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Cambridge University Press

978-1-107-60156-7 - V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2
Michael McCarthy, Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford
Frontmatter
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V
Teacher’s Edition
2

Michael McCarthy
Jeanne McCarten
Helen Sandiford

© in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press
978-1-107-60156-7 - V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2
Michael McCarthy, Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford
Frontmatter
More information

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isbn 978-0-521-13189-6 Student’s Book
isbn 978-1-107-60631-9 Workbook
isbn 978-1-107-60156-7 Teacher’s Edition with Assessment CD/CD-ROM
isbn 978-1-107-66132-5 Class Audio CDs (4)
isbn 978-1-107-67577-3 Presentation Plus
isbn 978-1-107-65967-4 Blended Online Pack (Student’s Book + Online Workbook)

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© in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press
978-1-107-60156-7 - V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2
Michael McCarthy, Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford
Frontmatter
More information

Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Course components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Structure of the units in the Student’s Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Features of the units in the Student’s Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Corpus frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Irregular verb chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Authors’ acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
Teaching higher-level learners of English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxx
Teaching notes
Unit 1 A great read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-10
Unit 2 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-20
Unit 3 Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-30
Checkpoint Units 1–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-40
Unit 4 Amazing world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-42
Unit 5 Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-52
Unit 6 Business studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-62
Checkpoint Units 4–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-72
Unit 7 Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-74
Unit 8 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-84
Unit 9 Engineering wonders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-94
Checkpoint Units 7–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-104
Unit 10 Current events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-106
Unit 11 Is it real? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-116
Unit 12 Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-126
Checkpoint Units 10–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-136
Speaking naturally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-138
Grammar extra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-144
Language summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-168
Viewpoint testing program
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-182
Introduction to the Viewpoint testing program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-183
Score record sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-184
General quizzes: administration and scoring guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-186
General quizzes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-188
General quizzes: audio scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-224
General quizzes: answer key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-230
Speaking quizzes: administration and scoring guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-236
Speaking quizzes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-240
Writing quizzes: administration and scoring guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-252
Writing quizzes and sample answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-256
Student’s Book audio scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-268
Workbook answer key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-282
Workbook audio scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-296
Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-305

iii
Contents

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texts in a written corpus may come from newspapers.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. The database also includes the multimillion-word Cambridge Learner Corpus. right. This ensures that students learn the most useful conversational words right from the beginning. and how to build an argument or avoid topics of conversation. and certain).000 words in the spoken Corpus and see how these are different from the most frequent words in the written Corpus. Viewpoint is a corpus-informed course . What kinds of information can you learn from a corpus? With computer software to analyze a corpus. This kind of information helps us present phrasal verbs. iv Introduction © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. by looking at all the examples of an individual word and seeing what words most often precede or follow it. offering a fresh approach to the teaching and learning of English. For example. 500. space. we can identify the nouns that are most frequently used after the phrasal verb run out of. 1. we can find out the most commonly-used English words and expressions. in natural and useful collocations. The result is a groundbreaking course of language and skills development that helps learners communicate naturally and effectively. Here are some answers to the questions that people have asked us about the Viewpoint series. The research also makes possible the introduction of the important syllabus area of conversation management strategies – for example. Corpus research ensures that learners using Viewpoint will encounter the most useful and widely-used words. It is a corpus-informed course.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . what problems they have. coworkers. which shows us how learners at different levels use English. For example. or the Internet. strangers. The use of a corpus is a major innovation that makes it possible to develop an exciting new approach to learning English. or 5. books. how to comment on one’s own and others’ statements. while “texts” in a spoken corpus may come from everyday conversations between friends and family. We learn that the top four are time. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Introduction Viewpoint is an innovative new series for adult and young adult learners of English. Which English words are most likely to occur together? We can find typical collocations. and what the most common errors are at each level.000. etc. magazines. We used the Corpus to answer questions like these: What are the most frequent words and phrases in English? By analyzing the Corpus. Viewpoint is full of new and exciting ideas. and grammar in a range of everyday situations. Viewpoint was written using the corpus of North American English in the Cambridge English Corpus – a database that currently holds more than a billion words from spoken and written texts. drawing on extensive research into the corpus of North American English in the Cambridge English Corpus – a large database of everyday conversations and texts that show how people actually use English.org . For example. Another example is adjectives that are modified by not quite (sure. clear. phrases. Easy and enjoyable to teach. money. how to soften opinions. and breath. we can identify the most frequent words and expressions in everyday conversation.cambridge. true. What is a corpus exactly? A corpus is a database of spoken and / or written English. as well as other words and phrases. we can find the top 50. The texts in a corpus can be collected from a variety of sources. or words frequently used together.

cambridge. corpus-informed materials can take learners to their goals more quickly and efficiently. What errors do students make most frequently with grammar or vocabulary?  Searching the Learner Corpus helps us find the most frequent and persistent errors that learners typically make. For example. making students more effective listeners and communicators. we learn how people use their grammar and vocabulary resources to create and maintain good relations with their conversational partners. I think so.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Therefore we are able to determine the best contexts. or surprisingly. for example. I suppose. a study of a spoken corpus teaches us important things about social communication. Examples include the uncountable nouns that students have the most problems with or using verbs with two objects correctly. We can also find out which adverbs are most commonly used with modal verbs. v Introduction © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. How does this corpus-informed approach help me and my students? By identifying what language is essential to basic communication and what language allows us to speak and write clearly and precisely. luckily. they soften what they say by using would in expressions such as I would think. . we see that people often signal their attitude to what they’re saying by using -ly adverbs such as seriously. . we can search for sophisticated grammatical patterns – for example.org .” Do I need to know a lot about the Corpus to be able to teach with Viewpoint? Not at all. we can see that be going to is generally followed by a continuous verb in spoken rather than written English and that the relative pronoun whom is over 15 times more frequent in written English than in conversation. But you can feel assured that we. We can see which structures are more common in speaking than in writing and vice versa. podcasts. Successful spoken interaction is often called “the fifth skill. we can see how people interact in real-life situations. . activities based on corpus-informed materials can focus on the most important features of listening and speaking skills. I’d say. the future perfect continuous form – to see exactly when and how they are used and their most common meanings and contexts. natural. interviews. The articles. and listening and reading ­material that students encounter in the series are constructed in ways that reflect the character and content of the material in the Corpus. For example. In sum. . for presentation of structures. As a result. We can also see different types of responses people make. have checked the Corpus carefully to ensure that the language we teach is frequent. How do people manage conversations effectively?  By reading the multitude of conversations in the Corpus. What are the most typical contexts for specific vocabulary and grammar structures?  Searching the Corpus helps us find typical situations for using specific grammar structures and vocabulary so that we can present new language in natural contexts. This information from the Learner Corpus enables us to target such problem areas and alert students to them as points to watch out for.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . . Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information What are the most common meanings and uses of a particular grammar structure?  By using the Corpus. conversations. clearly. We see how people use rhetorical questions to make a point as well as how people add to or repeat their ideas with expressions like What I’m saying is. and useful. and that the statements we make about language are accurate. as authors. You don’t need any special knowledge of the Corpus to use the course successfully. or I don’t mean . Such information enables us to foreground the patterns and usage that are most frequent and appropriate. In addition. spoken or written. I guess not. Identifying these conversation strategies has made it possible in Viewpoint to teach students useful skills for managing their own conversations in English.

and conversation strategies taught in earlier units are recycled in later units. Figure it out tasks challenge students to think about how target grammar structures are formed and used before they are formally introduced.cambridge. getting along with friends and family. and research shows that activities that have students notice and figure things out result in successful learning. life in the future. It personalizes the learning experience. as well as in the Workbook. vocabulary. In addition.  An important learning aim in every lesson is to get students talking to each other. offering stimulating activities carefully crafted to focus on the learning process. such as the most frequent adjectives that start with self-. Word sort tasks and Vocabulary notebook pages get students to actively learn new vocabulary.  Language students need constant review. Reading and Listening. 3. The Viewpoint philosophy maintains that a successful course meets all of the following goals: 1. 2. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information As you teach from Viewpoint. Notice tasks in the Conversation strategy lessons encourage students to think about how people manage conversations effectively. This strong emphasis on spoken interaction enables students to use new language immediately in order to communicate with their classmates. vi Introduction © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. Throughout the Student’s Books you will see In conversation panels. at the same time. The About you icon points out some of these opportunities. Grammar.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . world issues. and travel. and Checkpoint.  Viewpoint offers engaging activities that encourage students to talk about their own lives and ideas as they discuss topics relevant to their interests and experiences. In the Teacher’s Edition we provide additional information about grammar and vocabulary that we feel will be of particular interest to you as a teacher. which give useful information about spoken grammar and vocabulary or differences between informal and formal spoken English. and Viewpoint systematically recycles and reviews target language in several sections of the Student’s Book – in Conversation strategy. It recognizes the importance of review and recycling. Students are also challenged to notice and figure out (inductive learning) grammar structures or English usage. The Common errors panels give useful advice on the common errors to avoid with a particular language item. nature.org . There are also Writing vs. Vocabulary notebook. What methodology will I be using in Viewpoint? Viewpoint merges the best features of proven and familiar communicative methodologies while. Clear learning aims at the start of each unit and Progress checks at the end of each Workbook unit enable students to monitor their own learning. See pages xviii–xxi in this Teacher’s Edition for a list of the 500 words used most frequently in conversation. It is interaction-based. conversation panels. On many of the Vocabulary notebook pages you will find fun facts about vocabulary. It promotes noticing and inductive learning. Recycle icons throughout the Teacher’s Edition point out these and other opportunities for review and recycling.  Throughout the series students complete tasks that actively involve them in the learning process. Viewpoint devotes a full lesson in every unit to the teaching of conversation strategies so that students can learn the skills needed for effective spoken communication. which point to differences between written and spoken English. Solving a problem or figuring something out for oneself is a powerful aid to understanding. you and your students will learn many interesting facts about language coming from our corpus research. Students will enjoy talking about topics such as social networks. 4. Each Teacher’s Edition provides a testing program that gives you and your students another valuable tool for assessing progress.

For shorter courses. We would like to extend a very personal thank-you to all the teachers and students who have provided so many constructive comments during the development of Viewpoint.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Can I teach the lessons in a unit out of order? It is highly recommended that Lessons A. For longer courses. C. It offers flexibility to meet the needs of specific classes. Viewpoint can be used with large and small classes. We welcome your feedback and look forward to hearing from you. A special thank-you from the authors . D. . The Teacher’s Edition offers a variety of extra classroom activities to reinforce learning when time allows.cambridge. the Workbook provides additional learning tasks. the Vocabulary notebook pages and many of the Reading and Writing tasks can be assigned for homework.org . . or as a whole class. Mike McCarthy Jeanne McCarten Helen Sandiford vii Introduction © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. and Writing are taught in order. depending on your particular needs. groups. Activities can be done in pairs. We sincerely hope that you will enjoy using Viewpoint and that it will contribute to the success of your English classes. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information 5. This is because the new structures and vocabulary taught in the earlier lessons are generally recycled and reused in the later lessons. With our very best wishes. Each lesson in a unit assumes that students have learned the language of the previous lesson(s). B. Viewpoint can also be adapted to varying course lengths.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .

In addition. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Course components Each level of Viewpoint consists of a Student’s Book. and D) that present grammar. B. and reading practice ■ a single-page lesson that teaches the language and skills of writing including a special grammar chart about the grammar of writing ■ a Vocabulary notebook page with practical learning tips to help students catalog new vocabulary. and further develop their vocabulary-building skills ■ two Grammar extra pages at the back of the book that contain additional information and practice exercises on the target grammar of each A and B lesson ■ a Speaking naturally activity at the back of the book that presents and practices a feature of pronunciation. teachers can download recordings of grammar charts and readings from the Viewpoint website. there is an extra page of listening – Listening extra. speaking. a page of vocabulary activities. and conversation strategies. with photos and illustrations to provide context and keep students motivated ■ a Progress check at the end of the book to help students plan further independent study Teacher’s Edition with Assessment Audio CD / CD-ROM The interleaved Teacher’s Edition contains practical. which covers the important syllabus area of conversation management techniques ■ the Vocabulary notebook. providing reinforcement and consolidation of the ­material in the Student’s Book. drawn from the Corpus. reinforce collocations. words.cambridge. two pages of reading. It also offers: ■ Language notes that not only provide an overview of the language presented in each unit but also give useful information. Unique features of the Student’s Book include: ■ the Conversation strategy lesson. Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . linked to the language of the unit Four Checkpoint lessons review the language taught in the previous three units. In addition. The Workbook provides: ■ thorough consolidation and practice of the vocabulary.org . and the Class Audio CDs. and include listening. There are two pages of activities to practice the grammar from Lessons A and B. and expressions viii Introduction: Course components © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. which involve students in figuring out how target structures are formed and used ■ Word sort tasks. a page of conversation strategy practice. Each unit consists of: ■ four two-page lessons (Lessons A. grammar. vocabulary. C. on the frequency of grammatical forms. and a page of writing practice.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Student’s Book There are 12 units in each Student’s Book. a Workbook. and listening activities to reinforce these important skills ■ a wide variety of activity types. which systematically covers vocabulary-building strategies to ensure effective learning ■ Figure it out tasks. which encourage students to take an active role in learning new vocabulary ■ information panels about differences between conversation and writing Workbook The Workbook is a natural extension of the Student’s Book. writing. and conversation strategies taught in the Student’s Book ■ extra reading. a Teacher’s Edition with Assessment Audio CD / CD-ROM for the quizzes and tests. step-by-step teaching notes for each page of the Student’s Book.

Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .org/viewpoint Introduction: Course components ix © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. • PDFs and Word documents of all the general. provides video conversations that accompany the Student’s Book. speaking. one for Units 7–12. Online Course The Online Course uses the same syllabus and learning outcomes as the Student’s Book. along with answer keys and scripts ■ audio scripts for all recorded material from the Student’s Book and Workbook ■ unit-by-unit language summaries that include the unit vocabulary and expressions ■ the Workbook answer key An Assessment Audio CD / CD-ROM bound into the Teacher’s Edition contains: • general. interactive way by conveniently bringing the following materials together in one place in front of the classroom: • Student’s Book • Video Activity Worksheets • Class Audio • Video Program • Workbook • Cambridge Dictionaries Online Video and Video Resource Book The Viewpoint video. and speaking quizzes for every unit. post blogs. interactive practice. Teachers can look at scores for the class and for each student. and scripts for the Viewpoint testing program Class  Audio Program The Class Audio CDs and downloadable recordings provide students with natural models for speaking and ­pronunciation as well as the opportunity to listen to a variety of voices and accents. available on DVD. engaging video clips.cambridge. The Class Audio CDs contain all the material for the presentation and listening activities.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. These can be used in class as extension activities. For more information about these components. All tests are available as both PDFs and Word documents. It offers original activities.org . write wikis. and writing tests – one test of each type for Units 1–6. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information ■ a wide variety of optional interactive classroom tasks geared to both small and large classes ■ a photocopiable testing package containing general.org/viewpoint/audio Presentation Plus Viewpoint Presentation Plus allows you to present the contents of Viewpoint in a more lively. The Video Resource Book offers video worksheets for each unit. and one for Units 1–12. which can be used to create a wide range of blended learning solutions – from 100 percent classroom learning to 100 percent online learning or anywhere in between.cambridge. see: www.cambridge. speaking. and writing quizzes (also available in the printed Teacher’s Edition) • audio recordings. Students complete the activities online and have their answers automatically marked. Online Workbook The Online Workbook provides the Workbook content as interactive activities. The grammar charts and the Lesson D reading texts are available as downloadable recordings from www. The material has been carefully adapted and extended to take students through a fully-supported learning program. answer keys. and leave spoken messages. writing. and opportunities for students to record their voice. The Online Course includes newly-created multimedia presentation and personalized.

Grammar extra Prepositions can be a word or a phrase. . It’s all for a good 3. store that is not ready may end up not making a profit . Many countries signed up to believed that only a few decades. there always has been. especially with regard to / in advance of desertification. a future perfect form of the verbs given. Lesson B – Grammar and listening and speaking Unit Amazing world Lesson B Desert landscapes 4 2 Grammar Combining ideas 2 Grammar Talking about the past in the future Figure A How does the professor express the ideas below in her lecture? Rewrite the sentences. view does each one take? What arguments does each one make? was something that had (see. Apparently.which whichmeans meansbybythe the has spread. There may be more than one word B Complete the sentences. any solutions. But then again. nests. You can use them instead of to that future point in time. there’s no doubt that the climate is changing. known as 5.) 5. It is unlikely that there is anyone who has not heard about the threat to certain species on the planet. That forces the wildlife out of their mimics the hairs on the gecko’s feet Julio True. but in any event. experiencing increasingly severe dust storms. such as . People using biomimicry in the past is hard to imagine. .write a persuasive essay. Number the pictures 1–4. Lesson A Animal behavior You can use future perfect forms for events that are in the past when you view them from the future. and it may only be a matter of time before we see the headline. • The prepositional expressions apart from. The tape sensitive areas. in part due to the fact that agricultural however. we need to do something. if possible. The loss of species extinction of species. . T / F How much can you remember? 1.000miles). University of Florida 3. besides. been pretty d. technology. generating some remarkable inventions. 9. cause. But what Complete the sentences. but there’s only one item at this price. the golden egg. which may not be in with most people’s is an animal that attacks and eats other animals. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Structure of the units in the Student’s Book All units contain the following basic structure. . more than they intended to. . each picture above. either. in any event. by 2030.  A is a place where most birds have their young. Repeat the example sentences. But what is mammals. the bald eagles (add) sticks to the nest for several years.  A may be a warning that we are destroying our planet simply be considered part of the normal evolutionary B Pair work Discuss each of the topics below about sports and athletics today. Then check for errors. Common errors 1 “Deserts are. hundreds of species disappear off the face Circle the correct expressions to complete the paragraph. This another another any other others some some some A Look at a model Read the introductions to two essays that answer the question above. There is competition for jobs. When some endangered species were first brought into captivity. Like. And. not to mention . or hunting question by restating it in your • high salaries that some athletes receive • use of technology to improve performance are places where these activities take place. As for smaller 1.When Whenit itarrives arrivesback back But in fact. Then rewrite each sentence using 3. the time our children reach adulthood. You adhesive. In any event ■ notable inventions 1. Unit 4. the parents 4. Which views do you agree with? you food supply of some ocean species. (Apart from) mammals mammalsstore store Instead. In Unit 4.” “I knew that penguins lay eggs. like the camel. (2 words) before the fishing industry collapses completely. will not / won’t have heard The government takes credit for having initiated a tree-planting program to halt desertification. thefemales females rich in plant life. deserts are home to .000 70. fish consumption continues to increase every year. even the Arctic. Death Valley has over 1. A Don’t you think it’s crazy to camp out all night until a store opens? Prepositions in academic writing. Groundhogs. which killed have could easily them. Not 2. because of It is classified as a desert owing to / in view of / on account of / given its lack of Complete the time expressions with by or within. we’ll need to do something soon. . established discipline among scientists. What factors contributed to the problem of overfishing? CD 2. it means there aren’t many left. not to mention that many fish are killed by pollution. Then replace the words in bold with synonyms. it has an impact on shellfish. The effects tourism will be so huge the world that we cannot imagine them. to add and focus on new ideas. Running shoes are (improve. solution to the problem of 6. widely) to enhance performance in the  If you plan something in secret. Animal AnimalBehavior Behavior InInorder order totosurvive survive After Aftermating. though. Overfishing decreases the fish population. .the thearctic arctictern tern (NOT If it will not have been attacked . Use a form of the future perfect of the verbs given. It will have flown 70. together with / along with larger ones. the offspring. and one that is variety of fish available. Complete the photo event will be in progress at a particular time By then. Here are some that circulate it up through their mud home. It is important to note that lessons should be taught in A.000 some of the most fascinating and diverse landscapes on having adapted to the environment. a dependable source of information or a notable authority on the natural world B Pair work Discuss the questions above. . but even then. They cover approximately one-third of the earth’s can go up to eight days without drinking. Giant pandas almost exclusively eat bamboo. 1. continually) and are far different from balance of nature. It suggests you are certain.  Breeding.build build Groundhog Groundhog return. the basic rubber-soled shoes of the 1950s. It is surprising that over a million people are recorded as settled there given B Yeah. moon. when they’re more mature. 9. be in the doghouse be a fish out of water get off your high horse have butterflies in your stomach encroach into neighborhoods and are shot. the verb has the same subject as the verb in the main clause. Environmental concerns. antifreezes in their bloodstream.500 kilometers 5. apart from the fact that it is one of the coldest places on earth. He noticed C Pair work Share what you learned about biomimicry using the -able words in Exercise A. are growing. thanks to. By the time stores close. and speaking Lesson C What’s more . can three-minute-mile barrier has (shatter. Sales are just a clever marketing tool. Or is it? Inspired by the expressions like these to add And then . by that time. In terms of our survival. expected was for a cuddly stuffed toy version to arrive in the mail. hibernation. The Gobi desert has spread because of farming practices that didn’t exist before . Which three slides CD 2. made in jobs and entertainment. About A Add an idea to each comment below. it is likely that of the century. or NG (Information not given). . B CD 2. By the end of this century. hibernation. other planets. It’s winter in Canada and too cold for the monarch 2. it’s In any case is more frequent. a 2. Then choose the correct words to complete the article. Having said that. 1. they may have Maria . If it has not been attacked . Add more ideas to risk of passing on infections. or people is called . When the doors may disappear within a short time is alarming. there are practices have changed from those in use prior to the 3 Listening The Antarctic reservesand reserves andthenthendig diga aburrow. the amount of trash that’s dumped in them. . but they can store their own water. process. In several years. 1. suffered severe injuries. a desert? Most people think of them as hot. Use strong responses and expressions like Just think . Then add the words from the box. (thanks to) foodbefore food before balances balancesthetheeggeggononhishisfeet. .06 Listen to a seminar discussion. Many desert areas are expanding because humans graze animals in semi-arid areas.where where there is more than one correct answer. based upon observations in nature. Also. 20 years ago. does the professor refer to? Number the slides 1–3.use the future perfect and future perfect continuous. What A Complete each sentence with a word in the box.use prepositional expressions like due to and far from. which mate / hatch B Word builder Here are some more idioms with animals. Complete the prepositional phrases. and by the time it 3 “One problem with deserts is that they expand and Antarctic. not interested and unconcerned an argument stronger think is the only possible one. species b. Part 2 and circle T (True) or F (False). but I didn’t know that they only lay single eggs. He created a the soles of footwear. you hatch loss of any species matters because it can upset the within the academic community and amongst for the whole year. can we as individuals do? In recent years. captions with these words: a. the time that sea levels rise 50 centimeters (about 20 inches). no. This convention proposed returning land to its original state (land rehabilitation) in About C Pair work Discuss the comments. migration. in recent years. Antarctica has been cold for over 30 million years. GECKO FEET For human beings. and the disappearance of one major problem and that one’s worst fears for the customers (wait) in line for several hours. Lesson A – Vocabulary. since) (arrive). (In addition to) many manysmallsmall Penguins Penguinsdon’tdon’tbuild buildnests. Then listen. any other necessary changes. naturally temperatures. . The Thelongest longest ofofemperor emperorpenguins penguins words with an expression from the lecture. . agree. By the time a penguin egg hatches. return. Population centers developed in several areas despite it is so inhospitable. In some. .07 Listen to more of the discussion. weather events like hurricanes. in the future. arctictern ternwill lifespan. c.” 6. one for general statements in Exercise A. the emperor male will have lost / will lose half his body weight. insects) do you find interesting? Lovable? Scary? Use the continuous form to suggest that an How long will it have been hibernating? Antarctica is a desert. who becomes vice president if elected. . Let us look at this subject in more detail. T / F survival (food and sleep) having young homes and groups Pair work Choose a creature that interests you. completely) so that species may have unknown consequences for earth will materialize. and to should they send their complaints? are simply encouraging the chicks to leave the nest and learn to fly. 2. despite.thethemale maleemperor emperor butterfly to feed and survive. The Antarctic is classified as a desert in view of the fact that it has low rainfall. Environmentalists are concerned that these farming practices have caused desertification.these thesemalemale finishes feeding. emigrate. 1. Sea life is also in danger. many species will have become extinct. animal” programs. a remarkable animal that has considerable intelligence chicks are fed by the parents to build up their fat reserves / habits and are taught to hunt so they can 2. of the planet.”. . it’s a company that tries to buy or take over other companies.use in any case to state conclusions or add information. 8. 1. agriculture. you would never have to clean your car. B. your chances are better if you finish college. brothers observed the flight of birds while building their termite mounds. Write the letters a–f. of the energy of similar buildings and shows that there is a nature that the presenter talks about to the real-world problems below. 3. more common prepositions to make your writing sound more formal. feed. Antarctica is a desert. discovery or a result of trial and error in a laboratory. arrives in Mexico. 2 The future perfect for predictions and assumptions In view of / Subsequent to the severity of the issue.ByBythe warm. you .) after One desert spread subsequent to / following the introduction of new farming practices. Use granted if your partner makes a answer the question in the task and they often hunt other birds. They often build their nests / burrows near water on of your view on keeping animals in captivity? C Complete the sentences with prepositions. 1. there are many small mammals that live in the desert.. in the mail or that are on TV. And on top of that. Don’t be deterred! But be careful. A Unscramble the underlined verb phrases. demand is increasing every year. Small mammals. By the time she is ready to give birth. Imagine how profitable that would be! Ulma there’s the issue of meltwater from the ice caps caused by rising A I’m not so sure it’s good to keep animals in zoos. 2 Strategy plus In any case. sandy places underground or by hunting only at night. benefits in terms of reducing hospital-acquired infections. like jellyfish that glow in the dark. attract intimidate . More than one form may be correct. the international community has been increasing without air conditioning. Lesson A Grammar extra Unit 4. Complete trips tripstotothe themoon. it will have flown (fly) more than 4. that I mind donating $50 for my child to adopt an orangutan or a Sumatran rhino. we scientists are working hard to and sea animals have probably wouldn’t be able to preserve some species. However. Practice with a partner. it out the grammar chart. you need to make sure you can afford the housing and tuition costs. There’s a lot of competition for jobs these days. 2. . largely thanks to creative. The estimate that 20 percent of animal species 2. What’s more. they don’t agree on No doubt you have reacted to the news that species such as polar bears are under threat. B Listen to extracts from a geography lecture about deserts. What inventions has nature inspired? 2 Focus on vocabulary Suffixes with -able or clearer. B Oh. Scientists hope to have a also prevented harmful bacteria from sticking to it. His building uses one-tenth A CD 2. The is at risk of dying out is a subject of great debate records in track are (achieve. by the before Delegates will meet ahead of / in advance of / prior to the conference.avoid errors with upon. 2. when it “desertification. and what’s more. Then underline the 7. B Listen. etc. finally). something you’ve learned about nature that previously was unimaginable to you What’s more. Communities in northern Chile no longer import water into the region thanks to they you can now collect water from fog. well. many rainfall. earth. or there won’t be any left to eat. and repeat.it itwillwillhave haveflown flownonon (2. Although some programs failed well might have. like the box jellyfish.05 Guess which sentences are true. such as for divorce. As a result of replicating the system in his building. and repeat. A It seems like global warming is still a controversial issue. miles). In any case. Then discuss the issues. adding the adverbs given. Give your opinion in your introduction and conclusion. In some. be a guinea pig beat a dead horse clam up have ants in your pants reports highlight how wild animals. 1. Maria Not to mention all the other industries that depend on it. In two months. which Groundhogs. • Prepositions can be followed by having + past participle to refer to events in a period of time up to the Rewrite the underlined parts of the blog using the future perfect. though. 1 Vocabulary in context will be complete before a certain time. there are a lot of deadly things in there. know. there are also deserts. arrives. burrow. as well as other areas where there is a high future. Use the documentary to help you. etc. Then read 1 Grammar in context it out 1. stores advertise deals. dumping waste where we get our food. 3 Strategies The human impact on nature noticed that sharkskin stuff of movies – unimaginable in real life. within a decade.the hatch. days.  To have examples of formal prepositions and circle examples of own words. Discuss the questions with a partner. A There are some amazing creatures in the ocean. The eagles sit on the nest to keep / store the eggs warm and also to prevent them being 1. there are a lot of poisonous creatures in the ocean. and they are nocturnal. (2 words) who or what’s responsible for it all? B Yeah. A Read and listen to the information above. A healthy environment is dependent how well people manage their resources. in terms of. you need to add the fact that. by the age of six. 4. Some desert plants survive for hundreds of years because of these kinds of adaptations.cambridge. Future perfect and future perfect continuous See page 150. believed that breeding endangered animals in captivity have not been expectations. and draw conclusions using in any case or Professor Brennan’s invention will have had demonstrable “Maybe in the future scientists will have developed a material that cleans itself. C. After mating at sea. birds. A Read and listen to the information above. throughout. 4. rely. you won’t necessarily find a job. . Match the examples from impact on our lives. . many Bald eagles are not actually bald. . much of the land is also at high elevation. Have the problems already been solved? Write Y (Yes) or N (No) on Maria Yeah. It is not true that deserts are unpopulated – they are home to almost one-sixth of the world’s thethewinter winter returning returningtotothe theocean. . 2. Use the simple form to suggest that an event How far will the tern have flown? If a preposition starts an -ing clause. apathetic. . information to make reach a conclusion that you A Prepare Look at the title of the article and the photos. Desertification is a huge problem prior to / with respect to loss of habitats and agricultural land. 2 They could easily have become extinct. 46 Unit 4: Amazing world Unit 4: Amazing world 47 48 Unit 4: Amazing world Unit 4: Amazing world 49 After Units 3. summer. The sharkskin material has had a clear effect on hospital infection rates. 3 Viewpoint A wildlife presentation 3. T / F Word C Copy the chart and write the bold words and collocations in the documentary. Guess the topic of the conversation. (2) by adding a tag question. 2. Antarctica is a desert. The four-minute barrier has (break. In addition. And many species *United States Geological Survey arrives. fish became much more affordable. Well.04 Listen to Part 1 of an exclusive interview with an expert on the Antarctic. the competition is probably more intense now than ever. 6565days. Use it after depend. How else could the ideas be applied to tables and bed rails. Then rewrite the verbs in bold using either 2. we’re a long way from fully exploring it. retailers need to be ready. A No one seems to agree on the causes of global warming. males malesininthe thecolony colonytotokeepkeep with USGS* definitions. an affordable way to experience nature “Well. so the demand was there. The architect came up with a practical plan for keeping buildings cool. Even so. By the time Black Friday breed colony grounds lays migration predator a lot of people had tried. breeding. (2 words) Julio Well. a desert is an area that has less 6. They can be followed by a noun phrase or an -ing form.000kilometers kilometers(almost (almost 2. 1. fish. For example. What’s your view? can sign up to help! 7. Antarctic. As a result of experiencing severe dust storms. So 44. Then listen. and speaking activities. Once Oncethetheeggs eggs hole. within 30 days. baby birds. People buy things just because they’re on sale. Crops can now be grown owing to farmers have developed irrigation systems. whales and dolphins can eat that stuff. A large number of inventions initially failed. check. . Circle the stressed word in each bold expression. all that pollution is changing the chemistry of the ocean. six months. Many animals burrow underground to avoid the harsh sun. Julio Well. the biggest issue seems to have been overfishing. you have heard about the “adopt an endangered have no rain. weight. simple present if not. weeks. By the end of the planned 70-year project. Sometimes you’ll use a word twice. I can’t think. there’s definitely evidence that the atmosphere is getting warmer. More people are working overtime. TERMITE MOUNDS A 3. China was faced with increasing areas of arid land equivalent equivalentofofthree threeround round 3.  In biology. .) land surface and stretch across all continents.000 plant species in spite of the fact that it has (approximately 2. As well as cold deserts. . a desert has less than 250 millimeters of rain per year. Take turns giving 4. winter. some of the most extreme conditions. temperature. add having. For example. many didn’t. a class or group of individuals that are related to one another contributed to the problem. thetime timethethefemales females than 250 millimeters (10 inches) of rain per year. you clean and that plants the ones they use. It makes sense for stores to offer big discounts. which are the most threatened species. Then listen to bybypredators. take up to 75 percent off. And who knows? By the end you Ulma And . The Wright N (No). in others. it is conjunction with / owing to programs of sustainable land management. the It’s a continuing process. . These gray whales are leaving their feeding grounds in the cooler north to breed where wherethey theyhibernate hibernateuntil untilspring.talk about the natural world. 1 More on the future perfect 1 Formal prepositional expressions It’s important to get a college degree.” 5. the sharkskin material is very Something like three-quarters of the world’s fish species temperatures are rising? And what’s more. Apart from the fact natural habitats. B Read for main ideas Read the article. I mean. . . A The world uses way too much oil. and by the end of the night. 5. Northern eagles migrate but return to the same breeding ground / young year after year their families. a number of technological and scientific advances will be faced with the difficult task have been completely exploited. D Write and check Write an essay to Common errors survive / migrate the winter months. it appears that much more still needs to be done. Instead. Scientists study Antarctica to see if there could be life on sort you want to learn. beneath. Use expressions like Apart from anything else. in any event Lesson D Biomimicry C React Pair work Look back at the article. fishing. Add others 2. and therefore our very existence. However. Task Write an essay. They dig / lay between one and three eggs. Antarctica is a desert although it is one of the coldest places on earth.”. Many of the inventions are not expensive to produce. people aren’t trying very hard to develop different energy sources. perhaps you have noticed the appeals for help that come B I suppose it’s hard to identify the causes. • The negative with won’t with this meaning is mostly used in speaking and informal writing. 6. new 1. By the time the doors open. within the next 20 years. Some have more than one correct answer. or the . animals have been to perform the nest. Some fish and animals survive in Antarctica thanks to Vocabulary 5. 3. and animal species. One might think that this is a prices by 50 percent.use academic prepositions and one. . warm. previously) as almost impossible. one-third of nesting beaches in the Caribbean lose.. and no doubt some customers (spend) happening beneath the surface. we need to prepare for higher temperatures. (on account of) next nextsummer. A Which creatures (animals. more than one expression can be used. like that flower. But amongst. B Do the statements above agree with the information in the article? Write Y (Yes). absolutely not! Just think: you can get some really great deals. In addition. Many people will not have seen the recent documentary about this. female leatherback turtles come ashore. Computers hibernate when they’re running but are not being used. which affects the each conversation. Far being neglectful. you have to be careful in some places when you go swimming. hibernation. Given / Alongside the problems that desertification causes. by the time they graduate from high school. . What new facts do you learn? See page 51. feeding. it’s important to educate people about tigers in addition to preserving their habitats. 18 people “By the time this penguin reaches the open sea. is to sell products made just for the sale. in view of. end of the century. Notice which words are stressed in these expressions that add information. like wetlands. 3.09 Find two appropriate conclusions for each conversation. . A relatively new field of research. Does this matter? other uses in general English or in idioms. Use the fact that if the subject changes. with a word from the article ending in -able that has a similar meaning. In fact. D. How else can we protect endangered  Someone that makes a lot of money for others is called the goose that It is a subject of debate within the academic community and amongst scientists. owing to. f. B Listen to these conversations.  From that word. pronunciation. or will be in danger of extinction. 3. Circle the stressed word in each bold expression. Most stores (prepare) for the sales for 1. This female elephant is heavily pregnant. one can equally shoppers (camp out) for more than 24 hours to get the best deals. biomimicry has become an Maria And on top of that. Some prepositions can be followed by the fact that + a clause. changing a to an if necessary. Deserts are not at all barren and can be . while weight. b. there’s 3. and prepare a presentation. Now my daughter wants the 5. . on account of their harsh living conditions for wildlife and started planting trees with the aim of halting will willhave havedropped droppedfrom from8080toto4 4 their theirbody bodyweight. there are lots of species we haven’t discovered yet. she B CD 2. can survive. not all are genuine. by the time (that) . Looking for an affordable transportation and construction. speaking. What’s more. 1. A specific type of animal is also called a . a fish. What’s more. What is your response to this treatment of animals? How go up several days without eating. (about) average average70. What is species. By the time spring arrives. attacked by predators / reserves such as squirrels. order. It’s only a matter of time B I suppose the controversy is about what’s causing the increase in temperatures. and mate / hibernate for life. I suspect what you haven’t realized is how expensive these “adoptions” are. Include an expression from Exercise 1C. but once the chicks have feathers. Look upon 4. Then practice. shared one tomato. Julio There’s a lot of debate about that.000 plant species even though it has some of the most extreme conditions. leaves leavesitsitsbreeding groundsinin breedinggrounds 1. to a large extent. but in any event. exploiting fish to the extent that they can’t replace themselves A Read the article again. The Atacama desert is considered the driest region by virtue of some parts A I agree. Teams of astronomers operate observatories in the desert due to its skies are so clear.03 Grammar extra . is A Yeah. T / F feed lay an egg notebook your presentations to the class.485 miles). due to. I think it’s good that people are getting married later. This impacts various species in different ways. About C Pair work Practice the conversations. Coral . it will be winter and many birds will have migrated south. • The future perfect has a passive form – will have been + past participle – but it is not very common. Learning tip Specialized vocabulary hibernate 1 Breaking records – an ongoing achievement you can to replace woo and deterred. and make Do not use the future perfect in if or time clauses. the parents stop feeding / breeding them and they may 3. one for general statements  A person can also into something. Prepositions See page 151. months. present or up to a point in the past. 8. someday people will have to consume less fish. In any event. it is believed that seawater temperatures rise enough to affect the in 1994. species? In terms of our survival. Make a class list. and is a powerful and dependable that it was up to 85 percent cleaner than smooth surfaces. though they’re making new discoveries all the time. Every EverySeptember. and inventors in areas from medicine and technology to fishing capacity. 4. 150 Grammar extra Speaking naturally 139 Grammar extra 151 x Introduction: Structure of the units in the Student’s Book © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. impacting the ocean.if ifit ithas hasnotnotbeenbeenattacked attacked the themales maleshead headtotothethe 6. alternative. . .” Take for example the Gobi desert. and it used it on cars. Clothing is much more  A presidential candidate chooses a running another to survive. And of course another problem is all the pollution that runs into the oceans. Circle the words that end in -able. Though we haven’t made it to the bottom. especially with by. have become extinct.  Animals that for life stay together forever. she shefeeds feedsandandspends spendsthethewinter. It means he or she investigates it. . if we didn’t have zoos. there aren’t enough candidates for some jobs. A What do you know about deserts? The largest hot desert in the world is the Sahara. What else do you learn about the climate there? ininitsitsdeep deepsleep. ocean. far from being a disaster. Sometimes kilometers. a huge trash pile in the middle of the Pacific that you can see from space.000 kilometers by the time it arrives back in the Arctic. he reduced energy 3 Listening and speaking The genius of the natural world in the not-too-distant future will have had a considerable Ulma What’s more. One of the most noteworthy inventions is a fabric that mimics a butterfly’s shiny wings. When they reach Mexican waters.  To means to dig into something and a can be the hole where an animal lives. a profitable product with measurable results that resulted from replicating nature 50 Unit 4: Amazing world Unit 4: Amazing world 51 72 Checkpoint 2: Units 4–6 Checkpoint 2: Units 4–6 73 At the back of the Student’s Book Speaking naturally – Grammar extra – Information and exercises Pronunciation and intonation to extend the grammar in Lessons A and B Speaking naturally Unit 3. On top of that. In any case. one in three product for space stations and .” You can use it to give opinions. within. all the fact that they feed mostly on fish. Studying nature has led human beings to some amazing scientific inventions. It’s crazy to camp out all night until a store opens. SHARKSKIN A viable alternative to using air-conditioning systems.g. one of the ways we impact nature is by building homes on it. . 2. • The future perfect describes events that at a future point will be in the past. Then replace the words in bold 3. . . it (eat) 40 pounds of bamboo and it end endofofitsitsthirty-year arctic thirty-yearlifespan. Projects that have emerged prior to / following the adoption of the convention include the mapping of desertification using satellite imagery together with / on account of a variety of educational programs. entire collection. they ByBythe thetime timethe thegroundhog groundhogis is eaten eatenfor for115 115daysdaysand andwill will 2 “Deserts are also commonly believed to be wastelands. They are certainly having an impact on my children. “The (take in) millions of dollars in revenue.  A bird. focus on preserving tiger habitats. governments give subsidies. Ulma And additionally. 3. tactic is to sell old goods. 3. Use In any egg is a sum of money you save for a special purpose. in spite of. In any case. in place of its valuable grasslands. Lesson C Stress in expressions of contrast Unit 4. the United Nations adopted a convention the end of this century.g. reduce a plan. but zoos have programs to help endangered species. this has not proved critical. 2. you . it’s impacting the ocean. .add ideas with expressions like what’s more and not to mention. .) months.” Despite the fact that it is extremely cold. Roger Bannister achieved a big milestone: he ran a mile in under four minutes. Death Valley in the United States has they will have planted more than 4.   Both animals and humans have to One might think this is a major problem and that one’s worst fears will materialize. Therefore.02 Listen and read the excerpts from a nature documentary. And no doubt donations have saved some obscure species from the brink of extinction. 6. Not to mention the fact that the supply of oil is decreasing pretty quickly. China has the interviewer’s notes. That is well over a third the next 30 years. Then complete the relative clauses. What I hadn’t 4.11 Listen again.  When eggs hatch (open). Writing order. The World Animal Foundation estimates that by 2025 When you learn vocabulary from a specific . T / F 42 Unit 4: Amazing world Unit 4: Amazing world 43 44 Unit 4: Amazing world Unit 4: Amazing world 45 Lesson C – Conversation strategies. (carry) the baby for over 22 months. spring. The Gobi desert has spread due to the fact that agricultural practices have changed. animals. apart from being one of the coldest places on earth. Speaking will undoubtedly have saved thousands of lives. 10. as well What’s more. Plants such as cacti not only have long roots. The claim that a large proportion of animal species burrow feed and raise hatch mate nest young numerous times and is now the normal time for most medium-distance runners. it’s irresponsible. Stores (advertise) their deals for days. 37 percent of terrestrial species die out an alternative expression from the chart above. vocabulary.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . sleep. some 4 Surviving it all Each organism depends upon another. are often used with the future perfect to show the time by which an event will be complete. But far from being barren. many have a hard time paying their bills. the active or passive form of the future perfect.it will have traveled more than 50 miles across the frozen ice. many are losing their habitats. which relies upon the complex interaction of plant the history of this planet. except for. say. have havebeenbeenhibernating hibernatingfor foralmost almost C Complete the sentences with information from the lecture. In fact. it will have been hibernating for six months. . months. . (Far from) Far from being unpopulated. useful. many have adapted by means of living population. September. 4. • What do you think about biomimicry as a science? 1 Conversation strategy Adding ideas CD 2. • use of performance-enhancing drugs • training children from an early age to compete and Let’s put it this way to make your point. among of animals can also survive in a desert climate by virtue of B Rewrite the sentences. There are complex systems the earth’s surface that people do not fully understand. costs by a measurable amount. C Focus on vocabulary Can you think of a thing or person for each expression? See Exercise 2A.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. concerns. I think you should attend the best college that accepts you. . Use When it arrives back. there is great concern in ininthe theNorthern NorthernHemisphere Hemispherethe the are covered with sand dunes. feet. The result was a material that can be used for hospital tray underwater applications in the near kids won’t have been on a hike or seen a forest. See page 139. 6. . currently). remains amazingly and focus on a new idea. They definitely know more now than. . Then replace the underlined The The habits habits C Pair work Take turns asking and answering questions about the facts in Exercise B. called biomimicry. Bald eagles don’t store / build up food or hibernate / breed. and given are often followed by the fact that. But even so. . apathy has In any event. China started planting trees. • Time expressions. I think humans do a lot to protect nature and wildlife. we get other words like immigrant.” fact that they can destroy other birds’ colonies / grounds. survive in harsh climates. the groundhog will be hibernating / will have been hibernating for . Lesson C Stress in adding expressions threatens the very survival of the whale itself.  In academic writing. (NOT When it will have arrived back .000 44. 3. Antarctica is different from everywhere else on the planet – sixsixmonths. Below is a typical unit. the tiger been have could wiped off easily the planet by poachers. They  It can also be a country that is governed by a more powerful country. c. Most people think of deserts as places because of photographs of the Sahara. Not to mention the ones that can kill you. penguin mating.ByBythe thetimetimespring spring the young. they have young. So designing a new building 7. e. providing significant insights and solutions for scientists that would stay cool even 8. e. What do you think biomimicry is? 1. Even the ordinary T-shirt has (redesign. Then rewrite them using one / one’s. still) today. means “to think about in a certain way. . 2. . . And in addition to cold deserts. plane. people now work two jobs in order to earn enough money to live on. According to USGS definitions. of animals are called their it removes sweat from an athlete’s body. I guess consumers got used to having a wide that the mounds termites build catch air at the base and b. In the last few years. If they created a boot that enables us all to climb buildings like lifecycle of fish. because of. leading to the decline in turtle populations. look upon . A Read the headline. Show you understand the  If you say someone or something is part of a dying . including. apathetic c. as one looks back on the 2. difficulty adhering to produce a “gecko tape” to use on D CD 2. the extinction of tigers prevented may been have well by innovative programs. should permitted. this has not proved critical. They (stock) their shelves with goods at low prices.  A is a group of birds or animals. In any case remarkable How ■■■■ B CD 2. there were critics. I’m sure that in 1. A You know what’s interesting to me? We really don’t know that much about the oceans. one may be surprised to find that Zimbabwean architect was 4. It’s here that they dig a Temperatures Lowest ever Summer Winter beats beatsper perminute minuteand anditsitsbody body plants. And then industry has been slow to respond to e. so large-scale B I know. sport. for something means to have reasons for it. In line with USGS definitions. But by the time they reach this centigrade Minus a afewfewdegrees degreesabove abovethe theoutside outside feedand feed andraise raise over 1. Figure A Circle the correct verb form in the sentences. • You can use the future perfect to state predictions or assumptions about the present or to say what you think has happened in the past. real-world problems? What other amazing things are in nature? What problems could they solve? B Pair work Discuss the ideas in Exercise A. walking up walls is the engineering professor C Notice how the students use Also.  When animals Question-based essays Then discuss the ideas with a partner. . the theArctic Arcticand andheads headssouth southtotothe the thanks to photographs of sand dunes in the Sahara desert. . a. hundreds of sharks will have been killed. Some. In conversation . Other after 35 days. Then write as many words as In this lesson. there’s rising sea levels. A Complete the passive verbs.a afemale penguinlays femaleemperor laysa asingle singleegg emperor eggbefore before B Complete these excerpts from the documentary. pattern that mimics the shark’s tiny scales.. When it comes to preventing harmful bacteria from sticking to it.the thegroundhog groundhogwill will ocean oceantotofeed. which are now out of date. 3. 5. But then again.They Theywon’t won’thave have also mountainous deserts. The gecko tape is not likely to be a feasible or money-making invention. . We do not always see what is however. . can people protest. 4. they (serve) millions of customers. for one thing . but even then. including the Sahara. Find out their meaning. However. the 5. “A lot of people won’t even have heard about it. News reports have detailed specific cases of wild animals attacking their trainers. a viable or workable alternative to fossil fuels good point that doesn’t change your opinion. Lesson D – Reading. A And on top of that. millions of tiny hairs on gecko feet. by then. • Some prepositional expressions are very frequent in academic writing. the divorce rate doesn’t seem to be going down. Repeat the example sentences. In any event. A camel can go up to eight days without drinking.10 Listen to a presentation about the applications of biomimicry. and certainly the programs have motivated many children to become involved. can monitor heart rate. the public has. prepositions + perfect forms No doubt you will have read about the melting ice caps. Then listen and check your answers.  The movement of birds. But in any event. Having said that. . predators. Technology has (use. Within the next 10 years. More than one expression is possible. as opposed to accidental of finding a workable 5. As well as larger animals like . . . that it affects the oceans with sea levels rising? reliable. —a look at some NATURE inspires SCIENCE 4. Find .” Spiderman. it B CD 2. In any case. C Rewrite each comment in two ways: (1) as a negative question. no one seems interested in finding a solution to the problem. apathy has contributed to the problem. And on top of that.the willhave haveflown the flownthe the upuptheir theirfatfat penguins penguinswill willhave havebeen been (forage) for 16 hours. .org . Lives have improved. In any case. in the warmer south.while theyoung. Lesson B Grammar extra Notice which words are stressed in these expressions introducing a contrasting view. It can emphasize the completion of the events. 11.  In business. and 12 Writing – Writing skills Vocabulary notebook – and grammar for writing Strategies for learning vocabulary Checkpoint – Review Writing Does it matter? Vocabulary notebook Golden eggs Checkpoint 2 Units 4–6 3 That’s the business! Stores use smart tactics to woo customers. . But don’t scientists all agree that multitude of achievements. Deserts are believed to be wastelands because they have harsh living conditions. . There may be some variety from unit to unit in the exact position of vocabulary. or an insect an egg. which is all very well – except there are more than 100 endangered species that she 6. . government money used to help projects that are beneficial to the public In any case. Which facts did you know? Which didn’t you know? Tell a partner. it will have flown 70. which the convention on account of / together with the economic problems that desertification was causing. (NOT. the reproductive cycle of the sperm whale affect. Apart from it is so dry.000 kilometers encroach on arable land. argue that species have become extinct throughout GPS watches.” 7. or insects come out. There is one extra slide. a desert is an area that . for lack of a better description. Some bald eagle nests weigh more than a ton. . they (lay) 80 or more eggs. I wonder how the leopard and rhino. B Yeah. Further advances in sports technology are (make. Write the missing expressions. significant In 1954. easy-to-carry and small devices. about There is concern with respect to / with regard to / regarding / in relation to In the time it takes you to do this lesson. grammar. fishing operations took over. overfishing a. above. Agricultural practices were criticized as having been partly responsible for the growth of deserts. etc. as many as one-fifth of all animal species may well area such as animal behavior. deserts are often very desertification. find out if it has Animals hibernate or sleep in the winter. We’re running out of oil. But in any event.800 miles) of trees. Their presence in an area can be unwelcome to the Do not overuse upon. On top of that. 2. At the end of the day. with Talks will take place in conjunction with / alongside an exhibition on deserts. or in a time leading up Having said that. protecting protectingthe theeggs eggsfor for 1950s.. it is a protected 12.” not “look at. So it starts its journey south. 9. A Canadian development team can be credited for helped to develop this system. About C Group work Look back at the examples in the lesson. performance. check. Using nature to solve design problems is not new. Replace the underlined ideas with the expressions given. I think it’s great that people have a shorter workweek than they used to. as a result of A CD 2. 2.08 You can use You can also use in any case 1 Reading • Which of the inventions in the article do you think is most exciting? Most valuable? Why? • What other applications can you think of for the sharkskin material? How about for the gecko tape? in any case to add more or in any event when you A Match words from a conversation with definitions. . (The migration is complete. Many animals can in a desert climate through their adaptation to the environment. only about 10 percent of the world’s deserts 4. And big commercial fleets are inspiration in African much more efficient at finding fish as well. . . I think in many ways we’ve forgotten how to live with nature. Additionally. In other cases. Some prepositions and prepositional expressions can make your writing sound more formal.. . too. listening. Each organism depends upon scientists in particular.” temperature. B You’re right. case to make your argument stronger and In any event to reach your final conclusion. in degrees temperature temperaturewill willhave havefallen fallentotoonly only hatch. One / one’s can refer to ”people in general” or “you / your. subsidies d. . The parents initially hatch / raise the young in 2.  You can also use the expression the another. The earth maintains a delicate balance. he found his A Actually. On one of the expert’s visits to Antarctica.itsitsheartbeat heartbeat have havelost lostnearly nearlyhalf halfofof (swim) 160 kilometers (about 100 miles) a day for 8 to 10 weeks. listening. B Focus on language Read the chart. not to mention extreme addition to sending donations to various charities. One study estimated that 2050. upon. In line they theygogointo into huddling huddlingtogether togetherwithwithother other many parts of the world about this process. Once out of their nests. 1. page 49. though “Black Friday” is the start of the holiday shopping season. from being the national symbol of the United States. and are now a necessary part of tracking a runner’s to mean all young people. We should do everything our power to protect these species. 2 More on the fact that. and pronunciation listening. or babies. by virtue of. it is so arid. however.

but I didn’t know that they only lay single eggs. 65 days. . 1. however. returning to the ocean. it will have flown on (2. grammar.use in any case to state conclusions or add information. if it has not been attacked the males head to the by predators. she by predators. When it arrives back food before balances the egg on his feet. Use the continuous form to suggest that an How long will it have been hibernating? ■ offer opportunities to apply the structure in expressing their own thoughts event will be in progress at a particular time in the future. will have dropped from 80 to 4 their body weight. and prepare a presentation. and class discussions on questions and issues Pair work Choose a creature that interests you. .485 miles). for everyday communication many small Penguins don’t build nests. By the time the females words and / or expressions 44. b. 65 days. it will have flown on average 70. these male end of its thirty-year lifespan. Groundhogs. female leatherback turtles come ashore. If it has not been attacked .” 42 Unit 4: Amazing world Grammar charts ■ provide a clear presentation of new structures with straightforward examples to make the grammar easy to assimilate 2 Grammar Talking about the past in the future Common errors Figure it out A Circle the correct verb form in the sentences. Use the simple form to suggest that an event How far will the tern have flown? will be complete before a certain time. and class discussions and tasks on questions and average 70. males in the colony to keep warm. ■ includes pair. the females hole. “I knew that penguins lay eggs. if it has not been attacked the young. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Features of the units in the Student’s Book Lesson A Lessons A and B present the main grammar points of the unit. Take turns giving derived from the reading your presentations to the class. It’s here that they dig a the unit beats per minute and its body temperature will have fallen to only Once the eggs hatch. Complete the photo captions with these words: a. But by the time they reach this a few degrees above the outside feed and raise ■ includes expressions that would be useful for the discussion in an In temperature. while ■ helps students organize new vocabulary in arrives. interviews. It will have flown 70. the groundhog will have been hibernating for almost ocean to feed. Each lesson contains useful vocabulary. When it arrives back food before balances the egg on his feet. Use Do not use the future perfect in if or time clauses. By the time spring feed and raise the young. By then.000 miles). the arctic tern will have flown the equivalent of three round up their fat reserves and then dig a burrow.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . the male emperor butterfly to feed and survive.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. and by the end of the night. the arctic tern (NOT If it will not have been attacked . It’s winter in Canada and too cold for the monarch Viewpoint the Arctic and heads south to the mammals store Instead. Common errors and experiences and to exchange their own personal information Animal Behavior In order After mating. of emperor penguins the Touchstone series. Sometimes kilometers. you . . when it finishes feeding. they (lay) 80 or more eggs.000 miles). What new facts do you learn? “By the time this penguin reaches the open sea.org . In Unit 4. These gray whales are leaving their feeding grounds in the cooler north to breed where they hibernate until spring.use the future perfect and future perfect continuous. . it will have been hibernating for six months. it will have flown 70. articles. teachers are directed to a Speaking naturally pronunciation task at the back of the book. ■ in the Northern Hemisphere the they go into huddling together with other next summer. the groundhog will be hibernating / will have been hibernating for six months. the up their fat penguins will have been arctic tern will have flown the reserves and then dig a burrow.000 kilometers (almost 44.000 to survive penguin lays a single egg before a future perfect form of the verbs given. and strategies that are taught in Lessons A–C . By the time spring arrives. After mating at sea. This female elephant is heavily pregnant. Grammar exercises You can use future perfect forms for events that are in the past when you view them from the future.) months. So it starts its journey south. it (eat) 40 pounds of bamboo and it issues that flow out of the lesson topics and issues raised end of its thirty-year lifespan. When it arrives back. the winter returning to the ocean. (NOT When it will have arrived back . it will have flown (fly) more than 4. build Groundhog return.000 kilometers by the time it arrives ■ give students both controlled and freer practice with the new structure back in the Arctic. gives opportunities for students to use the The longest of emperor penguins ■ Word C Copy the chart and write the bold words and collocations in the documentary. Use the documentary to help you. 6.) The longest How much can you remember? 3 Viewpoint A wildlife presentation ■ includes pair. ■ provides information from the Learner Corpus about key errors to avoid 2. By the time a penguin egg hatches.” ■ provides an opportunity for students to use the language presented in Unit 4: Amazing world 43 the unit as well as showing expressions useful for the discussion in an In conversation information panel Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book xi © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. When they reach Mexican waters. conversation information panel (These expressions are recycled from (carry) the baby for over 22 months. and by the time it Antarctic. They won’t have provides an opportunity for students to use the language presented in trips to the moon. the arctic tern leaves its breeding grounds in the winter months. The habits meaningful ways to help the learning process six months.it will have traveled more than 50 miles across the frozen ice. . podcasts. Some bald eagle nests weigh more than a ton. hibernation. protecting the eggs for equivalent of three round where they hibernate until spring. breeding. its heartbeat have lost nearly half of (swim) 160 kilometers (about 100 miles) a day for 8 to 10 weeks. Unit aims Unit Amazing world 4 ■ show the key topics and functional areas. . questionnaires Animal Behavior In order to survive After mating. Giant pandas almost exclusively eat bamboo. 4. 3. a female emperor ■ focuses on the most frequent and useful language penguin lays a single egg before Every September. where there is more than one correct answer.) Every September. where she feeds and spends the winter. group. Then read the grammar chart. which means by the hibernation. arrives in Mexico. Grammar in context / Vocabulary in context Lesson A Animal behavior 1 Vocabulary in context ■ presents new grammar in natural contexts such A Which creatures (animals. Once the eggs Word sort temperature will have fallen to only hatch. formal discussions. the groundhog will ocean to feed. B CD 2. . Groundhogs. By the time spring arrives. a female emperor B Complete these excerpts from the documentary.02 Listen and read the excerpts from a nature documentary. . the emperor male will have lost / will lose half his body weight. . By the time the groundhog is eaten for 115 days and will in its deep sleep. which means by the however. group. these male 2. They won’t have trips to the moon. and one of the two lessons also teaches the main target vocabulary of the unit. 1. Which facts did you know? Which didn’t you know? Tell a partner.000 kilometers (almost hibernation.talk about the natural world. in the warmer south. leaves its breeding grounds in many small Penguins don’t build nests. build Groundhog males in the colony to keep warm. Sometimes these lessons end with a Viewpoint group discussion or a Listening task. Add others sort you want to learn. C Pair work Take turns asking and answering questions about the facts in Exercise B. By the time the females return. c. the bald eagles (add) sticks to the nest for several years. new vocabulary immediately in personalized interactions with classmates survival (food and sleep) having young homes and groups Vocabulary feed lay an egg notebook See page 51. In some lessons.add ideas with expressions like what’s more and not to mention. . birds. insects) do you find interesting? Lovable? Scary? as conversations. Vocabulary in context sections also include target the Arctic and heads south to the mammals store Instead. the male emperor Antarctic. Grammar extra Future perfect and future perfect continuous See page 150. penguins will have been protecting the eggs for (forage) for 16 hours. she feeds and spends the winter. the females a few degrees above the outside temperature. while the males head to the weight. At the end of the day. its heartbeat have lost nearly half of will have dropped from 80 to 4 beats per minute and its body their body weight.use prepositional expressions like due to and far from. . By the time she is ready to give birth. migration.cambridge. . they By the time the groundhog is eaten for 115 days and will ■ in its deep sleep. have been hibernating for almost The habits six months. 5.000 kilometers in the Northern Hemisphere the they go into huddling together with other next summer.

There is one extra slide. The largest hot desert in the world is the Sahara. It is not true that deserts are unpopulated – they are home to almost one-sixth of the world’s ■ includes a task that assesses students’ population. (thanks to) 5. T / F 2. As well as larger animals like . experiencing increasingly severe dust storms. 2. Antarctica has been cold for over 30 million years. According to USGS definitions. Then listen to Part 2 and circle T (True) or F (False). but they can store their own water. Then replace the underlined words with an expression from the lecture. 1. there are 1950s.03 does the professor refer to? Number the slides 1–3.” some of the most extreme conditions.000 plant species in spite of the fact that it has (approximately 2. As a result of experiencing severe dust storms. Many desert areas are expanding because humans graze animals in semi-arid areas. Prepositions can be a word or a phrase. . like the camel. Complete the interviewer’s notes. Some. only about 10 percent of the world’s deserts encroach on arable land. thanks to photographs of sand dunes in the Sahara desert.org . So has spread. In some. 5. Grammar in context / Vocabulary in context B Listen to extracts from a geography lecture about deserts. more than one expression can be used.000 plant species even though it has some of the most extreme conditions. formal discussions. ■ presents expository information on a topic of B Rewrite the sentences. Deserts are not at all barren and can be . (Apart from) 4. China has on account of their harsh living conditions for wildlife and started planting trees with the aim of halting plants. And many species *United States Geological Survey C Complete the sentences with information from the lecture. 1. Antarctica is a desert although it is one of the coldest places on earth. Use the fact that if the subject changes. But far from being barren. In fact. China was faced with increasing areas of arid land also mountainous deserts. 3 “One problem with deserts is that they expand and But in fact. (In addition to) comprehension of the gist of the information 3. 4. By the end of the planned 70-year project. As for smaller land surface and stretch across all continents. which than 250 millimeters (10 inches) of rain per year. If a preposition starts an -ing clause. What else do you learn about the climate there? Temperatures Lowest ever Summer Winter in degrees centigrade Minus B CD 2. T / F 3.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . the verb has the same subject as the verb in the main clause. (about) details 3 Listening The Antarctic A CD 2. there is great concern in are covered with sand dunes. 2. ■ presents new grammar in natural contexts such as conversations. Many animals can in a desert climate through their adaptation to the environment. China started planting trees. apart from the fact that it is one of the coldest places on earth. Which three slides CD 2. podcasts.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Lesson B Lesson B Desert landscapes 1 Grammar in context A What do you know about deserts? Make a class list. Listening Some prepositions can be followed by the fact that + a clause. many have adapted by means of living a desert? Most people think of them as hot. ■ challenges students to use their inductive skills Grammar extra Prepositions before the grammar chart is presented See page 151.”. Environmentalists are concerned that these farming practices have caused desertification. On one of the expert’s visits to Antarctica.”. 7. Most people think of deserts as places because of photographs of the Sahara. articles. Replace the underlined ideas with the expressions given.500 kilometers over 1. 1. in place of its valuable grasslands.05 Guess which sentences are true. A camel can go up to eight days without drinking. apart from being one of the coldest practices have changed from those in use prior to the places on earth. new structure 1. Many animals burrow underground to avoid the harsh sun. . The Gobi desert has spread due to the fact that agricultural practices have changed. And. Some fish and animals survive in Antarctica thanks to antifreezes in their bloodstream. Some desert plants survive for hundreds of years because of these kinds of adaptations. They can be followed by a noun phrase or an -ing form. deserts are often very desertification. for lack of a better description. 2. 3. T / F 5.04 Listen to Part 1 of an exclusive interview with an expert on the Antarctic. a desert has less than 250 millimeters of rain per year. earth. They cover approximately one-third of the earth’s can go up to eight days without drinking. Plants such as cacti not only have long roots. But what is mammals. . as a result of 2 “Deserts are also commonly believed to be wastelands. among of animals can also survive in a desert climate by virtue of some of the most fascinating and diverse landscapes on having adapted to the environment. T / F 4. . in part due to the fact that agricultural Antarctica is a desert. Death Valley in the United States has they will have planted more than 4. a desert is an area that has less “desertification. 44 Unit 4: Amazing world Figure it out 2 Grammar Combining ideas ■ helps students notice the forms and / or uses of the Figure it out A How does the professor express the ideas below in her lecture? Rewrite the sentences. interviews. Deserts are believed to be wastelands because they have harsh living conditions. In line with USGS definitions. The Gobi desert has spread because of farming practices that didn’t exist before . rich in plant life. known as with USGS* definitions. In line many parts of the world about this process. 3.cambridge. Some have more than one correct answer. questionnaires ■ focuses on the most frequent and useful language for everyday communication 1 “Deserts are. including the Sahara. there are many small mammals that live in the desert.800 miles) of trees. a desert is an area that . 18 people shared one tomato. and make interest any other necessary changes. 6. As well as cold deserts. Scientists study Antarctica to see if there could be life on other planets. . deserts are home to .” Take for example the Gobi desert. there are also deserts. (on account of) ■ encourages students to listen again for specific 6. sandy places underground or by hunting only at night. . Antarctica is different from everywhere else on the planet – even the Arctic. (Far from) Far from being unpopulated. and they are nocturnal. Antarctica is a desert. T / F Unit 4: Amazing world 45 xii Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. Death Valley has over 1. And in addition to cold deserts.

See page 139. It’s only a matter of time conversations in the Corpus. and focus on a new idea. we’re a long way from fully exploring it. In any case. .07 Listen to more of the discussion. Like. showing fishing operations took over. and draw conclusions using in any case or in any event. That forces the wildlife out of their natural habitats. real-life language f. B I know. there are a lot of poisonous creatures in the ocean. . And big commercial fleets are much more efficient at finding fish as well. use the strategy in controlled.org . there’s no doubt that the climate is changing. expressions like these to add And then .cambridge. c. What factors contributed to the problem of overfishing? Julio Well. where the teaching point from Lesson C is integrated with and uses the expressions taught in the lesson. ■ provides an opportunity to use conversation strategies to discuss real. A It seems like global warming is still a controversial issue. A Yeah.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .09 Write the letters a–f. 46 Unit 4: Amazing world Strategy plus 2 Strategy plus In any case. to a large extent. . . . and / or a vocabulary warmup activity. ■ Next. In any case is more frequent. . A There are some amazing creatures in the ocean. . . so large-scale expressions for drawing conclusions. Include an expression from Exercise 1C.06 Listen to a seminar discussion. . . listen and understand the content of the D CD 2. And additionally. it has an impact on shellfish. sometimes in contrast to its use in writing B Yeah. and much more Maria And on top of that. . . What’s more. Then listen and check your answers. In any case. ■ offers an exciting syllabus of strategies drawn from Something like three-quarters of the world’s fish species have been completely exploited. Maria lifecycle of fish. And on top of that. Julio True. Then practice. This section provides a four-step presentation and Ulma What’s more. In conversation 1. that it affects the oceans with sea levels rising? ■ often includes information panels about the use or frequency of the B I suppose the controversy is about what’s causing the increase in temperatures. which affects the . 3 Strategies The human impact on nature About A Add an idea to each comment below. 2. the international community has been increasing say. the public has. overfishing a. On top of that. the ones they use. like jellyfish that glow in the dark. . . Speaking naturally Unit 4: Amazing world 47 ■ In some units. e. dumping waste where we get our food. in any event ■ teaches conversation management expressions chosen for their relevance and frequency such as No wonder. It always includes common expressions that are useful in conversation. Julio There’s a lot of debate about that. I think humans do a lot to protect nature and wildlife. 3. You know. and You know what? information to make an argument stronger reach a conclusion that you think is the only possible one. it’s impacting the ocean. Additionally. In any event. apathy has contributed to the problem. or clearer. for one thing . ■ Then. so the demand was there. In conversation . . But don’t scientists all agree that temperatures are rising? And what’s more. . covering techniques Maria before the fishing industry collapses completely. I guess consumers got used to having a wide variety of fish available. . In any event. Add more ideas to learning each conversation. one in three ■ signals a personalized practice task that allows students to apply their kids won’t have been on a hike or seen a forest. . Also. They definitely know more now than. The final section is a speaking or a listening and speaking activity that practices again and reinforces the conversational language and strategies of the earlier sections. In any case ■■■■ In any event ■ Find two appropriate conclusions for each conversation. In any case. whales and dolphins can eat that stuff. Guess the topic of the conversation. more examples in the conversation. but in any event. 3. Find . no. . apathy has contributed to the problem. . the biggest issue seems to have been overfishing. 1 Conversation strategy Adding ideas A Match words from a conversation with definitions. The grammar in this lesson is always recycled and is thus grammar that students already know. . . there are a lot of deadly things in there. strong agreement. A You know what’s interesting to me? We really don’t know that much about the oceans. 20 years ago. group. Not to mention the ones that can kill you. Well. And of course another problem is all the pollution that runs into the oceans. a class or group of individuals that are related to one another conversations more effectively in English B CD 2. About you 3. ■ provides practice with expressions or skills from Conversation strategy b. the amount of trash that’s dumped in them. A I’m not so sure it’s good to keep animals in zoos.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy.08 You can use in any case to add more You can also use in any case or in any event when you I have to say . then freer. . For example. one of the ways we impact nature is by building homes on sensitive areas. life situations with a partner. . Ulma fishing capacity. though they’re making new discoveries all the time. c. there’s definitely evidence that the atmosphere is getting warmer. In addition. all that pollution is changing the chemistry of the ocean. CD 2. But in any event. B Pair work Discuss the ideas in Exercise A. structure in conversation. Apparently. using rhetorical questions to make a point. there’s a huge trash pile in the middle of the Pacific that you can see from space. not to mention . Speaking naturally B Yeah. been pretty apathetic. like wetlands. ■ extends and reinforces the material presented in Conversation strategy In any case. . Maria Yeah. notice the strategy (presentation) and find Ulma And . . Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Lesson C Lesson C teaches conversation management strategies in the Conversation strategy and Strategy plus sections. . you have to be careful in some places when you go swimming. I think in many ways we’ve forgotten how to live with nature. . subsidies d. conversation. but zoos have programs to help endangered species. exploiting fish to the extent that they can’t replace themselves government money used to help projects that are beneficial to the public ■ teaches students techniques for managing 4. . . Practice with a partner. do schema building. . as well What’s more. say. Strategies a. well. Conversation strategy 1. . . CD 2. Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book xiii © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. like the box jellyfish. ■ First. preparation. it’s irresponsible. there are lots of species we haven’t discovered yet. and Strategy plus within conversations and extracts that are all based on d. . C Notice how the students use Also. Lesson C What’s more . teachers are directed to a Speaking naturally section at the back of the book. A Actually. I think so. or whole class you 1. 2. . species apathetic b. not interested and unconcerned 2. there’s the issue of meltwater from the ice caps caused by rising interactive and personalized practice. governments give subsidies. Not to mention all the other industries that depend on it. ■ Finally. Coral . . it’s impacting the ocean. In any event. I can’t think. fish became much more affordable. . . . Though we haven’t made it to the bottom. . if we didn’t have zoos. Write the missing expressions. by the time they graduate from high school. . So such as checking understanding of what people Julio who or what’s responsible for it all? Well. Ulma temperatures. we probably wouldn’t be able to preserve some species. And then industry has been slow to respond to practice where students: concerns. But in any event.

If they used it on cars. costs by a measurable amount. Lesson D Biomimicry 1 Reading A Prepare Look at the title of the article and the photos. (2 words) opposites. And who knows? By the end Read for topic. avoid repetition.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . The tape taking examinations that test reading (Check your pattern that mimics the shark’s tiny scales. 3 Listening and speaking The genius of the natural world Listening and speaking A CD 2. adhesive. SHARKSKIN A University of Florida viable alternative to using air-conditioning systems. reliable. Here are some that circulate it up through their mud home. 8. as one looks back on the 2. one may be surprised to find that Zimbabwean architect was a number of technological and scientific advances will be faced with the difficult task ■ offers high-interest texts based on newspapers. When it comes to preventing harmful bacteria from sticking to it. He created a produce a “gecko tape” to use on the soles of footwear. The gecko tape is not likely to be a feasible or money-making invention. Or is it? Inspired by the develop the skills higher-level learners will need for academic or professional purposes and for remains amazingly millions of tiny hairs on gecko feet.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. collocations and idiomatic expressions. in recent years. he found his language and provide interesting content for Using nature to solve design problems is not new. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Lesson D Lesson D focuses on reading skills while also providing additional listening and speaking activities. He noticed discussion plane.org . GECKO FEET For human beings. What inventions has nature inspired? ■ provides comprehensive reading-skills —a look at some development. C Pair work Share what you learned about biomimicry using the -able words in Exercise A.11 Listen again. walking up walls is the ■ includes a variety of post-reading tasks that engineering professor noticed that sharkskin stuff of movies – unimaginable in real life. 3. His building uses one-tenth of the energy of similar buildings and shows that there is a students can listen to as they read 1. What do you think biomimicry is? Reading B Read for main ideas Read the article. However. As a result of ■ is supported by a recording of the reading text that replicating the system in his building. Apart from the fact that it was up to 85 percent cleaner than smooth surfaces. Circle the words that end in -able. Looking for an affordable alternative. based upon observations in nature. Studying nature has led human beings to some amazing scientific inventions. and much more B Do the statements above agree with the information in the article? Write Y (Yes). The Wright brothers observed the flight of birds while building their inspiration in African termite mounds. (2 words) Many of the inventions are not expensive to produce. repertoire of vocabulary knowledge for reading 3. such as using context to guess 5. 9. he reduced energy in the not-too-distant future will have had a considerable impact on our lives. ■ covers these important complementary skills in the same section ■ recycles the key grammar and vocabulary taught in the lesson ■ presents conversations and extracts that are all based B CD 2. it mimics the hairs on the gecko’s feet and is a powerful and dependable understanding. In several years. • What do you think about biomimicry as a science? • Which of the inventions in the article do you think is most exciting? Most valuable? Why? • What other applications can you think of for the sharkskin material? How about for the gecko tape? Focus on vocabulary 2 Focus on vocabulary Suffixes with -able A Read the article again.cambridge. is providing significant insights and solutions for scientists that would stay cool even and inventors in areas from medicine and technology to without air conditioning. Read for evidence. Discuss the questions with a partner. or NG (Information not given).” “listen and predict. 4. and so forth. use of synonyms and 6. word formation. N (No). transportation and construction. Most units include a Reading tip that helps students become more familiar with conventions of formal writing by providing useful information about techniques writers use to structure texts. 2. Information flow. and it created a boot that enables us all to climb buildings like Spiderman. including pre-reading (Prepare) and How NATURE inspires SCIENCE notable inventions By the end of this century. The architect came up with a practical plan for keeping buildings cool. One of the most noteworthy inventions is a fabric that mimics a butterfly’s shiny wings. Have the problems already been solved? Write Y (Yes) or N (No) on each picture above. 7. A large number of inventions initially failed. solution to the problem of designing a new building websites. Scientists hope to have a product for space stations and viewpoints. on real-life language About C Group work Look back at the examples in the lesson. developing reading skills 48 Unit 4: Amazing world C React Pair work Look back at the article. and one that is generating some remarkable inventions. Match the examples from nature that the presenter talks about to the real-world problems below. Number the pictures 1–4. Read for style) multitude of achievements. magazines. (2 words) meaning. Read for detail. as well as other areas where there is a high risk of passing on infections. called biomimicry. People using biomimicry in the past is hard to imagine. clean and that plants scientists are working hard to and sea animals have difficulty adhering to it.” to react or respond: Tasks include “listen and choose a good response. The result was a material that can be used for hospital tray tables and bed rails.10 Listen to a presentation about the applications of biomimicry. biomimicry has become an that the mounds termites build catch air at the base and established discipline among scientists. How else could the ideas be applied to you real-world problems? What other amazing things are in nature? What problems could they solve? ■ mirrors real communication by teaching students “Maybe in the future scientists will have developed a material that cleans itself. and books as well as exclusive interviews that recycle and consolidate A relatively new field of research. remarkable the reading text to help students acquire a wider 1. Then replace the words in bold ■ provides a variety of vocabulary tasks based on with a word from the article ending in -able that has a similar meaning. The sharkskin material has had a clear effect on hospital infection rates. you would never have to clean your car. the sharkskin material is very and writing. Understanding also prevented harmful bacteria from sticking to it.” and “listen and decide if you agree” Unit 4: Amazing world 49 xiv Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. as opposed to accidental of finding a workable discovery or a result of trial and error in a laboratory. like that flower. React) of the century. they may have Professor Brennan’s invention will have had demonstrable benefits in terms of reducing hospital-acquired infections. create interest. it is likely that underwater applications in the near future. Imagine how profitable that would be! ■ may include a Reading tip with extra support for will undoubtedly have saved thousands of lives. TERMITE MOUNDS A “as you read” (Read for main ideas.

. expressions (conjunctions and adverbs) for contrasting or adding ideas within and across sentences.. this has not proved critical. organizing. agree.use academic prepositions and one. We should do everything There are complex systems our power to protect these species. far from being a disaster. means “to think about in a certain way. the world that we cannot imagine them. and animal species. one for general statements ■ illustrates the writing point and grammar structures of the Some prepositions and prepositional expressions can make your writing sound more formal. Then check for errors. short articles. However. Then underline the question by restating it in your examples of formal prepositions and circle examples of own words. more academically focused paragraphs and essays that 2. 5. and the disappearance of one species may have unknown consequences for major problem and that one’s worst fears for the earth will materialize. The claim that a large proportion of animal species may disappear within a short time is alarming. look upon . one can equally ■ introduces the writing task that students are about to do. which are The effects tourism will be so huge the most threatened species. narratives. process.avoid errors with upon. Students are guided through the writing process with tasks requiring brainstorming. A model text is provided that exemplifies the various teaching points as well as a grammar chart that presents a “grammar for writing” structure. 3. have become extinct. I wonder how the leopard and rhino. It is a subject of debate within the academic community and amongst scientists. an which relies upon the complex interaction of plant the history of this planet.g. In terms of our survival. students might have to write in examinations 4. What writing task view does each one take? What arguments does each one make? 1. text-organization point. this has not proved critical. . e. The earth maintains a delicate balance. and using relative clauses to present key information within a paragraph ■ often includes panels with information about the differences in use of language items in written and spoken English Write and check ■ assigns the writing task previewed at the beginning of the lesson. . the article. planning an argument. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Writing The one-page Writing lesson teaches and develops formal writing skills such as describing charts and graphs. Look at a model Prepositions in academic writing. you . drafting.” You can use it to give opinions. Therefore.cambridge. .” Let us look at this subject in more detail. . and error to avoid that . upon. rely. reports. . The World Animal Foundation estimates that by 2025 as many as one-fifth of all animal species may well grammar for writing structure. . and structuring paragraphs and essays.) 50 Unit 4: Amazing world Focus on language ■ presents a grammar point geared specifically to writing such as verb tenses for narrative writing.org . throughout. Use it after depend. beneath.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . We do not always see what is however. The estimate that 20 percent of animal species 2. writing different types of essay (persuasive. while the accompanying Common errors panel alerts students to an error that is often made by learners using the grammar point Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book xv © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. The loss of species may be a warning that we are destroying our planet extinction of species. In this lesson. Give your opinion in one for general statements in Exercise A. can simply be considered part of the normal evolutionary to be answered and therefore our very existence.. . ■ introduces the key writing skill. writing task they will undertake at the end of the lesson One / one’s can refer to ”people in general” or “you / your. as well as C Complete the sentences with prepositions. In terms of our survival. One might think this is a major problem and that one’s worst fears will materialize. . can survive. ■ includes real-world writing tasks such as email requests. etc. . . One might think that this is a another to survive.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. The is at risk of dying out is a subject of great debate loss of any species matters because it can upset the within the academic community and amongst Task balance of nature. contrasting viewpoints. you . a paragraph in an essay) and the topic or question happening beneath the surface. and checking for errors. Question-based essays Show you understand the B Focus on language Read the chart. Each organism depends upon scientists in particular. the earth’s surface that people do not fully understand. (NOT.write a persuasive essay. argue that species have become extinct throughout including the type of text students will write (e. ■ sometimes includes panels with extra information D Write and check Write an essay to answer the question in the task Common errors about text types and structures Do not overuse upon. within. . Then rewrite them using one / one’s.” not “look at. Look upon above. amongst. Does this matter? will be taught in the lesson as part of completing the A Look at a model Read the introductions to two essays that answer the question above. lesson and provides students with a model outcome of the Each organism depends upon another. another. Task Write an essay. Writing Does it matter? In this lesson. . A healthy environment is dependent how well people manage their resources.g. in terms of. 1. your introduction and conclusion. descriptive.).

8. an affordable way to experience nature 6. and learn 1.  A bird.  Someone that makes a lot of money for others is called the goose that the golden egg. 12.  When eggs hatch . it means there aren’t many left. Word builder be a guinea pig beat a dead horse clam up have ants in your pants be in the doghouse be a fish out of water get off your high horse have butterflies in your stomach ■ includes new vocabulary related to the unit topic C Focus on vocabulary Can you think of a thing or person for each expression? See Exercise 2A. a remarkable animal that has considerable intelligence 2. vocabulary area such as animal behavior.  The movement of birds. definitions and paraphrasing. Find out their meaning. or insects come out.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. who becomes vice president if elected. the offspring. a fish.org . feeding.  A egg is a sum of money you save for a special purpose. It allows students to customize their own vocabulary learning. a profitable product with measurable results that resulted from replicating nature Unit 4: Amazing world 51 Focus on vocabulary ■ reinforces new words and expressions first presented in Lesson D xvi Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. and encourages them to learn additional vocabulary in the Word builder activities. 2. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Vocabulary notebook Vocabulary notebook provides a page of enjoyable tasks at the end of every unit to help students organize and write down new vocabulary. fish. animals. a is an animal that attacks and eats other animals. or babies.  It can also be a country that is governed by a more powerful country. a viable or workable alternative to fossil fuels 5. or an interesting fact about the use of a particular 9. or an insect an egg.  From that word. Computers hibernate when they’re running but are not being used.  A is a group of birds or animals. Sometimes you’ll use a word twice. 5. 3. they have young. writing 1. 4. of animals are called their forks” to write down vocabulary  You can also use the expression the to mean all young people. working in class or at home.cambridge.  In biology. 11. baby birds. for students to look up. something you’ve learned about nature that previously was unimaginable to you 4. etc.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . fishing. B Word builder Here are some more idioms with animals. expression using information from the Corpus 10. Dictionary tip / Corpus information  If you say someone or something is part of a dying .  A is a place where most birds have their young. we get other words like immigrant.  Animals that visual techniques like “idea strings” and “word for life stay together forever. find out if it has other uses in general English or in idioms. page 49.  Breeding. as well as individual words. or people is called . into something. you hatch a plan. using personalization. a dependable source of information or a notable authority on the natural world 3. or hunting are places where these activities take place. It means he or she investigates it. emigrate. 6.   Both animals and humans have to their families.  A presidential candidate chooses a running . ■ sometimes features a Dictionary tip that gives  To have for something means to have reasons for it. ■ covers writing whole expressions or collocations A Complete each sentence with a word in the box.  In academic writing.  In business.  When animals . and using creative  If you plan something in secret. such as for divorce.  To useful advice on how to use dictionaries effectively means to dig into something and a  A person can also can be the hole where an animal lives. 7. grouping vocabulary breed colony grounds lays migration predator burrow feed and raise hatch mate nest young in different ways. study. . it’s a company that tries to buy or take over other companies. Learning tip Vocabulary notebook Golden eggs ■ introduces a different useful technique in every Learning tip Specialized vocabulary unit for writing down and organizing new When you learn vocabulary from a specific hibernate Animals hibernate or sleep in the winter. A specific type of animal is also called a .

Then discuss the issues. I think you should attend the best college that accepts you. They are certainly having an impact on my children. especially with by. Having said that. straightforward examples to make the grammar the time our children reach adulthood. In any case. vocabulary. will not / won’t have heard It is unlikely that there is anyone who has not heard about the threat to certain species on the planet. Lesson A Grammar extra 1 More on the future perfect • The future perfect describes events that at a future point will be in the past. though. perhaps you have noticed the appeals for help that come in the mail or that are on TV. not to mention that many fish are killed by pollution. are often used with the future perfect to show the time by ■ extends the grammar from Lessons A and B with which an event will be complete. B Listen to these conversations. Lesson C Stress in adding expressions Notice which words are stressed in these expressions that add information. there aren’t enough candidates for some jobs. we’ll need to do something soon. I mean. I’m sure that in addition to sending donations to various charities. they don’t agree on any solutions. someday people will have to consume less fish. For example. A Read and listen to the information above. the time that sea levels rise 50 centimeters (about 20 inches). B I suppose it’s hard to identify the causes. But what can we as individuals do? In recent years. and common problems in listening comprehension 4. What’s your view? you Speaking naturally 139 Introduction: Features of the units in the Student’s Book xvii © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. Then listen. within the next 20 years. And on top of that. I think it’s great that people have a shorter workweek than they used to. A And on top of that. and repeat. but even then. within a decade. many stress and intonation. A The world uses way too much oil. But then again. No doubt you will have read about the melting ice caps. you need ■ covers the key areas of linking and reduction. the reproductive cycle of the sperm whale affect. to make sure you can afford the housing and tuition costs. or strategies of the main units B Listen. though. This impacts various species in different ways. Complete the time expressions with by or within. many species will have become extinct. Sea life is also in danger. There’s a lot of competition for jobs these days. Having said that. Circle the stressed word in each bold expression. A No one seems to agree on the causes of global warming. . A I agree. Then rewrite the verbs in bold using either ■ provides a clear presentation of structures with the active or passive form of the future perfect. More people are working overtime. e. Many people will not have seen the recent documentary about this. people aren’t trying very hard to develop different energy sources. or there won’t be any left to eat. Which views do you agree with? to fully integrate pronunciation into the lesson you Unit 4. No doubt you have reacted to the news that species such as polar bears are under threat. we need to prepare for higher temperatures. Lesson C Stress in expressions of contrast Speaking naturally Notice which words are stressed in these expressions introducing a contrasting view.. hundreds of sharks will have been killed. What’s more. It can emphasize the completion of the events. many have a hard time paying their bills. when they’re more mature. not to mention extreme weather events like hurricanes. I suspect what you haven’t realized is how expensive these “adoptions” are. extra information and activities that can be done Within the next 10 years. 2. 37 percent of terrestrial species die out easy to assimilate or will be in danger of extinction. within 30 days. One study estimated that 2050. it is believed that only a few decades.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . And no doubt donations have saved some obscure species from the brink of extinction. by the age of six. fish consumption continues to increase every year. by that time. In any case. by the time (that) . check. pronunciation and intonation Even so. Not to mention the fact that the supply of oil is decreasing pretty quickly. . A Read and listen to the information above. by 2030. which is all very well – except there are more than 100 endangered species that she can sign up to help! 150 Grammar extra Speaking naturally Unit 3. It’s important to get a college degree.) • Time expressions.” Rewrite the underlined parts of the blog using the future perfect. Not that I mind donating $50 for my child to adopt an orangutan or a Sumatran rhino. and what’s more. What I hadn’t expected was for a cuddly stuffed toy version to arrive in the mail. which errors to avoid threatens the very survival of the whale itself. it will be winter and many birds will have migrated south. “A lot of people won’t even have heard about it. in class or for homework In the time it takes you to do this lesson. • The future perfect has a passive form – will have been + past participle – but it is not very common. There is competition for jobs. either. ■ provides communicative and personalized practice 5. Now my daughter wants the entire collection. ■ is closely integrated with the grammar. demand is increasing every year. by the end of the century. I think it’s good that people are getting married later.org . • The negative with won’t with this meaning is mostly used in speaking and informal writing. We’re running out of oil. it is believed that seawater temperatures rise enough to affect the information from the Learner Corpus about key food supply of some ocean species. Then listen. 1. 3. but in any event. (The migration is complete. About C Pair work Practice the conversations.cambridge. Speaking naturally enables pronunciation and intonation learning and practice. Circle the stressed word in each bold expression. Repeat the example sentences. there always has been. ■ helps students understand and use natural Having said that. the divorce rate doesn’t seem to be going down. About C Pair work Discuss the comments. It suggests you are certain. we need to do something. and repeat. 1. Unit 4. B You’re right. It’s all for a good cause. Overfishing decreases the fish population. you won’t necessarily find a job. check. On top of that. But then again. That is well over a third the next 30 years. ■ may include Common errors panels with the end of this century. 2.. What’s more.g. B Yeah. one-third of nesting beaches in the Caribbean lose. and certainly the programs have motivated many children to become involved. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Grammar extra and Speaking naturally Grammar extra provides information and exercises to extend the grammar from Lessons A and B. or in a time leading up to that future point in time. leading to the decline in turtle populations. hundreds of species disappear off the face of the planet. your chances are better if you finish college. by then. there’s rising sea levels. Repeat the example sentences. you have heard about the “adopt an endangered animal” programs. Grammar extra In two months. people now work two jobs in order to earn enough money to live on. no one seems interested in finding a solution to the problem. the competition is probably more intense now than ever. but even then. 2 The future perfect for predictions and assumptions • You can use the future perfect to state predictions or assumptions about the present or to say what you think has happened in the past.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. basic grammatical forms. But even so.

I. is at the top of the list. It is based on a sample of four and a half million words of conversation from the Cambridge English Corpus. Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .org .cambridge. The most frequent word. 1  I 41  with 81  they’re 2  and 42  he 82  kind 3  the 43  one 83  here 4  you 44  are 84  from 5  uh 45  this 85  did 6  to 46  there 86  something 7  a 47  I’m 87  too 8  that 48  all 88  more 9  it 49  if 89  very 10  of 50  no 90  want 11  yeah 51  get 91  little 12  know 52  about 92  been 13  in 53  at 93  things 14  like 54  out 94  an 15  they 55  had 95  you’re 16  have 56  then 96  said 17  so 57  because 97  there’s 18  was 58  go 98  I’ve 19  but 59  up 99  much 20  is 60  she 100 where 21  it’s 61  when 101 two 22  we 62  them 102 thing 23  huh 63  can 103 her 24  just 64  would 104 didn’t 25  oh 65  as 105 other 26  do 66  me 106 say 27  don’t 67  mean 107 back 28  that’s 68  some 108 could 29  well 69  good 109 their 30  for 70  got 110 our 31  what 71  OK 111 guess 32  on 72  people 112 yes 33  think 73  now 113 way 34  right 74  going 114 has 35  not 75  were 115 down 36  um 76  lot 116 we’re 37  or 77  your 117 any 38  my 78  time 118 he’s 39  be 79  see 119 work 40  really 80  how 120 take xviii Introduction: Corpus frequency © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Corpus frequency The top 500 spoken words This is a list of the top 500 words in spoken North American English.

cambridge. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information 121 even 167 anything 213 twenty 122 those 168 kids 214 after 123 over 169 first 215 ever 124 probably 170 does 216 find 125 him 171 need 217 care 126 who 172 us 218 better 127 put 173 should 219 hard 128 years 174 talking 220 haven’t 129 sure 175 last 221 trying 130 can’t 176 thought 222 give 131 pretty 177 doesn’t 223 I’d 132 gonna 178 different 224 problem 133 stuff 179 money 225 else 134 come 180 long 226 remember 135 these 181 used 227 might 136 by 182 getting 228 again 137 into 183 same 229 pay 138 went 184 four 230 try 139 make 185 every 231 place 140 than 186 new 232 part 141 year 187 everything 233 let 142 three 188 many 234 keep 143 which 189 before 235 children 144 home 190 though 236 anyway 145 will 191 most 237 came 146 nice 192 tell 238 six 147 never 193 being 239 family 148 only 194 bit 240 wasn’t 149 his 195 house 241 talk 150 doing 196 also 242 made 151 cause 197 use 243 hundred 152 off 198 through 244 night 153 I’ll 199 feel 245 call 154 maybe 200 course 246 saying 155 real 201 what’s 247 dollars 156 why 202 old 248 live 157 big 203 done 249 away 158 actually 204 sort 250 either 159 she’s 205 great 251 read 160 day 206 bad 252 having 161 five 207 we’ve 253 far 162 always 208 another 254 watch 163 school 209 car 255 week 164 look 210 true 256 mhm 165 still 211 whole 257 quite 166 around 212 whatever 258 enough Introduction: Corpus frequency xix © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .org .V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy.

org .Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .cambridge.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information 259 next 305 looking 351 stay 260 couple 306 someone 352 mom 261 own 307 coming 353 sounds 262 wouldn’t 308 eight 354 change 263 ten 309 love 355 understand 264 interesting 310 everybody 356 such 265 am 311 able 357 gone 266 sometimes 312 we’ll 358 system 267 bye 313 life 359 comes 268 seems 314 may 360 thank 269 heard 315 both 361 show 270 goes 316 type 362 thousand 271 called 317 end 363 left 272 point 318 least 364 friends 273 ago 319 told 365 class 274 while 320 saw 366 already 275 fact 321 college 367 eat 276 once 322 ones 368 small 277 seen 323 almost 369 boy 278 wanted 324 since 370 paper 279 isn’t 325 days 371 world 280 start 326 couldn’t 372 best 281 high 327 gets 373 water 282 somebody 328 guys 374 myself 283 let’s 329 god 375 run 284 times 330 country 376 they’ll 285 guy 331 wait 377 won’t 286 area 332 yet 378 movie 287 fun 333 believe 379 cool 288 they’ve 334 thinking 380 news 289 you’ve 335 funny 381 number 290 started 336 state 382 man 291 job 337 until 383 basically 292 says 338 husband 384 nine 293 play 339 idea 385 enjoy 294 usually 340 name 386 bought 295 wow 341 seven 387 whether 296 exactly 342 together 388 especially 297 took 343 each 389 taking 298 few 344 hear 390 sit 299 child 345 help 391 book 300 thirty 346 nothing 392 fifty 301 buy 347 parents 393 months 302 person 348 room 394 women 303 working 349 today 395 month 304 half 350 makes 396 found xx Introduction: Corpus frequency © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.

V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy.org . Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information 397 side 432 hour 467 percent 398 food 433 deal 468 hand 399 looks 434 mine 469 gosh 400 summer 435 reason 470 top 401 hmm 436 credit 471 cut 402 fine 437 dog 472 computer 403 hey 438 group 473 tried 404 student 439 turn 474 gotten 405 agree 440 making 475 mind 406 mother 441 American 476 business 407 problems 442 weeks 477 anybody 408 city 443 certain 478 takes 409 second 444 less 479 aren’t 410 definitely 445 must 480 question 411 spend 446 dad 481 rather 412 happened 447 during 482 twelve 413 hours 448 lived 483 phone 414 war 449 forty 484 program 415 matter 450 air 485 without 416 supposed 451 government 486 moved 417 worked 452 eighty 487 gave 418 company 453 wonderful 488 yep 419 friend 454 seem 489 case 420 set 455 wrong 490 looked 421 minutes 456 young 491 certainly 422 morning 457 places 492 talked 423 between 458 girl 493 beautiful 424 music 459 happen 494 card 425 close 460 sorry 495 walk 426 leave 461 living 496 married 427 wife 462 drive 497 anymore 428 knew 463 outside 498 you’ll 429 pick 464 bring 499 middle 430 important 465 easy 500 tax 431 ask 466 stop Introduction: Corpus frequency xxi © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .

Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .org .cambridge.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Irregular verbs Base form Simple past Past participle Base form Simple past Past participle be was/were been make made made beat beat beaten mean meant meant become became become meet met met begin began begun mislead misled misled bend bent bent overcome overcame overcome bet bet bet pay paid paid bind bound bound prove proved proven/proved bite bit bitten put put put bleed bled bled quit quit quit blow blew blown read read read break broke broken ride rode ridden breed bred bred ring rang rung bring brought brought rise rose risen broadcast broadcast broadcast run ran run build built built say said said burst burst burst see saw seen burn burned/burnt burned/burnt seek sought sought buy bought bought sell sold sold cast cast cast send sent sent catch caught caught set set set choose chose chosen sew sewed sewn/sewed cling clung clung shake shook shaken come came come shine shone shone cost cost cost shoot shot shot creep crept crept show showed shown/showed cut cut cut shrink shrank shrunk deal dealt dealt shut shut shut dig dug dug sing sang sung do did done sink sank sunk draw drew drawn sit sat sat dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt sleep slept slept drink drank drunk slide slid slid drive drove driven sling slung slung eat ate eaten slink slunk slunk fall fell fallen sow sowed sown feed fed fed speak spoke spoken feel felt felt spend spent spent fight fought fought spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt find found found spin spun spun fit fitted/fit fitted/fit spread spread spread flee fled fled speed sped sped fling flung flung spring sprang sprung fly flew flown stand stood stood forbid forbade forbidden steal stole stolen forget forgot forgotten stick stuck stuck forgive forgave forgiven sting stung stung freeze froze frozen stink stank stunk get got gotten strike struck struck give gave given string strung strung go went gone swear swore sworn grow grew grown sweep swept swept hang (an object) hung hung swim swam swum have had had swing swung swung hear heard heard take took taken hide hid hidden teach taught taught hit hit hit tear tore torn hold held held tell told told hurt hurt hurt think thought thought keep kept kept throw threw thrown know knew known understand understood understood lay laid laid wake woke woken lead led led wear wore worn leave left left weep wept wept lend lent lent win won won let let let wind wound wound lie (down) lay lain withhold withheld withheld light lit lit write wrote written lose lost lost xxii Introduction: Irregular Verbs © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.

including Sandiford would like to thank her husband. and Burcu Tezvan from İstanbul Bilgi Mary McKeon. which fed into the materials. Panthipa Rojanasuworapong. Deborah Iddon from Harmon Hall Cuajimalpa. Luiz and Janet Aitchison for her continued support. Ian Sutherland. Introduction: Authors’ acknowledgements xxiii © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. Julian Eynon. and New Heacock and Kathleen Corley.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . day-to-day contact through the project. Howard Siegelman.cambridge. The material and dedicated so much time and professional authors and publishers would like to extend their expertise to help us improve it. Jinhee Park.org . Catherine Black The authors and publishers would also like to thank for her support on the answer keys and audio scripts our design and production teams at Cenveo Publisher and deft handling of the Online Workbook. a great number of people contributed Michael Poor. Viewpoint project with incredible vision and drive. In particular. Mary Vaughn for her particular thanks to the following for their valuable usual sage advice on our syllabus and her excellent insights and suggestions. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Authors’ acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the entire team of Finally. In addition. and Chris Sol Cruz from Suncross Media program. Alejandro Martinez. Rossita Fernando Workbook. Jeff Chen. Maiza Fatureto. Irene Yang. Turkey for their invaluable management. Mutçalıoğlu. to Bryan Fletcher and Sarah Cole. Jeff Krum. Here we would like to thank her daughters for their unwavering support. and those we have not met. for creating and editing the testing México. Jess Zhou. for her series oversight and project Üniversitesi. Special thanks to Sedat Cilingir. Helen creating Viewpoint 2.. and their friends and York Audio Productions. and Video Program. the Teacher’s Edition. who started the Daniela A. Ann Fiddes for corpus support and access Cambridge University Press staff and advisors: to the English Profile wordlists. copy editor Reviewers and consultants: Karen Davy for checking through the manuscripts. family for the recordings they made. Christine Lee. İstanbul. Rose. Inc. Dawn Elwell for her superb production skills. Peter Holly.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. Therese Naber Brazil. the people with whom we have had the most personal. Page 2. Elisa Borges and Samara Camilo Tomé Costa from Sue Aldcorn and Arley Gray for their work on creating Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos. Julie Watson. Seil Choi. Devrim Ozdemir. We appreciate you all. Satoko Shimoyama. and Kristen Ulmer for the Blasi. Bryan. Vicky Lin. Dr Cynan Ellis Evans Mary Louise Baez. contributions to the pronunciation materials. and Janet Gokay. Vincent Di for the interview on page 45. Didem for their comments on some of the early drafts. who skillfully and sensitively edited the to the research and development of Viewpoint. Chris Hughes. we would like to thank each other for getting professionals who have contributed their expertise to through another project together! In addition. and Jennifer Pardilla for their roles on the Workbook. Cristina Zurawski and Graham Skerritt LLC. Melissa Struck for her help on the input in reviewing both the Student’s Book and workbook and project management. Class Audio. Meyer. LLC. Helen Tiliouine. John Letcher. interview which is reported on page 55. Frank Vargas. Tomomi Katsuki. Keiko Hirano. Tyler Services/Nesbitt Graphics. Alicione Soares Tavares. Frank Zhu. Rio de Janeiro. Gabriela Perez. We would also like to express our deep appreciation Hugo Loyola. Joao Madureira.

. with expressions of contrast pages 30–39 • Discuss the information take credit for ) like having said page 139 challenges of about time or • Synonyms (often that and then starting college and reason. you predict. . and cons of modern conjunctions • Suffixes • Emphasize that conveniences. nouns with describe apparently to phrases pages 20–29 • Discuss the issue of different types technology express what page 138 privacy vs. perfect forms to describe the like What’s more adding Amazing • Present information talk about the behavior of to add and focus expressions world about a member of past in the wildlife on new ideas. one. on the tip of my mean “if this is • Analyze and tongue) true”.” lasting) Unit 2 • Talk about • Add • Compound • Use adverbs like • Stress in technology and its information to adjectives to predictably and noun Technology impact on your life. is not true. other new • Add emphasis show – reveal ) • Use even so and experiences. • Evaluate gender differences in language. . that. • Use predator) and in any event • Consider the impact prepositions • Suffixes with to strengthen that humans have and -able arguments and on nature. possibly. remembering (It’s • Use if so to and writing blogs. reach phrases to valuable) conclusions. combine ideas. contrasting idea. events and add advantage of. page 139 pages 42–51 the animal future. • Synonyms to mean “if this (enduring . • Evaluate the pros • Use two-part energy-efficient) expect.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . with so . pressure on parents. xxiv Introduction: Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. • Use in any case kingdom.org . introduce a children put even. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence Conversation Speaking Functions / Topics Grammar Vocabulary strategies naturally Unit 1 • Talk about types of • Use auxiliary • Idiomatic • Use stressed • Stressing literature. (hibernate. Checkpoint 1 Units 1–3 pages 40–41 Unit 4 • Talk about the • Use future • Expressions to • Use expressions • Stress in natural world. again. etc. prepositional (remarkable. that. .V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. and cons of reading phrases. something is • Discuss how you to combine radical ) impossible with respond to new ideas. and if not interpret a poem. expressions for auxiliary verbs auxiliaries A great read habits. does) before for emphasis pages 10–19 authors. like either . even then to • Discuss how such . can’t / couldn’t technologies. and favorite and ones to understanding (I (do. (high-speed. to. avoid repeating can’t make heads main verbs to page 138 • Discuss the pros words and or tails of it) and add emphasis. reading verbs. Unit 3 • Talk about different • Use participle • Expressions with • Express a • Stress in social pressures that clauses to link take (take contrasting view expressions Society you and others face. . – frequently.cambridge. and only. or (innovation. security. of expressions. .

nouns to say • More on two-part fingerprinting. the meaning participle and time more independent. etc. . • Write sentences and conjunctions + -ing the challenges Language and • Plan and write an that paraphrase • Passive forms of when kids become Society evaluative report. biomimicry could upon. pages 144–145 Privacy or As technology • Write a report High-tech gadgets • Adjectives after nouns convenience? changes. notable inventions concern.org . • Formal prepositional • A presenter shares inspires impersonal one. either. repeating verb phrases • Someone gives an • Coordinate • More on one /ones to interpretation of a adjectives. Spring semester • Write an evaluation Take credit! • Clauses with prepositions • Two people discuss courses in of a course. about your life. charts. you can use and (to) do so My interpretation poetry through and recommend certain idioms. adjectives with nouns privacy and cycles.cambridge. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Vocabulary Listening Reading Writing notebook Grammar extra The blogosphere A brief history of • Write a review of a Heads or tails • More on auxiliary verbs • A presenter shares poetry book you have • Think of to avoid repetition statistics about • An article about enjoyed. • Two-part conjunctions multitask? consumers to • Avoid errors with with phrases and clauses • Three invest in new as can be seen. forms pages 150–151 Introduction: Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence xxv © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. vocabulary in predictions and The genius of the • An article about • Use academic general English assumptions natural world how nature prepositions and or in idioms. different types of • Describe. • Avoid errors with nouns yet. evaluate. blogging. • More on using to to avoid is . avoid repeating countable poem. • More on so and such gender language and • Avoid errors with • More on even and only • A professor society therefore. pages 148–149 introduces a course on language and gender. • Course outlines • Express results in of new clauses Language and of classes about writing. . expressions. so. neither. • An article about • Describe and something true conjunctions How do you the willingness of compare statistics. and tables.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . so do about Internet use. • Use compound • Negative phrases after • Two friends discuss adoption life • Describe graphs. situations when • too. . expressions ideas about how innovation • Avoid errors with • More on the fact that.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. pages 146–147 conversations technology about multitasking It’s an issue . history a book. prepositions + perfect solve problems. . Checkpoint 1 Units 1–3 pages 40–41 The Antarctic How nature • Write a persuasive Golden eggs • More on the future • An expert answers inspires science essay about an • Notice the use perfect questions about – a look at some environmental of specialized • The future perfect for Antarctica.

a conclusion ways to meet improve – from something people. of online and instore other. enhance) someone said.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. • Adjectives into • Use expressions motivation of • Use past nouns like Maybe (not). prepositions. on your family history. synonyms that case to draw • Talk about the best (see – perceive. hypothesize. • Evaluate the pros and cons of monitoring family members. but (give and in a word to page 141 pages 74–83 family life. convenience. xxvi Introduction: Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. consider before subjects and • Building • Use then and in getting married. Unit 6 • Talk about business • Use relative • Verbs that mean • Use negative • Prepositions and retail. sooner summarize or • Discuss the most • Use wh. others. • Adjectives of your point of • Evaluate the benefits • Use some. any. • Present the refer to people advantages of big and things. clauses. with continuous adjectives like Let’s put it expressions Progress and human and perfect (obsolete. people who are modals with the (convenient – Absolutely (not). and Not dangerous feats. sentences expressions with like in the end pairs Relationships marriage. driven to perform passive.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . phrases. event sentences profound) • Respond with “world-changing. cons of research. or later. and without if to and. objects. Unit 8 • Talk about people • Use the perfect • Adjective • Use expressions • Saying and events in infinitive to antonyms like Let’s not go perfect History history. questions to clauses studies motivations behind pronouns or discourage) persuade others page 140 pages 62–71 shopping habits. vulnerable) • Use granted to shopping. business and small business. clauses that attract and deter and tag in relative Business • Consider the begin with (entice. progress. • Discuss inventions and innovations. and viewpoint. and another to concede points. or. temporary. (malicious.org . refer to past (lasting – there to avoid infinitives pages 84–93 • Determine what time. view.cambridge. slowly finish your important issues to clauses as but surely) points. talking about a page 141 makes a historical • Use cleft superficial – topic. Checkpoint 2 Units 4–6 pages 72–73 Unit 7 • Talk about • Use conditional • Binomial • Use expressions • Binomial relationships. easy – ease) necessarily in • Discuss the pros and responses. That’s what I’m • Talk about the It to focus on bring to life) saying to focus importance of one’s certain nouns. this way to make page 140 pages 52–61 achievements. and take.” beginning with • Metaphors (sift. • Evaluate the passive. forms of the portable) a point. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Conversation Speaking Functions / Topics Grammar Vocabulary strategies naturally Unit 5 • Talk about • Use adverbs • More formal • Use expressions • Stress in inventions.

Too good to be true? Data leakage – Are • Write a report on It’s tempting. discusses using • Avoid errors with a technology to keep number of. Introduction: Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence xxvii © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. (This may be the result of . • Pronouns and numbers in • Four consumer you protected? data security. research. Tracing family The Ancient Lives • Write a narrative Deep.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. low. antonyms of adjectives and nouns backgrounds. high • More on perfect histories Project essay about your • Look up the infinitives • Two friends talk • An article about family or someone synonyms and • The perfect infinitive after about their family the collaboration you know. pages 152–153 the benefits and • Avoid errors with drawbacks of affect and effect. Checkpoint 2 Units 4–6 pages 72–73 Bringing up baby? Technology – is it • Write a magazine Now or never • More on inversions • A student talks driving families article about how to • Use expressions • More on what clauses about his apart? enhance friendships. pages 156–157 family dynamics number of. ). a great • A family counselor deal of. • More on cleft sentences Citizen participation and volunteers in past. concepts in phrases her conversation • An article about • Compare and formal writing.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . .cambridge. have an effect on to describe effects. how inventions contrast arguments. etc. in sentences • what clauses with passive experience with a • An article about • Express number that are verbs and modals in “baby simulator. • Write word relative clauses experts talk about • An article about • Use modals to avoid family charts. between experts • Order events in the new words. . with it + be projects piecing together • Avoid errors with • it + be + noun phrase in • A lecturer describes the past in the end and writing projects that help at the end. pages 158–159 uncover the past.” how technology and amount with personally writing Keeping tabs on the impacts family expressions like a meaningful. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Vocabulary Listening Reading Writing notebook Grammar extra Kristen Ulmer – a Invention: inspired • Write an opinion Old or ancient? • Adverbs in present and world-class extreme thinking or essay about • Learn synonyms past passive verb phrases skier accidental technological to express basic • Adverbs in perfect verb • A reporter relates discovery? progress.org . like affect. every other. track of family • Use expressions members. other The top threats business’s and to make than • A business expert information recommendations. • Nouns in relative clauses special promotions. • Avoid errors with can and could. • Adverbs and past modal with Kristen Ulmer. • More on another discusses the risks secure • Use expressions to pages 154–155 of running a describe cause business. verb phrases What’s the point of come about • Use it clauses + • Questions with passive research? passive to say what past modals • Two people discuss people think. keeping a being too assertive • other.

cambridge. to report events (undergo at the start or page 142 events • Discuss if speed or in progress. and that and those to news. to • Talk about white complements. over a new leaf. hypothetical with turn (turn seem right to idioms pages • Consider how you future events. her. not only) + negative phrases • Discuss the inversion to with at all and usefulness of start a sentence whatsoever. • Verbs (interact. people or install) introduce facts page 142 pages 94–103 • Evaluate the things. Unit 12 • Talk about being • Use objects + • Phrasal verbs • Use expressions • Stress with independent. etc. other / one an opinion. opinion. do. emergency. verb • Words in context • Use to me. go. research and adverbs (never. pick like I can see it reflexive Psychology psychology of prepositions up on) from both sides pronouns pages attraction. highlight you trust what you what is fabricate) information and hear or read in the important. • Emphasize development. who reports infinitive forms collocations by putting them intonation Current it. to lies and if they’re laborious) introduce an ever acceptable. recommendations. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Conversation Speaking Functions / Topics Grammar Vocabulary strategies naturally Unit 9 • Talk about feats. • Discuss the pronouns take (be close to. Checkpoint 3 Units 7–9 pages 104–105 Unit 10 • Talk about the • Use continuous • Noun and verb • Highlight topics • Stress and news. robots. have. and the and verbs. Checkpoint 4 Units 10–12 pages 136–137 xxviii Introduction: Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence © in this web service Cambridge University Press www.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . express page 143 116–125 would handle an • Use passive turn around) concerns. stereotypes. to refer to refer to known demands and information. 106–115 important in news subjunctive to • Vocabulary to • Use this and reporting. (lucrative. • Discuss if art forgers are still true artists. fiction (verify.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy.org . and words in talking engineering like given or background Engineering developments in about unknown projects (erect. • Use to put it + differences between — including to have to do with) adverb to online and add emphasis indicate your in-person — and each meaning behind relationships. token. considering to information wonders engineering. describe what express truth or these to • Evaluate how much should happen. • Use reflexive be. • Use -ever • Vocabulary of • Use expressions • Intonation of challenges. • Expressions with and by the same page 143 126–135 brain. and how. contain end of what you pages accuracy is more • Use the an oil spill) say. • Discuss another. Unit 11 • Talk about whether • Use be to to • Idioms and • Use expressions • Stress in information is true refer to fixed or phrasal verbs like That doesn’t longer Is it real? or not. that support your priorities in • Use negative determine) opinions. surgery. for emphasis. the -ing forms after (go by.

• An article about • Avoid subject-verb collocate with • More on the subjunctive issues in news agreement errors the same noun. conditional sentences pages 162–163 Online lies Authenticating art • Write an essay Use it or lose it. and whatever Is she for real? alternatives. instincts infinitives program discusses accurate are news • Use subject-verb • Find multiple • More on perfect trends in reports? agreement. with a friend.org . • Two friends talk • An article about about fake • Use new be meant to about the lies that the techniques designer goods. object + -ing overprotective how brain • Use expressions • More on reflexive parents. • A mother and son brain using statistics. adverbs. • Avoid errors with provided that. Checkpoint 4 Units 10–12 pages 136–137 Introduction: Viewpoint Level 2 Scope and sequence xxix © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. and • Three • An article about about whether it? whoever as subjects and documentaries the widespread robots can replace • Ask yourself objects describe marvels of use of robots in humans. art forgeries and those of conversations • More on passive perfect Fakes of art! others. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Vocabulary Listening Reading Writing notebook Grammar extra Other amazing feats Robots • Write an essay How do you do • whatever. • More on be to. continuous • A guest on a radio truth: How article. • More on inversion • A radio interview • Avoid errors with • Inversion with modals about a robot. questions using • Patterns with however engineering. people • Four professionals • Avoid errors with pages 166–167 lecture about the twice. verbs that continuous infinitives journalism. whichever. • The subjunctive and reporting in relative clauses. pronouns Understanding the relates to four times more • Referring to unknown brain – outcomes behavior often. society • Express new vocabulary. be due to. impact of brain research on their fields. “Helicopter” parents The developing • Write a report Pick and choose • Common verbs.cambridge. pages 160–161 Checkpoint 3 Units 7–9 pages 104–105 Journalism Establishing the • Summarize an Trust your • Simple vs. • Create a adjectives. would rather / and in passive sentences rather than.Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 .V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. thesaurus. and nouns + talk about • An article about • Compare statistics. vocabulary in • be to for orders and people tell about used to identify • Share your views imaginary instructions themselves online. development like twice as likely. infinitives • A radio program • Use academic • would rather profiles artist John conjunctions and pages 164–165 Myatt.

such as formal and informal grammatical structures. It is not just a question of learning more language. In Viewpoint students are encouraged to take responsibility for their own vocabulary development through a section in each unit called Vocabulary notebook.org . a qualitative change from the dependent learner at the beginner or elementary level. ■ review and correct common grammatical errors. It has also been ­influenced by research in how examiners evaluate and assess students’ writing. vocabulary. Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-60156-7 . The grammatical syllabus has been organized by careful corpus analysis of the kinds of texts and contexts that more advanced students will need to work with. ■ improve accuracy and confidence in using grammatical structures by understanding their complexities. to the grammar of writing. ■ learn new structures that are frequent and useful so students feel they are moving forward and covering new ground. students at the threshold of the more advanced levels will already recognize some 4. and students are less likely to encounter them on a regular basis. Phrasal vocabulary is also increasingly important at the advanced level. This encourages them to write notes and improve their vocabulary learning strategies as part of the general learning process. friendship and socializing in general can make way for more demanding issues such as peer pressures and academic pressures. These include the needs to: ■ move beyond general language toward more vocational and academic language. Here we need to introduce themes and topics that will be relevant to students who typically have vocational. for example. students are expected to have a high level of fluency. and spontaneity in speaking.” and to be skilled at “differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations. we can help students communicate more precisely and interactively. academic. precision. Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Frontmatter More information Teaching higher-level learners of English Viewpoint is intended for higher-level learners of English. Most of the new words encountered in English at this point are fairly uncommon. and understand which are suitable for writing and which are not. ■ learn more about appropriateness of use. The CEFR. perhaps crucially for these levels. sees the C-level learner as being able to speak “without much obvious searching for expressions. As well as helping them xxx Introduction: Teaching higher-level learners of English © in this web service Cambridge University Press www. and professional goals. So what happens when students move from intermediate to advanced levels? What substantive changes mark this shift? Issues for higher-level learners Higher-level learners have different needs from those at more basic levels.V i e w p o i n t T e a c h e r ' s E d i t i o n 2 Michael McCarthy. and expressions.000 words. it is about becoming a different kind of learner. At this point. ■ be able to operate fluently and confidently in a wider range of speaking situations.” At this point. Teaching grammar The Viewpoint presentations and activities expose students to the grammar used in speaking and also.cambridge. What this means is that a topic such as travel and vacations can be expanded and specialized to include issues such as tourism and its impact on cultures and environments. Teaching vocabulary Ideally. not only in informal conversations with friends but also in more formal settings such as the workplace or at seminars or presentations. students are considered to have crossed the threshold to becoming independent learners. Teaching speaking At the advanced levels. ■ develop skills for how to approach more formal writing and how to structure texts.