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International Journal of Management Reviews (2008

doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00220.x

Emotional intelligence,
Journal of

its measurement and
implications for the
Susan Cartwright1 and Constantinos Pappas
The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted a huge amount of interest from both
academics and practitioners and has become linked to a whole range of outcomes, including
career success, life satisfaction and health. Yet the concept itself and the way in which it is
measured continue to fuel considerable debate. This paper takes a critical review of the
methodologies and robustness of the validation and application studies that have used EI
measures. In addition, the links between EI and other related theoretical perspectives such
as emotional labour are considered.

were more than twice those of their less
emotionally competent colleagues. Bachman
The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) et al. (2000) have similarly suggested that
has become immensely popular with organiza- highly emotionally competent debt collectors
tions and provided a lucrative new market recovered double the amount of revenues
for test distributors and training consultancies. compared with their more typical co-workers.
According to the American Society for Training The link between EI and increased perform-
and Development (Goleman 1998), four out ance is intuitively appealing to organizations,
of five companies are actively trying to raise particularly to those in the service sector.
the EI of their staff as a means of increasing However, the appeal and influence of EI in
sales, improving customer service (Cavelzani the USA can also perhaps be explained by
et al. 2003) and ensuring that their international understanding the social context in which the
managers perform successfully in global theory was presented and popularized. This
assignments (Gabel et al. 2005). There have occurred against a background of resurgent
been numerous claims as to the economic debate about the inheritability of intelligence
value in selecting personnel on the basis of and its link with class structure, which had
their EI. For example, Goleman (1995), been fuelled by the publication of The Bell
arguably on of the leading beneficiaries of Curve (Herrnstein and Murray 1994) in the
the EI industry, has claimed that insurance mid-1990s, a provocative book restating the
sales agents who scored high on emotional link between race, IQ and social mobility,
competencies achieved sales figures which which offended the principles of liberalism
© 2007 The Authors
Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden,
MA 02148, USA

International Journal of Management Reviews Volume 10 Issue 2 pp. 149–171 149

Emotional Intelligence, its measurement and implications for the workplace

held by many Americans and for which the increasingly embraced the concept and devel-
authors were accused of racism and elitism oped their own interpretations of the skills
(Bouchard 1995) and criticized for using associated with EI (Varca 2004), it would seem
flawed data to argue against current fertility apposite to challenge some of the models
policies (Dorfman 1995). The publication of and measurement tools associated with EI,
Goleman’s book on EI a year later (Goleman their usefulness and the extent to which they
1995) presented a positive counterpoint to the overlap with more traditional concepts and
message of The Bell Curve in arguing that life measures relating to individual behaviour.
success was more dependent upon the way in
which individuals handle their emotions and
Theories of Individual Differences
the emotions of others than how smart they
were in terms of cognitive intelligence. This Theories of individual differences have a long
‘new yardstick’ (Goleman 1995, 3) by which history in explaining human behaviour and the
to assess ability, while described by some different ways in which individuals respond
as absurd (Eysenck 2000) and weak on hard to similar events and circumstances. For almost
evidence (Zeidner et al. 2004), nevertheless a century, intelligence and personality tests
reinforced an acceptable notion that being have been used by organizations to assess and
‘kind, warm and friendly’ was an important compare individuals on a range of factors as
pathway to success (Paul 1999), at a time a means of informing selection and promotion
when the profile of emotions in the workplace decisions. According to the American Society
was increasing in prominence (Domagalski for Personnel Administration, almost 60% of
1999). large organizations and 40% of smaller com-
In recent years, there has been an exponential panies employing fewer than 100 employees
growth in the EI literature, directed at both regularly use personality tests for selection
a popular and an academic readership. Con- and other work-related purposes (Furnham
sequently, it would seem that EI has an impact 1992). The role of individual differences has
upon an ever increasing range of workplace also been emphasized in the study of more
behaviours from managing stress (Slaski and contemporary and emergent workplace issues
Cartwright 2002) to devising travel solutions such as occupational stress and organizational
for tourists (Cavelzani et al. 2003). For a change. Research (Barling et al. 2005; Cart-
variable to have such an apparently pervasive wright and Cooper 2004) has demonstrated
influence on human behaviour, one might that differences in personality, behavioural
wonder why it remained undiscovered for so style and ways of coping account for the
long. Alternatively, perhaps it is merely the way in which individuals both appraise and
re-labelling and clever marketing of a concept experience stress. Individual differences have
that psychologists have long been able to also been shown to relate to the extent to
measure under different guises. which individuals respond to and embrace
While the validity and efficacy of EI has organizational change (Kusstatscher and
been scrutinized within the psychology Cooper 2005).
literature (Law 2004; van Rooy et al. 2005; Perhaps as a result of the growing recogni-
Zeidner et al. 2004), in the main, such reviews tion that organizational change and many other
have focused on test construction and related work-related experiences are emotion-eliciting
psychometric properties. In contrast, the events (Mossholder et al. 2000), interest in
management literature has been rather less the role of emotions in the workplace has
inclined to assess the concept critically and increased in prominence. In particular,
disentangle the hype from the hard evidence. growing attention has focused on the emotional
As non-psychological management disciplines demands of jobs in areas such as customer
such as marketing, travel and tourism have service which require role occupants to exercise

150 © 2007 The Authors
Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

In contrast. What is Emotional Intelligence? or at least what is measured by traditional intelligence tests. workplace performance and organizational Furnham (2005). For many individuals in all areas of human ability. Riggio et al. within this field as to the cognitive abilities enced as highly stressful (Johnson et al. 1999. Many researchers typically perceive conceptualized intelligence as being a single emotions in a negative way as a disorganized factor ‘g’ or general intelligence which ac. 2003) has become increasingly influential in the selection and development of expatriate managers. 2005). the concept of scientific view suggests that EI is likely to cultural intelligence as being ‘the ability to account for between 2 and 25% of the individual construct innovative ways of conceptualising. rational problem-solving abilities or ‘academic ligence (IQ) (Mayer et al. Traditional Intelligence It has become widely accepted that intelligence. among others (Gardner effectiveness. For example. © 2007 The Authors 151 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Pugh 2001) and are typically experi. In particular. In the early including psychology (Cornelius 1996). Harvey et al. Young (1936) structure of intelligence reflected the application described emotions as having ‘no trace of of different statistical analysis techniques conscious purpose’ and subsequently defined and have been reconciled by later more them as ‘acute disturbances of the individual compromising hierarchical models (Vernon as a whole’ (Young 1943). (Drasgow 2003. 1990) in determining intelligence’ (Furnham 2005). June 2008 high levels of emotional labour (Hochschild 1956). years. Hence an important source of individual difference. 2002. Spearman (1927) 2001). this view has been strongly inherent in the On the other hand. Harvey et al. These differences about the (Fineman 2000). On the one hand. or at least relegate them to some which explained various different aspects of out of the way place. the popular data gathering and operating in a new culture’ view tends to over-exaggerate its contribution. out of harm’s way performance. leaders to ‘manage’ emotions out of the spatial abilities and verbal comprehension organization. there was no disagreement 1983. emotions have been viewed under academic performance and work success a number of lenses by a variety of disciplines. Whereas the an increasing global market. and types of items that constituted a valid As a consequence. Herriot proposed. innovative and EI. 2002). the content of intelligence tests has tradi- as being more relevant (Goleman 1998) or at tionally reflected what is regarded as being least as relevant as traditional cognitive intel. part of the last century. (2002) recently proposed (1990) differentiates between the ‘popular’ eight different kinds of intelligences important version as advanced by writers such as Goleman for managers which include socio-cultural. (Earley and Ang. which has traditionally that intelligence was best understood as emphasized the rationality of business and being a set of seven loosely related primary has advocated the need for organizational mental abilities such as numerical reasoning. and is the narrow in their focus and that ‘other intelli- subject of much bitter debate and criticism gences’ are required to succeed in the work- (Paul 1999. is a major predictor of Over time. variance in certain life outcomes. Robertson and Smith 2001). Emotional intelligence is a difficult concept has argued that traditional IQ tests are too to define precisely and measure. EI has become regarded as measure of an individual’s intelligence. Furnham 2005). biology (Damasio regarding the structure of intelligence were 1994) and management (Fineman 2000. two different views sociology (Williams 2001). Mayer place. in by himself and his colleagues. (1995) and the ‘scientific’ version put forward political. Thurstone (1938) argued management literature. interruption of mental activity that displaces counted for the differential performance between rational thought (Fineman 2000).

intelligence represented ‘real world’ intel- Leeper (1948) draws attention to the motivat. it was concluded that. sustain and in the concept of EI has become closely direct attention. the set of mental processes which that interest in the concept of social or involve emotional information relate to: ‘personal’ intelligence re-emerged. Whereas analytical intelligence similarly viewed emotions as positive in was closely equated to general intelligence organizing responses which adaptively focus and academic problem-solving. Consistent with this view. whereas their definition of EI and moved from a three- intrapersonal related to the ability to understand branch to a four-branch hierarchical model one’s own feeling and motivation. associated with Goleman (1995). other researchers have argued same time. Gardner (1983) argued against the emotions in self and others single ‘g’ factor and proposed a theory of (ii) the ability to regulate emotion in self and multiple intelligences which. including relational abilities. as traditional intelligence should be capable of which could also be directed inwards to form objective measurements. tion and use that information to act effectively is intuitively attractive as a specific form of Models of Emotional Intelligence social or ‘other’ intelligence. Consequently. Therefore. its measurement and implications for the workplace In contrast. The idea of social intelligence can be traced back to Thorndike From the discussion so far. it would seem different form of intelligence he defined as to follow that a set of mental abilities such ‘the ability to understand and manage people’. Based on studies of giftedness and the effects of brain (i) the ability to appraise and express damage. practical cognitive activities and subsequent action. He concluded from as a discrete and true form of intelligence his findings that individuals differ in their connecting cognitive–emotional abilities seem ability to understand other people and act relatively clear as firmly founded within the wisely in human relations. Interpersonal intelligence was described as the ability to understand and discern the Mayer et al. for many years no research Mayer (1990) first defined EI as a type of findings emerged to support the notion that social and personal intelligence involving social intelligence could easily be distinguished ‘the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ from other types of intelligence. social intel. to discriminate among in 1960. some years earlier (Salovey and Mayer 1990). others included two distinct elements described as (iii) the ability to use emotions in adaptive ‘interpersonal’ and ‘intrapersonal’ intelligence. 152 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Easterbrook (1959) intelligences. despite the them and to use this information to guide volume of research on the subject. creative and practical values (De Sousa 1987). Around the (see Figure 1). feelings and emotions. and be distinct from personality. ing force of emotions and that emotions Although the current popularity and interest trigger processes which arouse. ligence. According ligence remained unproven (Cronbach 1960). with right and wrong the ability to understand and manage oneself answers. Salovey and However. and distinguished (Damasio 1994) because they are tied to between analytical. the term EI The notion that individuals differ in their first appeared in the psychological literature mental capacity to process emotional informa. as well (Thorndike and Stein 1937. 189). 278). Salovey and Mayer It was not until the early 1980s (Gardner 1983) (1990). This specific and intelligence literature. (2000) have since slightly refined feelings and intentions of others. ways. one’s thinking and actions’ (p. to their original thinking. Sternberg (1985) proposed a triar- that emotions are essential to rational thinking chic theory of intelligence.Emotional Intelligence. the theoretical (1920) and his study of the emotional roots for the conceptual development of EI responses of individuals. among others.

June 2008 Figure 1. © 2007 The Authors 153 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . The revised Emotional Intelligence Framework (as described by Mayer and Salovey. 1997).

1998. they remain committed to the impulses and delay gratification. Evidence from the stress literature also been widely criticized for its absurdity in suggests that anxious individuals are more tending to class almost any type of behaviour likely to make decisions based on experience as intelligence (Eysenck 2000). According to Daus and Ashkanasy that these non-cognitive abilities include five (2005). which has sold more than ligence literature. such as optimism and happiness). Bar-On (1997) argues intelligence. its measurement and implications for the workplace However. (2000) is in coping with environmental demands and considered by many to meet the necessary pressures’ (p. Furthermore. who described EI as an ‘array of positively and cope with the experience in non-cognitive capabilities. 34) and its integration with cognitive information. skills that influence one’s ability to succeed The approach of Mayer et al. standards to be regarded as a true form of Similarly to Goleman. Thayer (1989) has also wider range of personality characteristics and argued that individuals are more positive and behavioural competencies which compromise resourceful when they feel simultaneously the criteria required of a pure ability model of energetic and pleasant and that this condition intelligence. problem solving) while at the same time exhibiting unique (iv) Stress Management (including stress variance tolerance and impulse control) (iii) that the intelligence shows developmental (v) General Mood (including characteristics effects with age. (p. Russell skills and abilities which constitute EI. more likely to appraise a potential threat 2000). five million copies worldwide. those An alternative but comparable ‘mixed’ who are able to regulate their emotions are model has been proposed by Bar-On (1997. In his competency literatures rather than the intel- best-selling book. Goleman (1995) has also asserted that his Both Goleman’s (1998) and Bar-On’s (1997) model of EI is placed at the intersection of models draw strongly on the personality and emotional and cognitive processing. whereby good mood leads to positive broadened the concept to accommodate a thoughts and vice versa. Isen et al. 14). 2002) has further ment.Emotional Intelligence. rather than an ‘ability’ model of EI and has ligence. he defines EI an advocate of split intelligence. competencies and adaptive ways (Cartwright and Cooper 1997).g. has strongly as consisting of: criticized Goleman’s (1998) conceptualization abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and of EI on the grounds that ‘it differs little persist in the face of frustrations. to regulate one’s view that EI lies at the intersection between moods and keep distress from swamping the ability the mental processing of emotional information to think. 1980) who have argued for the existence of Subsequent refinement of the model (Goleman a ‘cognitive loop’ connecting mood and judge. These criteria are: (i) Intrapersonal Emotion Skills (including self-actualization and independence) (i) that the set of abilities are capable of (ii) Interpersonal Emotion Skills (including being operationalized empathy and social responsibility) (ii) that these abilities are inter-correlated (iii) Adaptability (including reality testing and and relate to pre-existing intelligences. 1978. they have satisfactorily provided broad categories and sub-categories: evidence to fulfil the three specific criteria that denote ‘an intelligence’. to control from personality and appears to be a general 154 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . other researchers (e. unlike Salovey makes them more likely to make decisions and Mayer (1990). he details over This is consistent with ideas presented by twenty-five different learned competencies. rather than on rationality. Indeed. Goleman et al. For this reason. empathise and to hope. it is regarded as a ‘mixed’ based on experience rather than on intel. Sternberg (2001). As part of his definition.

and assesses how well an individual solves In contrast. well-being and personality for The most comprehensive measure of the ability which there are already a wide range of reliable model is the Mayer. which is based on UK more media coverage and been more aggres- rather than US research.0 (Mayer et al. (2000) suggest emotion-laden problems across four domains that there may be consensus across models in (or branches). both Mayer and Salovey dimensions are further organized (Dulewicz (1997) and Goleman (1998) maintain that EI and Higgs 2000. Schutte et al. there is an interesting interpretation of influence other key people and to balance one’s EI which. model that has been arguably more influential Similarly. 2002). influence. perception. which are divided between eight tasks (two Although the ability model has received for each of the four theoretical domains to significant theoretical support (Ciarrochi et al. Cooper and Sawaf’s (1997) model in the measurement of EI in the workplace. of positive qualities (Matthews et al. including the perception. ‘constrainers’ and ‘enablers’. of Executive EQ and Dulewicz and Higgs’ This may be because the model has received (1999) model of EI. Ciarrochi et al. it is It is clear that these subsequent models the idea that organizations can benefit by have moved away from the original pure intervening to increase the EI of their work- intelligence model and muddled the initial place which has so engaged popular interest theoretical roots of the concept. decisiveness. it is a performance measure. is common to both motives and drives with conscientiousness and approaches and represents a departure from ethical behaviours’. who et al. before moving on to discuss the through the ability to manage one’s own instruments that have been devised to measure feelings and emotions to be sensitive to and EI. motivation. 2006). use. regulation. Theories of intelligence have traditionally rates personal characteristics and behaviours: emphasized that adult IQ is relatively fixed self-awareness. it is the mixed person” ’. paradoxically. ‘cleaned up’ and not equate to a laundry list based on the number of correct answers given. 1998). For them. workplace EI is about ‘achieving one’s goals However. Daus and Emotional Intelligence test or MSCEIT. Yet. personality theorists interpersonal sensitivity. through training and experience. together with an © 2007 The Authors 155 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . business (Murphy and Sideman 2006). 343) into three factors namely is potentially incremental and can be developed ‘drivers’. Indeed. 2000). information processing model strongly argues that EI constitutes an additional aspect of Measures of Emotional Intelligence crystallized intelligence involving emotion. the language and culture of modern-day According to Dulewicz and Higgs (1999). whereas the mixed model has blended EI The Ability Model with numerous other characteristics such as motivation. the Multifactor the same construct as Mayer and colleagues. utilization. These seven of stable traits. which is a the mixed model are not even talking about refinement of an earlier test. In common with traditional considers that the definitions of EI need to be intelligence tests. emotional resilience. Mayer a point re-echoed by Murphy (2006). June 2008 lumping together of characteristics of a “good 2001. terms of four important shared areas: emotion understanding and management of emotions. consider that personality is composed of a set conscientiousness and integrity. conceptualizes EI in sively marketed in a way that better addresses terms of a set of traits and competencies. of a mixture of seven elements and incorpo. Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS. Salovey and Caruso and valid measures in existence. The ability or in the concept. Ashkanasy (2005) believe that advocates of Version 2. Similarly. yield four branch scores. understanding and The MESCEIT V2 consists of 141 items. over time. EI is composed the theoretical roots on which they draw.

Day and Although it is the MSCEIT measure which Carol 2004. on the basis that they assess abilities and hence are not as widely used as knowledge about emotions which may not the MSCEIT measure. agreeableness. Wong and Law (2002) devel- ability to behave in accordance with that oped the WLEIS measure (Wong and Law EI knowledge in real-time social situations. has tended to dominate the literature. according to in the range 0. 2006. model (Brackett et al. Brackett et al. normative ideas as to what is the ‘right’ way ture has been validated through a series of to respond.e. Mayer et al. Research Scale or EARS (Mayer and Geher this evidence supports the view that EI is 1996). such as extraversion. the other person involved would feel. its measurement and implications for the workplace overall score of EI). respondents are presented with a series of 2006. Salovey et al. meeting. These et al. (2006) identifying emotions and feelings expressed recently conducted a study to assess whether in faces and pictures and identifying the scores on MSCEIT and a self-report measure appropriate behavioural response when of EI predicted observable behaviours in a presented with a range of emotionally laden social encounter. 2006). which was developed to ‘afford the a different and independent construct from benefits of both self report and laboratory personality and traditional intelligence and measures of EI’ (Geher et al. whereas they found that normative sample of over 5000 individuals. 2003. perceptions of how they would feel if placed ableness consistently showing the strongest in each scenario and also how they perceive correlation with EI (Brackett et al. 2001). 2003). There is a high level of convergence (r > 0.13– 0. 2006) and the mixed Similar to the LEAS is the Emotional Accuracy model (Brackett and Mayer 2003). based on both the ability of emotional recognition (Lane et al. Peletti 2001) have found low– include the Levels of Emotional Awareness moderate correlations with IQ tests in the Scale or LEAS (Lane et al. Mayer are several other ability-based measures. The Evidence to date (Brackett and Mayer 2003. The MSCEIT is scored with both an ostensible stranger in a getting acquainted consensus and expert scoring methods In con. MSCEIT was predictive of social competence Expert scoring relies on what researchers for men. Collectively. measures are measures of conformity rather According to the test authors. 2006. 376). They found no relationship between sensus scoring. there Various studies (Brackett et al. Both these validity of MSCIET and ability tests of EI measure focus on a narrower range of emotional more generally. In Scale) which is a short 16-item instrument 156 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd .90) Roberts et al. measure. sadness and happiness.33 with agree.38. i. 2001. 1990) whereby range 0. Sample tasks include response to this criticism.Emotional Intelligence. this is a very short eight-item performance are largely unrelated. 1998). test shows acceptable reliability and validity Brackett et al. 2000) between MSCEIT and other self-report and is considered to be a good predictor measures of EI. How- that performance and self-report tests of EI ever. 2006) shows low correlations with other EI measures (Ciarrochi et al. necessarily mean that an individual has the More recently. (2001) suggested that EI between the two methods (Mayer et al. of women. Other studies (Brackett et al. namely interacting with scenarios. anger. primarily because of the way test–retest reliabilities for the scale scores are in which they are scored. which taps the ability to perceive Brody (2004) has questioned the predictive emotions in others accurately.04 – 0.70– 0. 2003) have found low– scenarios designed to elicit four types of moderate correlations with personality factors emotion: fear. respondents are given credit the self-report measure and socially com- for answers that match those provided by a petent behaviour. analyses (Brackett et al. spilt half and than abilities. neuroticism Respondents are rated on the basis of their and openness in the range 0.93 and its factorial struc. but was not predictive in the case in the field regard as the correct response.

Dulewicz and Higgs 1999) (Bar-On 1997). (2000) devel- calculate the internal (split half) reliability oped the Emotional Competence Inventory coefficients for each scale for their own (ECI).g. based on research conducted on UK managers. in comparing differences in MESCIT minutes to complete. the EQ map The Mixed Model Approach (Cooper and Sawaf 1997). Furthermore. New. rated on a five-point scale and takes about So far. Many studies (Bar-On 1997.75 to 0. It provides an overall been North American in origin and have score of EI based on five composite scales. some et al.). Emotional Quotient (EQ) questionnaire. it heavily criticized (Davies et al. 1998. one presented in Table 1. Day and Carroll of 110 items which takes approximately 30 (2004). June 2008 based on the Mayer and Salovey (1997) measure of ego strength or social competence four-branch model. model tests of EI (Dulewicz and Higgs 2000.69 to 0. is not possible for independent researchers to More recently.51– 0.61 to 0. Table 1. 2000.85 Question (EIQ. 2003). it has been argued greater job-related validity than other mixed (Davies et al. It comprises 133 items 1996)). 2000) The EIQ. demon- have reported numerous high correlations strates scale reliability coefficients in the between the EQ-I and established person. There are two notable exceptions.94 for the other to support the developmental relationship raters’ form. The scale structure is 2003). 2000) that the EQ-I is more a Dulewicz et al. There are also a number of other instru- ments which measure aspects of emotionality but are less well used (e. range 0. the psychometric properties of this scoring of the MESCIT is carried out by the measure. particularly its reliability have been test publisher (Multi-Health Systems Inc. three facilitator scales. The reliability coefficients scores between men and women. generally ability-based tests of EI Goleman (1995) has also developed an have poor reliability (Ciarrochi et al.86 and test– Australia and the Emotional Intelligence retest reliabilities ranging from 0. all the measures discussed have 40 minutes to complete. In addition. 2000. than EI.77 and is considered to have ality measures. a 360-degree instrument consisting particular sample.79 to 0. being the SUEIT (Palmer and Stough 2001) The scales have high internal consistency a workplace measure of EI developed in reliabilities ranging from 0. Mayer et al. between age and EI. found range from 0. been developed for use on diverse population These scales are divided into 12 subscales and samples in a variety of settings (Dulewicz et al. Davies et al. Therefore. Newsome et al. 1998). 1998). because the However. Dimensions and subscales of the EQ-i Intrapersonal Interpersonal Adaptability Stress management General mood Self-regard Empathy Reality testing Stress tolerance Optimism Emotional self-awareness Social responsibility Flexibility Impulse control Happiness Assertiveness Interpersonal relationships Problem solving Service Independence Self-actualization © 2007 The Authors 157 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . and Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory or the Style in the Perception of Affect (Bernet EQ-I (Bar-On 1997). Dawda and Hart 2000. However. Emotional Control One of the most widely used measures is Questionnaire (Roger and Najaran 1989).86 for the self-report evidence of a gender bias and no evidence version and from 0. Boyatzis et al. which consists of 69 items.

this raises 158 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . who may find the cost of restricted access to However. may be culturally or gender biased. 1998).g. limited through inaccurate self-knowledge Finally. Paulhus et al. in the mixed model approach then you are The consistent overlap between the mixed likely to create little more than a mountain of model measures of EI and personality traits fluff’. tests of EI by the same test publisher. to date. Indeed. intelligence and personality tests (Petrides and Self-report measures are considered to be Furnham 2000). Davies et al. whereas men it for commercial use. in an pristine tests of objective performance and earlier review. purporting to measure EI. that EI amounts to nothing more than ‘the The mixed model approach has initially been ability to perceive emotional information in heavily reliant on the assessment of the visual and auditory stimuli’. Recent research has in reconciling what amounts to two very extended to incorporate more diverse European different ways of operationalizing the concept and Asian samples and have. e. seem that an increasing number of researchers Beloff (1992) demonstrated significant differ- entering this field go on to develop their own ences in the self-estimated intelligence of particular instrument and subsequently market men and women. although many ing body of recent research evidence drawing proponents of this model have since devel. It is interesting to note actual work-related (Dulewicz and Higgs 2000) that the two most widely used measures of EI or academic performance (Schutte et al. Most As these measures are based on competing measures of EI have been developed on samples models of EI. measures may contribute something over and The purist view (Daus and Ashkanasy above the established measures traditionally 2005) argues that EI can only be assessed by used in occupational settings. (1998) concluded are highly critical of self-report measures. are more generous in their rating of males. US. UK and usefulness of the concept and the difficulties Australian respondents. yet distributed Like other psychometric tests. and interpersonal competencies makes it the resultant product may be ‘both pristine difficult to ascertain the extent to which EI and useless’. both objective ability tests and self- such measures a significant constraint on their report tests have demonstrated linkages with research endeavours. Dulewicz and Higgs 2000). She found that. Indeed.Emotional Intelligence. are based on competing models. It has been observed that The Problem of Competing Models and perceived (self-assessed) intelligence is not Measurement Tools: Comparing Apples necessarily a good indicator of performance with Pears as measured by objective cognitive intelligence There is no shortage of available measures tests (Levenson and Ruef 1992. Bar-On 2000. Nicholaou and Tsaousis 234) point out ‘if EI is defined too broadly.g. if not impossible. a grow- perceived EI of respondents. In a study of undergraduate students. demon- and creates a significant. Tsaousis 2003). this brings into question the which are culturally similar. This commercialization tend to overestimate their own intelligence of EI and its associated measures is likely as well as that of male relations. strated satisfactory psychometric properties challenge to develop a unitary body of research and a degree of universality of the concept evidence. However.g. on both the ability and mixed models of EI oped measures which incorporate multi-rater would seem to suggest an incremental validity assessments to circumvent the limitations of of EI over and above traditional cognitive self-report (e. (e. and are also open to distortion by faking whereas others have been designed for use good or presenting a socially desirable self specifically in a workplace context. if EI is defined too narrowly. women tend to create continuing problems for academic to underestimate their own intelligence and researchers. However. As Murphy and Sederman (2006. its measurement and implications for the workplace (Woodruffe 2001). particularly doctoral students. some instruments are generic. it would 1998). as 2003.

2000). inhibiting the display of emotionally intelligent More recently. between high and average performers. at best. for 25% of the variance in job performance. whereas IQ which follows on the validity of EI and its accounted for 27%. It was found that. which found the teams scoring high on EI performed that IQ was little related to how well the boys significantly better than the lower scoring performed at work as adults. compared the relative contribution of cognitive It is clear that the choice of measurement and EI competencies with work performance as tool determines the model of EI that is being measured by career advancement. suffers from a restriction of range. Emotional some individuals were rated by others as Perception. in the EI literature was the link between Furthermore. Instead. cohesive and effective work teams more strating a relationship between EI and academic quickly than less emotionally intelligent success (Nowicki and Duke 1992. Jordan et al. that only one scale of the MSECIT. restriction of range may also be an supported the notion that EI differentiates inherent limitation of this study. interest in which and rating of team performance in customer was generated by findings showing the very service were significantly positively correlated low predictive value of traditional IQ in work (r = 0. Their findings However. in the Bell Laboratories. The leaders’ MEIS scores significantly correlated EI and Performance (r = 0. They concluded that emotionally emotions and get along with other people. 1990). They found tested and therefore has to be taken into that EI accounted for 36% of the total variance account when evaluating the research evidence in organizational achievement. In addition. given the highly implications for the workplace (Petrides and intelligent nature of the sample. Kelley and Caplan (1993) showed that on a decision task in a sample of over 200 neither IQ nor past academic performance college students. Schutte et al. the average team MEIS scores performance and success. For example. Dulewicz and Higgs (1998) behaviours.51) with their effectiveness measures. Shoda et al. Even More recently. performance was more closely influenced the performance levels of all the teams were by their abilities to handle frustration. control similar.46). Hunter and Hunter found to correlate positively (r = 0. they found that were good predictors of ‘stars’. June 2008 the question as to whether organizational the performance and ‘star’ ratings of such culture may play a role in promoting or individuals better. longitudinal study of 450 boys. Team leaders’ EI scores were also performance. (2002) investigated the relation- Sternberg (1996) suggested that 10% is a more ship between EI and the performance of 44 realistic estimate.58) with (1984) estimated that. In an organizational found a positive but weak correlation between setting. in the early weeks. by the end of the nine weeks. colleagues. Rice (1999) measured the EI of 164 employees and their 11 team leaders in a US insurance company Implications for the Workplace using the MEIS (Mayer et al. One of the earliest areas of research addressed as rated by their departmental manager. However. EI EI scores were not predictive of the level of abilities seemed to differentiate and predict organizational citizenship behaviour exhibited © 2007 The Authors 159 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Snarey and Vaillant Australian work teams over a period of nine (1985) reported the results of a 40-year weeks. However. Instead. Slaski and Cartwright (2003) also 1998. this study Furnham 2000). was predictive of performance ‘stars’. intelligent individuals were able to form Several studies have been conducted demon. Kelley and Caplan (1993) examined EI scores and performance measures among EI and the performance of research groups a managerial group in the UK retailing sector. IQ accounts their team’s performance. work teams. Day and Carroll (2004) found though all team members had high IQ scores. Similarly.

Emotional Intelligence. While the results of these studies have perceived to be different and more effective interesting implications for the selection and than the traditional transactional approach. (2000) assessed transformational leader. which the studies are based are very small. As the researchers note. (2001) the SUEIT measure of EI (Palmer and Stough assessed the EI of 43 Australian managers. In There is a growing body of research evidence the case of Duckett and MacFarlane (2003). Gardner and intuition (Allinson and Hayes 1996) and some Stough (2002) found that EI. satisfaction out of four transformational leadership factors. Motivation and Individualized Consideration. 1990). An earlier Performance. this In a meta-analytical study. (2000). Law (2002) found that EI was positively ship behaviours. the sample sizes on because it engages the follower’s emotions. Kerr et al. correlated with follower satisfaction and ship Questionnaire (MLQ: Bass and Avolio willingness to engage in extra-role behaviour 1995). Inspirational extra effort. EI. Results indicated that high Brown et al. and EI using the EQ-i (Bar On 1997) but did not affect job performance. it may be that EI transformational leadership. Similar results have been EI and Leadership Effectiveness upheld in simulated studies such as Barsdale Transformational Leadership (Bass 1990) is (1998). 2001) alongside more generic measures of using an adapted version of the Trait Meta- social effectiveness found that measures such Mood Scale (Salovey et al. the MSCEIT and leadership effectiveness in 160 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . by the 65-item self-report inventory. However. The results were evidence from Downey et al. there is some evidence that (Palmer and Stough 2001) was positively certain elements of EI do seem to influence related to all four component factors of performance. Law et al. (2006) found no significant link overall EI scores were associated with three between EI and effectiveness. However. Intellectual Stimulation. (2006) suggests weaker but in a similar direction to Barling that there is an overlap between measures of et al. However. In addition. van Rooy and factor relies more on cognitive than emotional Viewesvaran (2004) found a significant but abilities. development of leaders. Recent evidence (Semadar et al.23 between EI and there was no association with EI. 2006) using In another study. using the Multifactor Leader. novel ways. (2004) found evidence followers with an intellectual challenge: that supervisor ratings of EI were predictive getting people to think about problems in of job performance among Chinese workers. among 49 managers in a large pulp and paper in a study also using the EQ-1 (Bar-On 1997). and therefore it is not surprising that moderate correlation of 0. (2006) found a strong No relationship was found between EI and positive correlation between certain scales of the fourth factor. Wong and et al. as measured dimensions of EI. 63 managers. once again using the MLQ of job performance than EI. and their as political skill were more valid predictors leadership style. with supervisor and willingness to invest These were Idealized Influence. SUEIT Taken overall. only becomes a differentiating factor in job Duckett and MacFarlane (2003) have also performance when it is combined with demonstrated a relationship between measured above-average IQ. More recently. transformational leadership and objective performance measures in a small sample of retail managers. EI and Transformational Leadership. In Intellectual Stimulation involves presenting contrast. (Bass and Avolio 1995). its measurement and implications for the workplace by individuals in relation to the task. it should be noted that study conducted by Sosik and Megerian (1999) the meta-analysis included both ability-based had found rather similar results in a study of and personality-based tests of EI. In contrast. Palmer et al. Barling In a study of Chinese managers. organization. which has examined the relationship between the sample size was less than 20.

strongest predictor of leadership effectiveness In the context of workplace stress. It could also be sistent with two earlier studies using MSCEIT argued that emotionally intelligent individuals (Leban and Zulauf 2004. of a range of negative emotions. perhaps not surprisingly. given that workplace bullying is a reduction in stress levels and an improvement recognized to play a contributory role in poor in health compared with a control group. Through examined the differences in EI between two increased understanding of the impact of their occupational groups. Both groups had experienced increased negative behaviours. police officers and health- emotional outbursts on others. which may be an artefact of the see Cartwright and Whatmore 2005). anger. it would stress response is associated with the release seem that the ability to perceive emotion. in Germany using the that bullies will be better able to address their EQ-i. The work performance and negative workplace study included the EQ-I (Bar-On 1997) and relations (Sheehan and Jordan 2002). (2000) which has a problem with bullying. Inde- argued that they will become more able to pendence and Flexibility. that highly emotionally intelligent individuals ing role in aggressive behaviours and work. they found that a programme of prone behaviours. which overwhelm the individual with effective leadership. training can positively affect an organization Another study by Bar-On et al. e. with the them and their emotions. i. it is believed care professionals. it is was the ability to perceive emotion. In the context of and affect their ability to cope with the international leadership. increased appropriately (Korth 2000). June 2008 a sample of 38 supervisors. It has been suggested some overlap with what is now termed cultural that EI plays a role in helping individuals to intelligence (Earley and Ang 2003). In addition. implicit them to focus accurately on immediate situa- in such thinking is that high levels of emotional tions and deal efficiently with problems. (2000) found negative correlations than less emotionally intelligent managers. In all three studies. bullying and trouble Furthermore. The measurement tool employed. the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg According to Martin et al. While such an self-awareness and self-respect. is a factor associated panic. anxiety. which intelligent are ‘good’ and are always associated meant that they were better able to adapt to © 2007 The Authors 161 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Bar-On et al. Slaski EI and Dysfunctional Behaviour and Cartwright (2003. widely accepted that individual characteristics Overall. which enabled approach has a certain intuitive appeal.g. This study is con. the EI of the victims of bullying. control and manage these negative emotions appropriately and so moderate both the appraisal and experience of stress. EI and Williams 1998). with desirable outcomes. mixed. This is an interesting EI training resulted in an increase in EI scores. the research evidence concerning play a moderating role in the way individuals EI and leadership effectiveness is somewhat respond to and cope with stress (for a review. finding. there is likely to be demands of the situation. 2004) found evidence It has been suggested that EI plays a moderat. However. better physical and psychological health Mayer et al. (1998). employees Results indicated that police officers scored will reach a better understanding of the reasons significantly higher than health-care pro- for the bully’s behaviour and its impact on fessionals on all the EQ-I scales. (2000) manage their own emotions effectively and argued that the police officers demonstrated use them to respond to the situation more greater interpersonal capacity. Rosete and Ciarrochi may abuse their powers of insight into the 2005) which found linkages between EI and emotions and weaknesses of others to pursue leadership effectiveness. between EI and violent.e. report significantly less stress and experience place stress (Slaski and Cartwright 2003). Furthermore. by increasing work stress following organizational change. it is exception of Interpersonal Relationship. the their own self-interest in a manipulative way.

the regulation and explored the relationship between EI.Emotional Intelligence. the regulation and use of emotions types. see Cooper More recently. McClelland and similarly addressed the relationship between Boyatzis (1982) have suggested that successful EI and organizational commitment and found change management requires high levels of that EI predicted 15% of the variance in activity inhibition and self-control. 2002) measure of workplace stress and commitment. p < 0. negative affectivity (for a review. Rousseau and Parkes 1993) as well as increased the Use of Emotions was significantly correlated stress (Cartwright and Cooper 1997). the most comprehensive 162 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . In the case of stress indicators. Connor (1993) has individuals to improve work relationships.e. lower EI scores were associated with score high on conscientiousness. locus of control and positive and EI and change. stress management of emotion involving techniques and organizational commitment among 235 which draw upon rational emotive therapy mental health professionals in Greek institu. increased the largest correlation was between the Use staff turnover. and inflexible ‘D’ personality understanding how individuals respond to types.01). p < 0. i. In positively engaged in change were likely to contrast. achieved low scores on those scales of ASSET assessing sources of stress It would seem to follow that emotions play an and high on both scales of organizational important role in the way in which employees commitment. drawn the distinction between ‘O’ personality Overall. pragmatists and realists’.e. research and have been addressed by a variety Although there has been little empirical of pre-existing measures such as Type A research investigating the relationship between behaviour. the organization towards the employee and Organizational change has been consistently commitment of the employee towards the associated with a range of negative behaviours.01). its measurement and implications for the workplace change and cope more effectively with stress. Hogan Troth (2002) found that individuals with higher et al. low levels of job satisfaction and of Emotions factor and overall stress levels organizational commitment (Feldman 1995. (1994). However. and low on neuroticism. in a forceful way and avoidance behaviour. in a review of the personality levels of EI were more likely or more able to literature. (Cartwright and Cooper 1997) have been a tions. organization. 2001). extraversion less effective strategies. suggested that individuals who engage in collaborative conflict resolution. including reduced productivity. (r = −55. Nikolaou and Tsaousis (2005) et al. In the case of commitment. Jordan and ‘analysts. perceived commitment of respond and adapt to organizational change. with the commitment of the employees to Numerous researchers have attempted to the organization (r = 0. i. dispositional that the attitudes and responses of employees characteristics have a long history in stress to change are the function of their personality. who welcome change and see it as would seem to be a potential explanatory in an opportunity. their environment and increase their resilience Overall. (1995) concluded that ‘idealists’ were more In a study of 139 students. Similarly. Born and Jansen (1997) subsequently argued The researchers advocate the value of emotional for the inclusion of an additional factor: management training as a means of equipping openness to experience. Schloemer organizational commitment. using the first open and tolerant towards change than author’s measure Workgroup EI. Abraham (2000) (King and Anderson 1995). Employees who exhibited a high EI and Organizational Change overall EI score. handling conflict and agreeableness. the literature has keenly emphasized to stressful situations. who regard change as a danger or threat.58. whereas identify the role of individual differences in overall EI was strongly associated with the implementation and acceptance of change organizational commitment. Participants completed the EIQ (Tsaousis traditional feature of stress management 2003) and the ASSET (Cartwright and Cooper education and training.

Both studies also found that be experienced. satisfy the customer has been widely termed Tsaousis 2003) were found to correlate emotional labour (Hochschild 1983. Scores on the (which the employee may not feel) in order to Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ.69. Huy (1999) argues that. the reciprocal and emotional attitudinal state’ which deter. mobilization and learn. affect and perceptions of service quality as Mobilization refers to the actual actions assessed by a modified version of the taken by individuals towards the direction of SERVQUAL instrument (Parasuraman et al. The necessity ing. (Johnston and Clark 2001). p = 0. Westen influence on customer satisfaction. change. (1984) pro- tional change over and above personality posed a personality construct. which includes characteristics 6. June 2008 model integrating EI and emotions in the level of service quality is considered to be a organizational change process is that proposed critical factor in distinguishing one service by Huy (1999). 1985). A study by Tsaousis et al.13. nature of service encounters produces an mines the acceptance and endorsement of the emotional contagion effect whereby customers need for change. If goals are not service providers was also linked with customer successfully achieved. emotions also play a role 1998). the perceived extroversion and conscientiousness (Furnham © 2007 The Authors 163 Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . A regression Evidence from the personality literature analysis incorporating personality data was has suggested that certain individuals have also conducted. F(4. Service quality has also been EI and Service Encounters shown to correlate highly with established As services are largely intangible and tend to personality measures on dimensions such as be similar within given sectors. resistance to change. energy initially required to engage with the he found that individual differences in the change process and take a leap of faith into the emotional expressiveness and the positive affect unfamiliar.1270 = orientation’. namely receptivity. In a study of banking employees. This model links individual provider from another. mobilization and encounters (Menon and Dube 2000) and that learning. towards organizational change. if organizations The marketing literature has long recognized encourage individuals to enact emotionally the importance of both customer segmentation intelligent behaviours. negative emotions will satisfaction. Receptivity refers to the willingness the display of emotions by service employees of employees to consider and engage in change influences customers’ affect and judgement and is considered to be the opposite of of service quality (Pugh 2001. often in contradiction to traditional of service agents was predictive of customer thinking. they will facilitate and the appropriate personalization of responses receptivity to change. Zeithaml positively and significantly with attitudes and Bitner 2000). According to Huy (1999).000). emotions provide feedback as to whether the 2004). termed ‘service variables with R2 change = 0. which in turn will stimulate transaction or store busyness had a moderating motivation to change (Huy 1999. service encounters. Winsted 2000). In a study of service providers working in the ‘learning’ dynamic of change in that in fast food outlets in Singapore (Tan et al. the display of positive emotions by change effort was successful. Research has suggested emotions to three aspects of organizational that emotions play an important role in service change. which correlates significantly with effective job performance. such as helpfulness and consideration. ‘catch’ the emotions displayed by the customer receptivity is associated with the emotional service agent. Hogan et al. (2004) attempted on the part of service agents to adapt their to test this theory on a sample of 137 managers responses and to display appropriate emotions and professionals in Greece. which found that EI factors an inherent predisposition to perform well in predicted positive attitudes towards organiza. Finally. It represents a ‘cognitive According to Pugh (2001).

the pro- customer satisfaction. the role of emotions in the workplace predictive of different outcomes and blow has been underestimated and little researched away some of the ‘fluff’. service orientation potential solutions to workplace problems and may be an innate characteristic and. improving service quality. There selection over training. In terms of the selection and development of employees. 1988). even with enhance performance. (Schneider et al. environment which is only too eager to embrace According to Cran (1994). Furthermore. agreeableness and emo. Emotions play a central role as guides to Importantly. Dulewicz Conclusion et al. both as a criterion for motion and practice of emotionally intelligent selection (Barlow and Maul 2000) and a devel. clearer delineation. is some limited evidence that EI may be Recent interest in the concept of EI has associated with leadership effectiveness and emphasized the potential link between EI and readiness for change. until fairly what is variously described as EI. As highlighted in this place (Taylor 1911). the personality particularly those involved in stressful jobs. nursing (Cadman and Brewer 2001). employees low on this trait may not Based on a growing number of studies. As interest in workplace review. there are fundamental problems some potential important implications for with the definition and operationalization of service organizations in providing training the concept of EI and the continuing war which may be more closely tailored to address between the competing models which needs the needs of different types of customers to be resolved. yet the measures which distinction as to the precise aspects of EI which translate dimensions of EI into a competency can or cannot be developed through training framework appear to have greater face validity has to be established by future research. its measurement and implications for the workplace and Coveney 1996). 1998). more research is needed to behaviour and the maintenance of an integrated separate and isolate the core elements of self (Damasio 1994). behaviours may have a positive influence on opment tool as a means of improving service client/customer interactions and lead to quality and reducing the stress associated enhanced service quality as well as creating more with emotional labour (Spector et al. literature has emphasized the importance of e. it be able to sustain improvements in performance would seem that EI may have implications for and attitude over the longer term. and so establish positive benefits of dehumanizing the work. training.g. empathy on extended service transactions suggests and the control and management of negative that much could be gained from improving emotions are considered to be key skills that the abilities of employees to recognize individuals can develop through EI training customers’ emotions and adapting the way (Slaski and Cartwright 2002). emotions has increased. Research In particular. emotional recognition. Ability-based models may be presenting different emotional states. the ‘theoretically purer’. 2006. satisfying organizational climates. 2003). measures of social effectiveness. where there the guiding principle for management and the may be potential overlap. This neglect owes it is also important to conduct further research much to the legacy of classical theories of which incorporates a wider range of alternate organization which emphasize rationality as measures than just personality. with organizational test users and are argu- ably more valid predictors of work-related performance (Downey et al. While this suggests However. In order to do this. Furthermore. EI has become an cognitive styles and other dispositional 164 © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . which are recently. it in which service is designed and delivered is suggested that such initiatives can create in order to respond appropriately (Dube and a positive organizational climate for service Morgan 1998).Emotional Intelligence. beyond job satisfaction. emergent field of research in a business tional stability (Frei and McDaniel 1998). However.

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