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SECTION 7.

7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force 507

Section 7.7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force
• Find fluid pressure and fluid force.

Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force
Swimmers know that the deeper an object is submerged in a fluid, the greater the
pressure on the object. Pressure is defined as the force per unit of area over the
surface of a body. For example, because a column of water that is 10 feet in height and
1 inch square weighs 4.3 pounds, the fluid pressure at a depth of 10 feet of water is
4.3 pounds per square inch.* At 20 feet, this would increase to 8.6 pounds per square
inch, and in general the pressure is proportional to the depth of the object in the fluid.

Definition of Fluid Pressure
The pressure on an object at depth h in a liquid is
Pressure  P  wh
where w is the weight-density of the liquid per unit of volume.

Below are some common weight-densities of fluids in pounds per cubic foot.
Ethyl alcohol 49.4
Gasoline 41.0–43.0
Glycerin 78.6
Kerosene 51.2
BLAISE PASCAL (1623–1662)
Mercury 849.0
Pascal is well known for his work in many
areas of mathematics and physics, and also
Seawater 64.0
for his influence on Leibniz. Although much Water 62.4
of Pascal’s work in calculus was intuitive and
lacked the rigor of modern mathematics, he
When calculating fluid pressure, you can use an important (and rather surprising)
nevertheless anticipated many important physical law called Pascal’s Principle, named after the French mathematician Blaise
. results. Pascal. Pascal’s Principle states that the pressure exerted by a fluid at a depth h is
transmitted equally in all directions. For example, in Figure 7.68, the pressure at the
indicated depth is the same for all three objects. Because fluid pressure is given in
MathBio terms of force per unit area P  FA, the fluid force on a submerged horizontal
surface of area A is
Fluid force  F  PA  (pressure)(area).

h

. The pressure at h is the same for all three objects.
Figure 7.68

Rotatable Graph

* The total pressure on an object in 10 feet of water would also include the pressure due to
Earth’s atmosphere. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.7 pounds per
square inch.

to the fluid pressure times the area. the fact that the sheet is rectangular and horizontal means that you do not need the methods of calculus to solve the problem.4 pounds per square foot. This problem is more difficult because the pressure is y not constant over the surface. .70. where yi is in the ith subinterval. Solution Because the weight-density of water is 62. each of width y. Consider a surface that is submerged vertically in a fluid. Suppose a vertical plate is submerged in a fluid of weight-density w (per unit of volume). equal Figure 7. . as shown in Figure 7. force on a vertical metal plate. fluid Figure 7. Definition of Force Exerted by a Fluid The force F exerted by a fluid of constant weight-density w (per unit of volume) against a submerged vertical plane region from y  c to y  d is n F  w lim →0 i1  h y L  y  y i i w c d h  yL  y dy where h y is the depth of the fluid at y and L y is the horizontal length of the region at y.69 Try It Exploration A Rotatable Graph In Example 1. This result is independent of the size of the body of water. The fluid force would be The fluid force on a horizontal metal sheet is the same in a swimming pool or lake. taking the limit as  → 0 n →  suggests the following definition. The force against n such rectangles is Calculus methods must be used to find the . d into n subinter- h(yi) vals. n n   F  w  h  y L  y  y. The force against this representative rectangle is c Fi  w deptharea L(yi)  wh yiL  yi y.8 pounds. you can subdivide the interval c.4 pounds per cubic foot and the sheet is submerged in 6 feet of water. as shown in Figure 7.46 P  wh  374. consider the representative rectangle of width y and ∆y length L yi.4  pounds square foot 12 square feet 4  4492.70 i i i i1 i1 Rotatable Graph Note that w is considered to be constant and is factored out of the summation. the fluid pressure is 6 P  62.508 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration EXAMPLE 1 Fluid Force on a Submerged Sheet Find the fluid force on a rectangular metal sheet measuring 3 feet by 4 feet that is submerged in 6 feet of water. Therefore. . To determine the total force against one side of the d x region from depth c to depth d. Because the total area of the sheet is A  34  12 square feet.69. Next. the fluid force is 3 F  PA  374.

71(a). find the equation of the line forming the right side of the gate. you are at liberty to locate the x. as shown in Figure 7. y its equation is 2 4  9 y  9  x  3 x 43 −6 −2 2 6 −2 y  9  5 x  3 h(y) = −y (4.71   y  24 5  L  y. as shown in Figure 7. by integrating from y  9 to y  4. What is the fluid force on the gate when the top of the gate is 4 feet below the surface of the water? 4 ft 8 ft Solution In setting up a mathematical model for this problem.4 9 y 25  y  24 dy  4 2  62. you can calculate the fluid force to be Fw d h  yL  y dy c 4  62.71(b) you can see that the length of the region at y is −10 (3. SECTION 7. 9 and 4. x x ∆y 5 In Figure 7. So. −4) y  5x  24 y  24 .4  y 2  24y dy 5 9 4  62. A convenient approach is to let the 5 ft y-axis bisect the gate and place the x-axis at the surface of the water. −9) Length  2x (b) The fluid force against the gate 2 Figure 7. (a) Water gate in a dam To find the length L  y of the region at y.7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force 509 EXAMPLE 2 Fluid Force on a Vertical Surface A vertical gate in a dam has the shape of an isosceles trapezoid 8 feet across the top and 6 feet across the bottom. 4. Finally. the depth of the water at y in feet is 6 ft Depth  h  y  y.4 2 y3 5 3   12y 2 9 .71(b). Because this line passes through the points 3.and y-axes in several different ways. with a height of 5 feet.

but arbitrary.4 5   3  13. Try It Exploration A Open Exploration NOTE In Example 2.  62. the x-axis coincided with the surface of the water. . In choosing a coordinate system to represent a physical situation. you should consider various possibilities. This was convenient. such as symmetry.936 pounds. Often you can simplify the calculations in a problem by locating the coordinate system to take advantage of special characteristics of the problem. 2 1675 .

−2 This means that you cannot apply Theorem 4.5 however. and you can use the equation for the circle.6 to determine f is not differentiable at x  ± 1. . 1 Initially it looks as if this integral would be difficult to solve. Without knowing the potential error. Moreover. you might have considered using Simpson’s Rule to approximate the value of 10 128 1 1 8  x1  x2 dx. to solve for x as follows. From the graph of f x  8  x1  x2 −1.5 1. So. because y ranges from 1 to 1.72 Fw d h  yL  y dy c 1  64 8  y21  y2 dy.73 approximation is of little value. Use a graphing utility to approximate the integral. 2 The horizontal length of the window is 2x. you obtain F  64 16 2  64 20  512 1608.19 from Section 4. as shown in Figure 7. ∆y Length  2x x Observation 2 3  21  y2  L  y window Finally. as shown in Figure 7.5 pounds.5 pounds. locate a coordinate system such that the 8−y origin coincides with the center of the window.72. the fluid force on the window is 1608. and using 64 pounds per cubic foot as the The fluid force on the window weight-density of seawater. Try It Exploration A TECHNOLOGY To confirm the result obtained in Example 3. the solution is simple. by recognizing that the first integral represents the area of a semicircle of radius 1. you have Figure 7. you can see that f is not differentiable when x  ± 1 (see Figure 7.510 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration y EXAMPLE 3 Fluid Force on a Vertical Surface 8 A circular observation window on a marine science ship has a radius of 1 foot. However. . the Figure 7. What is the fluid force on the window? 6 5 Solution To take advantage of symmetry. and the 7 center of the window is 8 feet below water level. x x2  y2  1. F  64 16 1 1 1  y 2 dy  64 2 1 1 y1  y 2 dy The second integral is 0 (because the integrand is odd and the limits of integration are symmetric to the origin). The depth at 4 y is then 3 Depth  h y  8  y.73).72. the potential error in Simpson’s Rule. if you break the integral into two parts and apply symmetry.

. 16 square feet 11. 15. Triangle 4 4 Force on a Concrete Form In Exercises 15–18. Trapezoid 8. find the buoyant force of 1 a rectangular solid of the given dimensions submerged in water 2 so that the top side is parallel to the surface of the water. Click on to print an enlarged copy of the graph. 3 square feet 2. Assume that the tank is full of water.7 The symbol indicates an exercise in which you are instructed to use graphing technology or a symbolic computer algebra system. Find the fluid force given in meters and the weight-density of water is 9800 newtons on the top side. the area of Fluid Force of Water In Exercises 11–14. Determine the force on this part of the concrete form. Find the fluid force on a circular end of the tank if the tank is half full. Rectangle 16. The sheet metal is the vertical plate submerged in water. 3. y  x2 10. 1. Semicircle y   3416  x2 4 4 ft 2 ft 2 10 ft 3 3 ft 2 9. assuming that the diameter is 3 feet and the gasoline weighs 42 pounds per cubic foot. 1 6 5. Fluid Force of Gasoline A cylindrical gasoline tank is placed so that the axis of the cylinder is horizontal. 17.7 3 3 pounds per cubic foot. Click on to view the complete solution of the exercise. find the fluid force on the vertical side of the tank. Semiellipse. 7. Semiellipse. 2 h h 2 ft 4 ft 3 ft 8 ft 13. Rectangle 6. Rectangle 6 ft 2 ft 3 1 Rotatable Graph Rotatable Graph 5 9 Fluid Force on a Tank Wall In Exercises 5–10. Square Buoyant Force In Exercises 3 and 4. per cubic meter. 4. where the dimensions are given in feet. SECTION 7. The 3 3 buoyant force is the difference between the fluid forces on the top and bottom sides of the solid. where the dimensions are submerged horizontally in 5 feet of water. Triangle 14. find the fluid force on the top side of a piece of sheet metal is given. Rectangle 18. Force on a Submerged Sheet In Exercises 1 and 2. Parabola. Triangle y   1236  9x2 5 ft 4 4 4 ft 3 ft 3 4 6 ft 19. Square 12. the figure is the vertical side of a form for poured concrete that weighs 140.7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force 511 Exercises for Section 7.

Assume the plates are in the wall of a tank filled with water and the measurements are given in feet. feet is submerged vertically in a tank of fluid that weighs w 1 3 5 7 pounds per cubic foot. 31. surface of the water. . Define fluid pressure. 4 6 Writing About Concepts 3 32. submarine (submerged in seawater) is 1 square foot. Fluid Force on a Rectangular Plate A rectangular plate of used to stop the flow of water if the water is 3 feet deep. The table shows other by observing that the integrand is an odd function. Show that the fluid force on the w 0 3 5 8 9 10 10. Fluid Force on a Rectangular Plate Use the result of x2 y2 Exercise 23 to find the fluid force on the rectangular plate 29. Find the fluid force on the porthole. Fluid Force on a Circular Plate Use the result of Exercise 21 to find the fluid force on the circular plate shown in each figure. Fluid Force on a Circular Plate A circular plate of radius r force against the stern if the measurements are given in feet. (Evaluate one integral by a geometric formula and the posed coordinate system is shown in the figure. Assume that the base of the plate is 12 feet beneath the F  wkhb.5 10. 5 5 33. The center is k In Exercises 29 and 30. use the integration capabilities of a feet below the surface of the fluid. Show that graphing utility to approximate the fluid force on the vertical the fluid force on the surface of the plate is plate bounded by the x-axis and the top half of the graph of the equation. Define fluid force against a submerged vertical plane region.512 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration 20. 26. Water level y (Evaluate one integral by a geometric formula and the other by 6 Stern observing that the integrand is an odd function. w −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 (a) (b) 2 5 28. Irrigation Canal Gate The vertical cross section of an irrigation canal is modeled by 5x2 3 f x  x24 2 where x is measured in feet and x  0 corresponds to the center of the canal. The center of the circle is k k > r feet y 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 below the surface of the fluid. 25. Find the fluid 21. Fluid Force of Gasoline Repeat Exercise 19 for a tank that is 27.25 10.) the width w of the stern at indicated values of y. Think About It (a) (b) (a) Approximate the depth of the water in the tank in Exercise 5 if the fluid force is one-half as great as when the tank is full. 10 34. Submarine Porthole A porthole on a vertical side of a Which has the greater fluid force? Explain. Two identical semicircular windows are placed at the same depth in the vertical wall of an aquarium (see figure). height h feet and base b feet is submerged vertically in a tank of fluid that weighs w pounds per cubic foot. Use the integration capabilities of a graph- ing utility to approximate the fluid force against a vertical gate 23. Submarine Porthole Repeat Exercise 25 for a circular porthole that has a diameter of 1 foot.  1 28 16 shown in each figure. (b) Explain why the answer in part (a) is not 32. x 23  y 23  423 30. 2 Assume the plates are in the wall of a tank filled with water and the measurements are given in feet.) 4 22. The center is 15 feet below the surface. 24. where h ≤ k2. assuming that the center of the d d square is 15 feet below the surface.5 surface of the plate is F  wk  r 2. Modeling Data The vertical stern of a boat with a superim- full.

and determine the area of the region. x  0. x  2. y  0. y  . y 2x2 (a) the x. y  x  1. x  6 will pay $56. use vertical and horizontal representative x2 y2 23. y  x  4 2x2. x  1. x  1.1 23.000 29. y  2.2t. y  ex. x  . y  0 exponential model for the data.000 graphs of the equations y  xx  1 and y  0. ≤ y ≤ 2 3 3 In Exercises 21–28. Click on to print an enlarged copy of the graph. y  x2  8x  3. with 5.  1 (a) the y-axis (oblate spheroid) a2 b2 15. y  x3. y  0. which is the better offer? Explain. x  1. y  sin x. x2 y2 24.axis (d) the line x  1 In Exercises 15–18.000. (Source: Cellular Telecommunications 1 1. x  1. y  3  8x  x2 (a) the x. y  4 . Let t represent the year. x  y  1.axis (b) the y-axis 12. y  0. ≤ x ≤ 4 4 What is the difference in total service revenue between the 1  7 two models for the years 2005 through 2010? 10. REVIEW EXERCISES 513 Review Exercises for Chapter 7 The symbol indicates an exercise in which you are instructed to use graphing technology or a symbolic computer algebra system.6 27. x  0 (b) A financial consultant believes that a model for service revenue for the years 2005 through 2010 is 8. in billions of dollars for the cellular telephone industry for the years 1995 through 2001. x  1 x2  1 (a) Use the regression capabilities of a graphing utility to find an 4. y  x2  4x  3. Find the area of the (b) the x-axis (prolate spheroid) region by evaluating the easier of the two integrals. Volume Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 the region about (a) the x-axis and (b) the y-axis. From a strictly monetary viewpoint. The salary increases for each offer are shown revolved about the y-axis in the figure. Modeling Data The table shows the annual service revenue R1 the equations. y  2 (one region)  5 R2  5  6. y  1  . y  x3 t  5 corresponding to 1995. Use the graphing utility to plot 6. y  csc x. y  ex. x  cos y.0 52. y  e2. Job 2 20. y  . capabilities of the graphing utility to find the area of the region. Click on to view the complete solution of the exercise. x  y2  1. y  0. Year . x  1 S revolved about the x-axis Salary (in dollars) 60. and use the integration indicated line(s). y  x  1. y  .000. x  0 26. use a graphing utility to graph the region revolving the plane region bounded by the equations about the bounded by the graphs of the functions. y  0.  1 (a) the y-axis (oblate spheroid) rectangles to set up integrals for finding the area of the region 16 9 bounded by the graphs of the equations. consider the region bounded by the 40. x  1 1  x 2 19. y  25. y  11  x  2.axis (b) the line y  2 (c) the y. y  x. The starting revolved about the x-axis salary for each is $30. y  0. x  y2  2y.000 Job 1 In Exercises 29 and 30. Area Find the area of the region. t 30. x  y2  2y. x  0 14. y  2. In Exercises 1–10. y  x  2. y  cos x. 7.5 65. x  1 2 x 1 x revolved about the y-axis 17. y  1 2 1 18. y  4. x  0 22. x  5 x2 R1 19. Think About It A person has two job offers. x  0 (b) the x-axis (prolate spheroid) x1 1 16. y  x. x  4 11. x  0. y  .0 1 3. find the volume of the solid generated by In Exercises 11–14. x  0 (c) the line x  4 (d) the line x  6 13. 28. 9. y  x.83e0. x  y  3 the data and graph the model in the same viewing window. x  5 & Internet Association) x2 1 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2. y  0. y  0. and after 10 years of service each 27. y  0. 21.1 40. sketch the region bounded by the graphs of 20.5 33.

and its vertical cross sections are equilateral triangles. find the centroid of the region bounded by approximate the length of the cable.514 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration 31. Work The work done by a variable force in a press is 80 foot- a. If the 175 feet deep. vertical walls? assuming that no water enters it while it is being pumped. Find a.) 51. when it is filled to one-fourth its capacity. How much is submerged in water so that its center is 5 feet below the work is required to raise the entire chain to the 20-foot level? surface. uses a cable weighing 4 pounds per foot. and the depth of the of 12 gallons per minute. Work A water well has an eight-inch casing (diameter) and is The length and width of the pool are 40 feet and 20 feet. y  x3  . Work A force of 4 pounds is needed to stretch a spring 1 inch x from its natural position. y  12x (Make your selection on the basis of a sketch of the arc and not by performing any calculations. 1 39. Work A windlass. In Exercises 33 and 34. Work Repeat Exercise 41. find the fluid 43. 32. Fluid Force Show that the fluid force against any vertical 42. find the arc length of the graph of the F function over the given interval. The water is 25 feet from the top of the well. Magnitude of a Base The base of a solid is a circle of radius 45. y  0 0 50. 4) 4 35. 2000 ≤ x ≤ 2000 Feet 2000 where x and y are measured in feet. the graphs of the equations. and the bottom is an inclined plane. −3 −4 40. 4 34. 46. y  2x  3 1  sec2 x2 dx. 0. y  x2. The press moves a distance of 4 feet and the force is a volume of the solid is 10 cubic meters. what is the fluid force on each of the Determine the amount of work done in pumping the well dry. 37. 10 feet deep at the other. Find 2 the surface area of the solid generated. Fluid Force Using the result of Exercise 53. Find the centroid of the blade. Find the work done in stretching the −1 1 2 3 4 5 7 spring from its natural length of 10 inches to a length of −2 15 inches. The pounds. Centroid A blade on an industrial fan has the configuration of (a) 2 (b) 1 (c)  (d) 4 (e) 3 a semicircle attached to a trapezoid (see figure). and x  3 is revolved about the x-axis. Surface Area Use integration to find the lateral surface area y of a right circular cone of height 4 and radius 3. y  0 4 48. 38. Find the graph of x216   y29  1 about the y-axis. How many gallons are pumped in centroid of the region. 41. Work Find the work done by the force F shown in the figure. x  y  a. 36. 200 feet above ground level on the top of a spheroid generated by revolving the region bounded by the building. Fluid Force A swimming pool is 5 feet deep at one end and length of 9 inches to double that length. 49. Find the depth of the gasoline in the tank (a) one end is at ground level. Work A chain 10 feet long weighs 5 pounds per foot and is force on one side of a vertical circular plate of radius 4 feet that hung from a platform 20 feet above the ground. the circle. Find the work done in stretching the spring from its natural 52. Length of a Catenary A cable of a suspension bridge forms 2 a catenary modeled by the equation x   x 2 4 6 8 10 12 y  300 cosh  280. Surface Area The region bounded by the graphs of 4 3 y  2x. assuming that water enters the well region in a liquid is the product of the weight per cubic volume at a rate of 4 gallons per minute and the pump works at a rate of the liquid. y  0. y  x23. f x  x54. (b) there is a 300-pound load attached to the end of the cable. 1. 3 Pounds 8 5 6 2x 6 (9. x  0. pool is full of water. Approximation Determine which value best approximates the length of the arc represented by the integral 47. this case? 54. the area of the region. Use a graphing utility to In Exercises 47–50. Work The force required to stretch a spring is 50 pounds. Find the radius of quadratic of the form F  ax2. 12 10 4 1 1 33. Depth of Gasoline in a Tank A gasoline tank is an oblate 44. where x and y work done in winding up the cable if are measured in feet. . y  a2  x2. 53.

Use the disk method to calcu. c 2) r h T y = x2 R x Rotatable Graph O c 2.S. y y L 64 C y = x − x2 48 y = mx y = x3 32 x d S 1 R 16 A(1. 3. x-axis. 0) (b) Repeat the construction in part (a) by selecting an arbitrary x point A on the curve y  x 3. and let 8y 2  x 21  x 2. 0 to x. Graph the curve 9. Use a computer algebra system to find the surface area of the solid of revolution obtained by revolving the curve about the ds (a) Find . Let T be the area figure).S. . intersects the curve at another point B. Problem Solving 515 P. T lim . Show that the two areas R and −3 −2 −1 2 S are always related in the same way. Find the of the triangle AOB. revolution. 4. A rectangle R of length l and width w is revolved about the x-axis. b. The arc length of the curve from 0. The graph of y  f x passes through the origin. f x is given by (b) Use the disk method to find the volume of the general torus sx   0 x 1  e t dt. Click on to view the complete solution of the exercise. 1) w x B 2 4 3. Click on to print an enlarged copy of the graph. (d) Calculate s2 and describe what it signifies. 1. if the circle has radius r and its center is R units from the axis of rotation. Let R be the region bounded by the parabola y  x  x 2 and the 6. The y tangent line at B intersects the curve at another point C (see figure). How are the areas R and S related? 1 r=2 (2. Find the volume of the resulting solid of region into two regions of equal area. Identify the function f. c > 0. sx   a x 1   ft2 dt. Calculate the limit volume of the ring and show that it is independent of the radius of the sphere. find sx on 1. (a) A torus is formed by revolving the region bounded by the R circle Figure for 6 Figure for 7 x  22  y 2  1 7. −1 Centroid 8. Let R be the area of the region in the first quadrant bounded by 5. (c) If f t  t 32. Let S be the area of the region bounded by the 2 (x − 2)2 + y 2 = 1 curve and this second tangent line. A hole is cut through the center of a sphere of radius r (see the parabola y  x 2 and the line y  cx. Find the equation of the line y  mx that divides this line L (see figure). c→0 R y c2 A B(c. Let f be rectifiable on the interval a. 1 about the y-axis (see figure). dx (b) Find ds and ds2. P. Problem Solving The symbol indicates an exercise in which you are instructed to use graphing technology or a symbolic computer algebra system. Let R be the area of late the volume of the torus. the region bounded by the curve and the tangent line. (a) The tangent line to the curve y  x 3 at the point A1. The height of the remaining spherical ring is h.

1? .516 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration 10. (b) Find the centroid of the region for 1 ≤ x ≤ b. (a) Find the centroid of the region for 1 ≤ x ≤ 6. and that of ice is equilibrium 0.4x 2. For a partially submerged object. You can see the top Consumer Supply surplus curve of a floating iceberg (see figure). (i) f x ≥ 0 on 0. vertical wall. 4 feet deep at one end.92  103 kilograms per cubic meter. Find the work done by each force F. 4) F 8 2 2 F 8 −y 1 1 x x Δy 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 10 20 30 40 14. 54 ft 82 ft 75 ft (b) For each function found in part (a).5x. The Archimedes Principle states that the upward or buoyant In Exercises 15 and 16. and bounded below by y  1x 3. Estimate the surface area of the pond using (a) the Trapezoidal Rule and (b) Simpson’s Rule. find the consumer surplus and producer force on an object within a fluid is equal to the weight of the surplus for the given demand [ p1 x ] and supply [ p2 x ] curves. (Use a graphing utility if necessary. What percent of the total iceberg is below the surface? P0 (x0. bounded above bottom is an inclined plane.) (c) Can you find a function f that satisfies the conditions in part (a) and whose graph has an arc length of less than 3 on 20 ft the interval 0. and 8 feet deep at the other end (see figure). The density of ocean water is Point of 1. 1. floating object and the fluid by observing how much of the P object is above and below the surface. p2x  0. (a) Find at least two continuous functions f that satisfy each condition. The 11. Find the fluid force on each by y  1x 3. (a) y (b) y y 4 4 3 3 (40. (c) Where is the centroid as b →  ? 40 ft 12. The consumer surplus and producer surplus are represented by you can obtain information about the relative densities of the the areas shown in the figure. fluid that the object displaces. approximate the arc length of the graph of the function on the interval 0. Sketch the region bounded on the left by x  1. 1 (ii) f 0  0 and f 1  0 (iii) The area bounded by the graph of f and the x-axis for 50 ft 82 ft 73 ft 80 ft 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 equals 1. (b) Find the centroid of the region for 1 ≤ x ≤ b. bounded above by y  1x 4 and bounded below by y  1x 4. p1x  50  0. A swimming pool is 20 feet wide. 18. p1x  1000  0.125x 16. 20 ft (a) Find the centroid of the region for 1 ≤ x ≤ 6. 4 ft (c) Where is the centroid as b →  ? 8 ft 13. Sketch the region to the right of the y-axis.03  103 kilograms per cubic meter. You can also determine the size of a floating object if you know the amount that is above the surface and the relative densities. P0 ) y=L−h Demand Producer y=0 surplus curve x x0 L h 15. 40 feet long. p2x  42x y = −h 17.