 1300–1800. 367.91 315. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives. ISBN 0- 375-40728-6. Volume II: 1400–present by Boundless p. 90–91. Ltd.. Rowman & Littlefield..Nehru 324. 8. doi:10.A. pp.32 314. Jump up^ Jeroen Duindam (2015). Duke University Press. Retrieved 6 July2011. Jump up^ Reginald Massey 2004. Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics. Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. 9. ISBN 978-0-7735-3889-4. 338. The Mughal World: Life in India's Last Golden Age. Cambridge University Press 336. Jump up^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). University of Calgary. (2002) [1955]. Jump up^ Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014).L. Jump up^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). 331.10. Gurinder Singh (2001). Majumdar. 341. Jump up^ A Social History of the Deccan. God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston. p. 83–84. International Studies Quarterly. ISBN 0-19- 560686-8. Jump up^ History of Classical Sanskrit Literature: by M. Harvard University. K. New Delhi: Indian Branch. (1960). The Sikhs. Prasannan (2011). Jump up^ Farooqui Salma Ahmed. by Richard M. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9. 1600–1850. pages 256–261 . pp. Srinivasachariar p. Yaksagana and Bhagavata Mela. p. 333. Jump up^ I. 326. 319. ^ Jump up to:a b Maddison. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. ISBN 978-1-4422-3600-4. Pages 17. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.337 318.

A History of State and Religion in India. 119. p. Els Hiemstra-Kuperus. Richards (1995). OECD Development Centre 344. Jump up^ Audrey Truschke (2017). Stanford University Press. 50–51. Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Richard Jones (1978). Jump up^ Audrey Truschke (2017). (2013). pp. 1993). 184–185. ^ Jump up to:a b Colin McEvedy. 711. Dupuy. page 236. Sarkar 347. 346. Atlas of World Population History (PDF). Ernest and Trevor N. 349. 348. 343. Jump up^ Angus Maddison (2001). 4th Ed. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective.342. The Mughal Empire. Jump up^ John F. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History. New York: Facts on File. Routledge. Jump up^ Ian Copland. R. page 190. ISBN 978-1-136-45950-4. Jump up^ Dupuy. (HarperCollinsPublishers. et al. Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King.. 255.N. p. . pp. Ashgate Publishing. "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". Stanford University Press. 1650–2000. Asim Roy. 350. Jump up^ Lex Heerma van Voss. Cambridge University Press 345. Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). Jump up^ A History of Aurangzib (in 5 volumes) – J. Ian Mabbett. The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers.