You are on page 1of 8

SERVILLA, SHEILA MAY N.

September 7, 2017
BS ARCH AR11FA1 1ST YEAR THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1

CURRENT THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE

SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE [1]
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the
negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the
use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.
Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological
conservation in the design of the built environment.
The idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our
actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future
generations.
Some examples of sustainable building materials include recycled denim or blown-in fiber glass insulation,
sustainably harvested wood, Trass, Linoleum, sheep wool, concrete (high and ultra-high performance roman self-healing
concrete), panels made from paper flakes, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linnen, sisal, seegrass,
expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fiber plates, calcium sand stone, locally obtained stone and rock, and bamboo,
which is one of the strongest and fastest growing woody plants, and non-toxic low-VOC glues and paints. Vegetative
cover or shield over building envelopes also helps in the same. Paper which is fabricated or manufactured out of forest
wood is supposedly hundred percent recyclable, thus it regenerates and saves almost all the forest wood that it takes
during its manufacturing process.
Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism and New
Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction that
appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical
design. This in contrast to modernist and globally uniform architecture, as well
as leaning against solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl. Both trends
started in the 1980s. The Driehaus Architecture Prize is an award that recognizes
efforts in New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture, and is endowed with a
prize money twice as high as that of the modernist Pritzker Prize.
There are conflicting ethical, engineering, and political orientations
depending on the viewpoints
There is no doubt Green Technology has made its headway into the architectural community, the
implementation of given technologies have changed the ways we see and perceive modern day architecture. While
green architecture has been proven to show great improvements of ways of living both environmentally and
technologically the question remains, is all this sustainable? Many building codes have been demeaned to international
standards. "LEED" (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) has been criticized for exercising flexible codes for
building to follow. Contractors do this to save as much money as they possibly can. For example, a building may have
solar paneling but if the infrastructure of the building's core doesn't support that over a long period of time
improvements would have to be made on a constant basis and the building itself would be vulnerable to disasters or
enhancements. With companies cutting paths to make shortcuts with sustainable architecture when building their
structures it fuels to the irony that the "sustainable" architecture isn't sustainable at all. Sustainability comes in reference
to longevity and effectiveness.
Ethics and Politics also play into sustainable architecture and its ability to grow in urban environment. Conflicting
viewpoints between engineering techniques and environmental impacts still are popular issues that resonate in the
architectural community. With every revolutionary technology or innovation there comes criticisms of legitimacy and
effectiveness when and how it is being utilized. Many of the criticisms of sustainable architecture do not reflect every
aspect of it but rather a broader spectrum across the international community.

and infrastructure-related nature. Now. is yes. New York Designed by Grimshaw Sustainable feature: Affordable housing development on a reclaimed brownfield site is designed to achieve LEED Gold and exceed the NYSERDA Multifamily Performance Program and Enterprise Green Communities guidelines for environmental responsibility. which widen the conceptual framework of topics that are transversal and consubstantial to architecture. The wall generates oxygen and absorbs C02. Via Verde . Building materials and new construction. pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-. all architects and buildings are expected to be engaged with sustainable standards.34. and reduce storm water run-off. of course. account for a significant sum of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. landscape and infrastructure. such as LEED titles. The best buildings have always shown a concern for their immediate environs and how they fit in them. . Germany Designed by UNStudio Sustainable feature: Received Gold certification by the German Sustainable Building Council for its "inclusive" approach to sustainable design that features a compact building footprint— making it easier for light to penetrate the structure on all sides throughout the day—and uses low-maintenance. or green roofs—all things that these projects have in common. proposes an architectural space generated on the basis of human intervention. Centre for Virtual Engineering Stuttgart. SYNERGIZE AND HYBRID SPACES (MIXED USE) HYBRID ARCHITECTURE DEFINES AS HYBRID ALL ARCHITECTURAL INTERVENTION THAT IS AT ONCE OBJECT. whether they were conscious of "sustainability" or not. Green-side Wall (aka "Vegitecture") Barcelona. along with the operation and maintenance of buildings. All architectural intervention is defined as hybrid that is at once object. LANDSCAPE AND INFRASTRUCTURE. an architectural intervention that simultaneously meets three conditions: 1.000 square feet of green roofs offer active gardening. for on-site irrigation. as a result of a project. Faced with this fact.The Green Way Bronx. generates architectural answers with very specific features.THE FUTURE IS GREEN: ARCHITECTURE + SUSTAINABILITY [2] Today. while also insulating the adjacent apartment units and dampening street noise. [3] Hybrid architecture. enhance building insulation. photovoltaic cells. recyclable materials. Spain Designed by Capella Garcia Arquitectura Sustainable feature: A vertical green facade with garden terraces that is maintained by an integrated drip irrigation system. architecture finds itself at a crossroads. It is a physical intervention that. landscape. how are architects to responsibly pursue the act (and art) of building without further deteriorating the planet's environmental make-up or depleting its resources? What forms of high and low technology can be developed to curtail the injurious side of building? Can good or even great architecture be sustainable? The answer.

that the emergent properties are overall valuable for someone. The fact that the architectural object incorporates the infrastructural nature into its own implies the precondition that this object becomes an integral part of an infrastructural system of higher order. etc. A house has many emergent properties. having a kitchen slightly too small. or industrial uses. The mobility becomes a core quality of the architectural intervention with significant consequences concerning the spatial configuration: a. but emerge at the system-level because they are the result of the way the components interact. One element relevant for software engineers and building architects alike is that the elements of a software system. spaces of circulation integrate into the realm of the primary spaces as part of the core programme and occupy a greater proportion of the surface relative to the entire available surface. At the same time that it possesses the autonomy characteristic of all architectural objects. Slowly sinking into the soft ground. and lacking enough cupboard space are annoying features that are nevertheless emergent properties too. where those functions are physically and functionally integrated. including organizations. In this general sense. room. reliability. of a house. usability. machines and software is the structure of this system plus the way the structure causes the system to have emergent properties. institutional. appearance. MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT [5] Mixed-use development is a type of urban development that blends residential. we require more than that they have emergent properties: We requred that these emergent properties be useful. water seeping into the cellar. of a novel and of a symphony. i. It is an architectural intervention. We can generalize this view of architecture from houses and software systems to all systems. and the way this yields the desired emergent properties of the system. providing shelter against rain and sun. etc. The architecture of a building is the way the components of the building are put together so that the desired overall properties emerge: Shelter. which is at the same time a landscape: the architectural intervention integrates inseparably into the landscape. work together in such a way that desirable overall properties emerge. So architecture is structure plus synergy. As far as the condition of limit is concerned. and also of the architecture of a software system. cost. The system as a whole provides certain services at a certain quality. 3. c. These emergent properties are not properties of any component. The architecture of a software system is the way the components of the software are put together so that the desired overall properties emerge: Services. This is a concept well-known in systems engineering. To describe an architecture of a system. called synergy (Blanchard and Fabrycky 1990). Having a pleasant appearance. the fact that the hybrid object belongs to an infrastructural system of a superior order will result in the necessary incorporation of part of the laws defining this infrastructural system as an ordering system into the genesis of the hybrid. ARCHITECTURE IS STRUCTURE PLUS SYNERGY [4] Let us keep it simple and start from the dictionary. one of the meanings of the word ``architecture'' is that it is a ``unifying or coherent form or structure''.e. and that provides . It is at once an architectural intervention and an infrastructure: in transforming into a section of infrastructure itself. We find objects in nature with a wonderful architecture that creates emergent properties. safety. The architecture of a system consisting of people. leads to the disappearance of the concept of limit associated with that of border in light of the emergence of its definition as space of transition. Architecture is the reason why a whole is more than the sum of its parts. the indispensable condition of physical continuity between the physical area defining the project and the infrastructural system to which it belongs. providing a room to eat and sleep. some of which are useful and some are not. behavior. According to Webster's. We require of a designed architecture that the balance of useful and useless emergent properties is positive. one can speak about the architecture of a town. the way they are put together. b. cultural. properties of the house as a whole that are due to its architecture. interfaces. As far as the programmatic dimension is concerned. but for designed objects. the architectural intervention incorporates part of its laws. human-machine systems and socio-technical systems in general. 2. or of a building. a hybrid is also a section of infrastructure integrated in a wider infrastructural system —conceived to absorb flows of circulation— with its own laws and functioning. are all useful properties. Let us focus on the concept of unifying structure. As far as the order system is concerned. commercial. you describe its components.

permitted in otherwise strictly residential areas • Main Street residential/commercial – two to three-story buildings with residential units above and commercial units on the ground floor facing the street • Urban residential/commercial – multi-story residential buildings with commercial and civic uses on ground floor • Office convenience – office buildings with small retail and service uses oriented to the office workers • Office/residential – multi-family residential units within office building(s) • Shopping mall conversion – residential and/or office units added (adjacent) to an existing standalone shopping mall • Retail district retrofit – retrofitting of a suburban retail area to a more village-like appearance and mix of uses • Live/work – residents can operate small businesses on the ground floor of the building where they live • Studio/light industrial – residents may operate studios or small workshops in the building where they live • Hotel/residence – mix hotel space and high-end multi-family residential • Parking structure with ground-floor retail • Single-family detached home district with standalone shopping center MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT [6] The term ‘mixed use development’ refers to development projects that comprise a mixture of land uses. healthy foods (as food retail and farmers markets can be accessed on foot/bike or by transit)  more compact development. workplaces. Mixed-use development can take the form of a single building. but since the 1990s. retail businesses. such as manufacturing. sense of place  walkable. The term may also be used more specifically to refer to a mixed-use real estate development project— a building.pedestrian connections. from residential areas. . more affordable housing (smaller units). or entire neighbourhoods. In the United States. or district of a town or city that is developed for mixed-use by a private developer. or more than just a single use. such as convenience stores. both resulting in reduced transportation costs Some of the more frequent mixed-use scenarios in the United States are: • Neighborhood commercial zoning – convenience goods and services. Traditionally. However. mixed use refers to land or buildings used for different uses which fall into more than one use class. such as a skyscraper that has floors of office space as well as a hotel complex. the heyday of separate-use zoning was after World War II. bike-able neighborhoods. increased accessibility via transit. retail businesses. and other amenities and destinations  better access to fresh. These benefits include: • greater housing variety and density • reduced distances between housing. life-cycle housing (starter homes to larger homes to senior housing)  reduced distances between housing.g. land-use synergy (e. a city block. governmental zoning regulations were introduced to separate different functions. Mixed use developments can be ‘vertical’. workplaces. or a combination thereof. complex of buildings. mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as the benefits are recognized. with industrialisation as well as the invention of the skyscraper. In terms of planning permissions. or a terrace building that has a flat on the first floor and a shop on the ground floor. (quasi-) governmental agency. in which a single building accommodates multiple uses. and other destinations • more compact development • stronger neighborhood character • pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments Benefits of mixed-use development include:  greater housing variety and density. human settlements have developed in mixed-use patterns. residents provide customers for retail which provide amenities for residents)  stronger neighborhood character.

or food production)’ National planning practice guidance suggests that promoting healthy communities should include ‘… opportunities for meetings between members of the community who might not otherwise come into contact with each other. recreation. office. A blog. with the aim of revitalizing urban centres and generating benefits for the community. mixed use developments have become a more prominent feature of planning policy. such as a community area that has accommodation as well as playing facilities. it can be categorized three ways: Vertical Mixed-Use Development •Combines different uses within the same building •Provides for more public uses on the lower floor such as retail shops. and 3) creates a walkable community with uninterrupted pedestrian connections. public amenities. cultural. residential. Commercial. of commercial businesses •Provides for more private uses on the upper floors such as residential units. live and play in the vicinity’. hotel rooms. institutional. parking and other amenities. and compatibility of land uses. and/or industrial uses. In Britain after the Second World War. mixed-use development is characterized as pedestrian-friendly development that blends two or more residential. More recently. and utilities together at various scales and intensities. The Urban Land Institute’s Mixed-Use Development Handbook characterizes mixed- use development as one that 1) provides three or more significant revenue- producing uses (such as retail/ entertainment. which then becomes a destination for people from other neighborhoods. pedestrian-oriented places that layer compatible land uses. light industrial are fit together to help create built environments where residents can live. Mixed-use zoning allows for the horizontal and vertical combination of land uses in a given area. mixed-use is multiple functions within the same building or the same general area through superimposition or within the same area through adjacency… from which many of the benefits are … pedestrian activity and traffic capture. more interesting urban fabric and enhanced property values. hotel. One of the 12 core planning principles set out in the national planning policy framework (NPPF) that underpin plan-making and decision-taking is to: ‘promote mixed use developments. they can be ‘horizontal’ mixed use development where a range of different buildings on the same site each fulfill a specific purpose. work. restaurants. While mixed use has become a popular buzz word. and even in some instances. public health. town planning tended to focus on large. and a brief prepared by the Village of Caledonia. WHAT IS MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT? [7] As defined by the MRSC of Washington. The Placemakers’ blog. density. by the folks at PlaceMakers clarifies that mixed use is: … three-dimensional. strong neighbourhood centres and active street frontages which bring together those who work. local employment opportunities. WI. and/or civic/cultural/recreation). and the environment. residential. As defined by The Lexicon of the New Urbanism. This variety of uses allows for people to live. shops. flood risk mitigation. commercial. 2) fosters integration. These often faced criticism for disrupting the traditional flow and diversity of town centre areas. Horizontal Mixed-Use Development . including through mixed-use developments. It is not just limited to a multi-story development that incorporates commercial use on the first floor with residential uses on upper floors. work. recognising that some open land can perform many functions (such as for wildlife. don’t get mixed up on mixed use. play and shop in one place. further explains that while there are many forms of mixed-use development. Alternatively. such as reduced demand for transport and other infrastructure. or office space. and play. carbon storage. the term can be confusing. a planning strategy that seeks to foster community design and development that serves the economy. community. and encourage multiple benefits from the use of land in urban and rural areas. Mixed use is one of the ten principles of Smart Growth. single-use buildings such as shopping centres.

The platform supports wired LAN. The first definition. operated and used. In the late 2000s. there are a multitude of definitions with different levels of detail and varying degrees of emphasis on various aspects of building intelligence. and the interrelationship between them. coined the term “Bright Green Buildings” for buildings that are both intelligent and green. It also facilitates person-to-person. A connected building boasts an integrated communications infrastructure that supports wired and wireless networks and applications. A recent research report by Memoori highlighted the emergence of a new Building Internet of Things (BIoT) defined as “the overlaying of an IP network. applications and their impact on intelligent buildings. systems. Wi-Fi. the intelligent connectivity platform is easily adaptable to changes in space design or communications . definitions are starting to take into account the emergence of Internet of Things technologies. services and management. Today. defines an intelligent building as “one which provides a productive and cost-effective environment through optimization of four basic elements: structure. As intelligent buildings began to take hold around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s.think again. energy efficiency and connectivity challenges at a time when changing workplace demographics come with increasing occupant expectations of modern and flexible space design. flexible.” Memoori predicts that the traditional Building Automation Systems (BAS) will evolve into a BIoT over the next five years. the intelligent building spotlight tilted towards energy efficiency and sustainability with the introduction of the BREEAM code (1990) and the LEED program (2000). within an approximately 10-minute walking distance to core activities INTELLIGENT BUILDING DEFINING TODAY'S INTELLIGENT BUILDING [8] The term “intelligent building” has been in use since the early 1980s and you would think that a globallyaccepted definition of the attributes of an intelligent building would have been established by now. many competing definitions were put forward. audio/visual. connecting all the building services monitoring.” According to this initial definition. productivity. in-building wireless. which allows for a range of land uses in a single development project •Provides for a variety of complementary and integrated uses that are walkable and within a given neighborhood. or development project Mixed-Use Walkable Areas •Combines both vertical and horizontal mix of uses in an area. In Asia. lighting and building management applications. given the increasing convergence of intelligence and sustainability. space utilization and occupant satisfaction. improved comfort. •Consists of single-use buildings within a mixed-use zoning district parcel. the European Intelligent Buildings Group coined a new definition stating that an intelligent building “creates an environment which maximizes the effectiveness of the building’s occupants while at the same time enabling efficient management of resources with minimum life-time costs of hardware and facilities. wired and wireless platform. an intelligent building is one that optimally matches its four elements to the users’ needs with an emphasis on the technology that makes the interrelationship between the elements possible. Corporate real estate. and pervasive connectivity. BIoT technologies and applications are poised to deliver increased efficiencies in all aspects of building intelligence. An efficient building leverages a state-of-the-art connectivity platform to address key corporate real estate. the definitions focused on the role of technology for automation and control of building functions. facilities and IT departments stand to benefit greatly from the use of building intelligence in order to meet space optimization. analyzing and controlling [the building] without the intervention of humans. coined by the Intelligent Buildings Institute. facilities and IT challengesto improve energy efficiency. major shifts are occurring in the way buildings are designed. it is becoming increasingly clear that an intelligent building is a connected and efficient building. Buildings are also becoming cloud connected as an essential part of smart grids and smart cities. person-to-machine and machine-to-machine communications within the building and with the outside world using a state of the art intelligent. Well. More recently. In an efficient building. In Europe. tract or land. Although several organizations have attempted to establish a universal definition. sensors. In the late 1990s and early 2000s. a Frost and Sullivan research paper commissioned by the Continental Automated Buildings Association. Although there are multiple and evolving perspectives on the subject.” tilting the spotlight towards the occupant’s needs to be served by technology.

systems. accessed or controlled. What is your definition of an intelligent building? Do you feel that connectivity and efficiency are essential to validating an intelligent building? Leave a comment below and I’ll be sure to respond.  Reliability. recent studies proclaim that it must create a successful combination between the environment and the occupants.The Smart/intelligent building involves “the use of integrated technological building systems.Smart features (Example: Intelligent heating systems that adjust automatically to external temperature). Other similar studies define intelligent buildings as automated buildings with flexibility. Sensors that collect information 4. hospitals.technologies. cost-efficiency and integrated technical performances. operator and occupant with an environment which is flexible. However. A communications network through which different devices talk to each other 2." A smart building is equipped with: a communications network. What is a smart/ intelligent building? Intelligent building accentuates a multi- disciplinary effort to integrate and optimize the building structures. university campuses. Smart building refer to built environments such as apartments. A high density sensor network integrates with other building systems to provide fine-grained occupancy- based control of building systems for optimal energy use and occupant comfort while providing a real-time and historical view of occupancy patterns. Intelligent controls to manage the system 3. cultural and user interactions. sensors and BIoT applications. Four key aspectscharacterize a smart home 1. museums. that can be remotely monitored. a few studies criticize previous interpretations while arguing that intelligent buildings must be responsive to the user′s actual needs. services and management in order to create a productive. cost effective and environmentally approved environment for the occupants. users. which respond to information from sensors or user instructions [25] as well as to the system provider (Example: Remote control of appliances) Key requirement for smart buildings Key infrastructure required for the smart home. malls. As the definition of intelligent buildingscontinues to evolve. efficiency expectations continue to increase. . comfortable and secure. linking sensors. SMART/INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS [9] There are many interpretations of intelligent design: The main interpretations mostly consider the crucial role of technology without sufficient consideration of social. effective. Prime business scenarios include smart retail environments and public areas providing better service to customers and citizens. At a time when the design and utilization patterns of a building’s individual and common spaces are undergoing significant changes. and which provide services that respond to the needs of its inhabitants resp. This is fueled by the increase in connected devices.  Interoperability. and outdoor areas that are enabled for co-operation of smart objects and systems. offices.Despite the previous interpretations of the concept of intelligent building. schools. communications and controls to create a building and its infrastructure which provides the owner. and for ubiquitous interaction with frequent and sporadic visitors. domestic appliances and other electronic and electric devices. buildings are becoming increasingly connected and efficient. including new and existing homes:  The smart home network. and home and office environments making living and working more comfortable and efficient.

They offer the ability to optimize the high costs of extensive cabling and intelligent control infrastructure with respect to the physical characteristics of a building.uk/wiki/Mixed_use_development [7] http://www. the latter two are most used.g.) Retrofitting existing buildings (2.org/planning/landuse/what-is-mixed-use-development/ [8] http://www. barns.inogate.utwente.net/en/2011/09/262-observatori-pinto/ [4] http://graal.ewi.designingbuildings.completecommunitiesde.org/documents/Lecture%20Building%20EE%203%20ENG.pdf .org/wiki/Mixed-use_development [6] https://www.com/blog/architecture-plus-sustainability/ [3] http://quaderns.coac.commscope.co.) Converting other properties (e.org/wiki/Sustainable_architecture [2] https://architizer.wikipedia. Installation of smart buildings Three methods of smart building propagation: (1.nl/WhitePapers/Architecture/architecture.com/Blog/Defining-Todays-Intelligent-Building/ [9] http://www. Sources: [1] https://en..  Security.wikipedia. warehouses) tailored to buyers’ requirements (3.) Purpose built buildings Currently.html [5] https://en.