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# SECTION 7.

7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force 507

Section 7.7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force
• Find fluid pressure and fluid force.

Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force
Swimmers know that the deeper an object is submerged in a fluid, the greater the
pressure on the object. Pressure is defined as the force per unit of area over the
surface of a body. For example, because a column of water that is 10 feet in height and
1 inch square weighs 4.3 pounds, the fluid pressure at a depth of 10 feet of water is
4.3 pounds per square inch.* At 20 feet, this would increase to 8.6 pounds per square
inch, and in general the pressure is proportional to the depth of the object in the fluid.

Definition of Fluid Pressure
The pressure on an object at depth h in a liquid is
Pressure  P  wh
where w is the weight-density of the liquid per unit of volume.

Below are some common weight-densities of fluids in pounds per cubic foot.
Ethyl alcohol 49.4
Gasoline 41.0–43.0
Glycerin 78.6
Kerosene 51.2
BLAISE PASCAL (1623–1662)
Mercury 849.0
Pascal is well known for his work in many
areas of mathematics and physics, and also
Seawater 64.0
for his influence on Leibniz. Although much Water 62.4
of Pascal’s work in calculus was intuitive and
lacked the rigor of modern mathematics, he
When calculating fluid pressure, you can use an important (and rather surprising)
nevertheless anticipated many important physical law called Pascal’s Principle, named after the French mathematician Blaise
. results. Pascal. Pascal’s Principle states that the pressure exerted by a fluid at a depth h is
transmitted equally in all directions. For example, in Figure 7.68, the pressure at the
indicated depth is the same for all three objects. Because fluid pressure is given in
MathBio terms of force per unit area P  FA, the fluid force on a submerged horizontal
surface of area A is
Fluid force  F  PA  (pressure)(area).

h

. The pressure at h is the same for all three objects.
Figure 7.68

Rotatable Graph

* The total pressure on an object in 10 feet of water would also include the pressure due to
Earth’s atmosphere. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.7 pounds per
square inch.

to the fluid pressure times the area. the fact that the sheet is rectangular and horizontal means that you do not need the methods of calculus to solve the problem.4 pounds per square foot. This problem is more difficult because the pressure is y not constant over the surface. .70. where yi is in the ith subinterval. Solution Because the weight-density of water is 62. each of width y. Consider a surface that is submerged vertically in a fluid. Suppose a vertical plate is submerged in a fluid of weight-density w (per unit of volume). equal Figure 7. . as shown in Figure 7. force on a vertical metal plate. fluid Figure 7. Definition of Force Exerted by a Fluid The force F exerted by a fluid of constant weight-density w (per unit of volume) against a submerged vertical plane region from y  c to y  d is n F  w lim →0 i1  h y L  y  y i i w c d h  yL  y dy where h y is the depth of the fluid at y and L y is the horizontal length of the region at y.69 Try It Exploration A Rotatable Graph In Example 1. This result is independent of the size of the body of water. The fluid force would be The fluid force on a horizontal metal sheet is the same in a swimming pool or lake. taking the limit as  → 0 n →  suggests the following definition. The force against n such rectangles is Calculus methods must be used to find the . d into n subinter- h(yi) vals. n n   F  w  h  y L  y  y. The force against this representative rectangle is c Fi  w deptharea L(yi)  wh yiL  yi y.8 pounds. you can subdivide the interval c.4 pounds per cubic foot and the sheet is submerged in 6 feet of water. as shown in Figure 7.46 P  wh  374. consider the representative rectangle of width y and ∆y length L yi.4  pounds square foot 12 square feet 4  4492.70 i i i i1 i1 Rotatable Graph Note that w is considered to be constant and is factored out of the summation. the fluid pressure is 6 P  62.508 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration EXAMPLE 1 Fluid Force on a Submerged Sheet Find the fluid force on a rectangular metal sheet measuring 3 feet by 4 feet that is submerged in 6 feet of water. Therefore. . To determine the total force against one side of the d x region from depth c to depth d. Because the total area of the sheet is A  34  12 square feet.69. Next. the fluid force is 3 F  PA  374.

71(a). find the equation of the line forming the right side of the gate. you are at liberty to locate the x. as shown in Figure 7. y its equation is 2 4  9 y  9  x  3 x 43 −6 −2 2 6 −2 y  9  5 x  3 h(y) = −y (4.71   y  24 5  L  y. as shown in Figure 7. by integrating from y  9 to y  4. What is the fluid force on the gate when the top of the gate is 4 feet below the surface of the water? 4 ft 8 ft Solution In setting up a mathematical model for this problem.4 9 y 25  y  24 dy  4 2  62. you can calculate the fluid force to be Fw d h  yL  y dy c 4  62.71(b) you can see that the length of the region at y is −10 (3. SECTION 7. 9 and 4. x x ∆y 5 In Figure 7. So. −4) y  5x  24 y  24 .4  y 2  24y dy 5 9 4  62. A convenient approach is to let the 5 ft y-axis bisect the gate and place the x-axis at the surface of the water. −9) Length  2x (b) The fluid force against the gate 2 Figure 7. (a) Water gate in a dam To find the length L  y of the region at y.7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force 509 EXAMPLE 2 Fluid Force on a Vertical Surface A vertical gate in a dam has the shape of an isosceles trapezoid 8 feet across the top and 6 feet across the bottom. 4. Finally. the depth of the water at y in feet is 6 ft Depth  h  y  y.4 2 y3 5 3   12y 2 9 .71(b). Because this line passes through the points 3.and y-axes in several different ways. with a height of 5 feet.

but arbitrary.4 5   3  13. Try It Exploration A Open Exploration NOTE In Example 2.  62. the x-axis coincided with the surface of the water. . In choosing a coordinate system to represent a physical situation. you should consider various possibilities. This was convenient. such as symmetry.936 pounds. Often you can simplify the calculations in a problem by locating the coordinate system to take advantage of special characteristics of the problem. 2 1675 .

−2 This means that you cannot apply Theorem 4.5 however. and you can use the equation for the circle.6 to determine f is not differentiable at x  ± 1. . 1 Initially it looks as if this integral would be difficult to solve. Without knowing the potential error. Moreover. you might have considered using Simpson’s Rule to approximate the value of 10 128 1 1 8  x1  x2 dx. to solve for x as follows. From the graph of f x  8  x1  x2 −1.5 1. So. because y ranges from 1 to 1.72 Fw d h  yL  y dy c 1  64 8  y21  y2 dy.73 approximation is of little value. Use a graphing utility to approximate the integral. 2 The horizontal length of the window is 2x. you obtain F  64 16 2  64 20  512 1608.19 from Section 4. as shown in Figure 7. ∆y Length  2x x Observation 2 3  21  y2  L  y window Finally. as shown in Figure 7.5 pounds.5 pounds. locate a coordinate system such that the 8−y origin coincides with the center of the window.72. the fluid force on the window is 1608. and using 64 pounds per cubic foot as the The fluid force on the window weight-density of seawater. Try It Exploration A TECHNOLOGY To confirm the result obtained in Example 3. the solution is simple. by recognizing that the first integral represents the area of a semicircle of radius 1. you have Figure 7. you can see that f is not differentiable when x  ± 1 (see Figure 7.510 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration y EXAMPLE 3 Fluid Force on a Vertical Surface 8 A circular observation window on a marine science ship has a radius of 1 foot. However. . the Figure 7. What is the fluid force on the window? 6 5 Solution To take advantage of symmetry. and the 7 center of the window is 8 feet below water level. x x2  y2  1. F  64 16 1 1 1  y 2 dy  64 2 1 1 y1  y 2 dy The second integral is 0 (because the integrand is odd and the limits of integration are symmetric to the origin). The depth at 4 y is then 3 Depth  h y  8  y.73).72. the potential error in Simpson’s Rule. if you break the integral into two parts and apply symmetry.

. 16 square feet 11. 15. Triangle 4 4 Force on a Concrete Form In Exercises 15–18. Trapezoid 8. find the buoyant force of 1 a rectangular solid of the given dimensions submerged in water 2 so that the top side is parallel to the surface of the water. Click on to print an enlarged copy of the graph. 3 square feet 2. Assume that the tank is full of water.7 The symbol indicates an exercise in which you are instructed to use graphing technology or a symbolic computer algebra system. Find the fluid force given in meters and the weight-density of water is 9800 newtons on the top side. the area of Fluid Force of Water In Exercises 11–14. Determine the force on this part of the concrete form. Find the fluid force on a circular end of the tank if the tank is half full. Rectangle 16. The sheet metal is the vertical plate submerged in water. 3. y  x2 10. 1. Semicircle y   3416  x2 4 4 ft 2 ft 2 10 ft 3 3 ft 2 9. assuming that the diameter is 3 feet and the gasoline weighs 42 pounds per cubic foot. 1 6 5. Fluid Force of Gasoline A cylindrical gasoline tank is placed so that the axis of the cylinder is horizontal. 17.7 3 3 pounds per cubic foot. Click on to view the complete solution of the exercise. find the fluid force on the vertical side of the tank. Semiellipse. 7. Semiellipse. 2 h h 2 ft 4 ft 3 ft 8 ft 13. Rectangle 6. Rectangle 6 ft 2 ft 3 1 Rotatable Graph Rotatable Graph 5 9 Fluid Force on a Tank Wall In Exercises 5–10. Square Buoyant Force In Exercises 3 and 4. per cubic meter. 4. where the dimensions are given in feet. SECTION 7. The 3 3 buoyant force is the difference between the fluid forces on the top and bottom sides of the solid. where the dimensions are submerged horizontally in 5 feet of water. Triangle 14. find the fluid force on the top side of a piece of sheet metal is given. Rectangle 18. Force on a Submerged Sheet In Exercises 1 and 2. Parabola. Triangle y   1236  9x2 5 ft 4 4 4 ft 3 ft 3 4 6 ft 19. Square 12. the figure is the vertical side of a form for poured concrete that weighs 140.7 Fluid Pressure and Fluid Force 511 Exercises for Section 7.

Assume the plates are in the wall of a tank filled with water and the measurements are given in feet. feet is submerged vertically in a tank of fluid that weighs w 1 3 5 7 pounds per cubic foot. 31. surface of the water. . Define fluid pressure. 4 6 Writing About Concepts 3 32. submarine (submerged in seawater) is 1 square foot. Fluid Force on a Rectangular Plate A rectangular plate of used to stop the flow of water if the water is 3 feet deep. The table shows other by observing that the integrand is an odd function. Show that the fluid force on the w 0 3 5 8 9 10 10. Fluid Force on a Rectangular Plate Use the result of x2 y2 Exercise 23 to find the fluid force on the rectangular plate 29. Find the fluid force on the porthole. Fluid Force on a Circular Plate Use the result of Exercise 21 to find the fluid force on the circular plate shown in each figure. Fluid Force on a Circular Plate A circular plate of radius r force against the stern if the measurements are given in feet. (Evaluate one integral by a geometric formula and the posed coordinate system is shown in the figure. Assume that the base of the plate is 12 feet beneath the F  wkhb.5 10. 5 5 33. The center is k In Exercises 29 and 30. use the integration capabilities of a feet below the surface of the fluid. Show that graphing utility to approximate the fluid force on the vertical the fluid force on the surface of the plate is plate bounded by the x-axis and the top half of the graph of the equation. Define fluid force against a submerged vertical plane region.512 CHAPTER 7 Applications of Integration 20. 26. Water level y (Evaluate one integral by a geometric formula and the other by 6 Stern observing that the integrand is an odd function. w −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 (a) (b) 2 5 28. Irrigation Canal Gate The vertical cross section of an irrigation canal is modeled by 5x2 3 f x  x24 2 where x is measured in feet and x  0 corresponds to the center of the canal. The center of the circle is k k > r feet y 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 below the surface of the fluid. 25. Find the fluid 21. Fluid Force of Gasoline Repeat Exercise 19 for a tank that is 27.25 10.) the width w of the stern at indicated values of y. Think About It (a) (b) (a) Approximate the depth of the water in the tank in Exercise 5 if the fluid force is one-half as great as when the tank is full. 10 34. Submarine Porthole A porthole on a vertical side of a Which has the greater fluid force? Explain. Two identical semicircular windows are placed at the same depth in the vertical wall of an aquarium (see figure). height h feet and base b feet is submerged vertically in a tank of fluid that weighs w pounds per cubic foot. Use the integration capabilities of a graph- ing utility to approximate the fluid force against a vertical gate 23. Submarine Porthole Repeat Exercise 25 for a circular porthole that has a diameter of 1 foot.  1 28 16 shown in each figure. (b) Explain why the answer in part (a) is not 32. x 23  y 23  423 30. 2 Assume the plates are in the wall of a tank filled with water and the measurements are given in feet.) 4 22. The center is 15 feet below the surface. 24. where h ≤ k2. assuming that the center of the d d square is 15 feet below the surface.5 surface of the plate is F  wk  r 2. Modeling Data The vertical stern of a boat with a superim- full.

and determine the area of the region. x  0. x  2. y  0. y  . y 2x2 (a) the x. y  x  1. x  6 will pay \$56. use vertical and horizontal representative x2 y2 23. y  x  4 2x2. x  1. x  1.1 23.000 29. y  2.2t. y  ex. x  . y  0 exponential model for the data.000 graphs of the equations y  xx  1 and y  0. ≤ y ≤ 2 3 3 In Exercises 21–28. Click on to print an enlarged copy of the graph. y  x2  8x  3. with 5.  1 (a) the y-axis (oblate spheroid) a2 b2 15. y  x3. y  0. which is the better offer? Explain. x  1. y  sin x. x2 y2 24.axis (d) the line x  1 In Exercises 15–18.000. (Source: Cellular Telecommunications 1 1. x  1. y  3  8x  x2 (a) the x. y  4 . Let t represent the year. x  y  1.axis (b) the y-axis 12. y  0. ≤ x ≤ 4 4 What is the difference in total service revenue between the 1  7 two models for the years 2005 through 2010? 10. REVIEW EXERCISES 513 Review Exercises for Chapter 7 The symbol indicates an exercise in which you are instructed to use graphing technology or a symbolic computer algebra system.6 27. x  0 (b) A financial consultant believes that a model for service revenue for the years 2005 through 2010 is 8. in billions of dollars for the cellular telephone industry for the years 1995 through 2001. x  1 x2  1 (a) Use the regression capabilities of a graphing utility to find an 4. y  x2  4x  3. Find the area of the (b) the x-axis (prolate spheroid) region by evaluating the easier of the two integrals. Volume Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 the region about (a) the x-axis and (b) the y-axis. From a strictly monetary viewpoint. The salary increases for each offer are shown revolved about the y-axis in the figure. Modeling Data The table shows the annual service revenue R1 the equations. y  2 (one region)  5 R2  5  6. y  1  . y  x3 t  5 corresponding to 1995. Use the graphing utility to plot 6. y  csc x. y  ex. x  cos y.0 52. y  e2. Job 2 20. y  . capabilities of the graphing utility to find the area of the region. Click on to view the complete solution of the exercise. x  y2  1. y  0. Year . x  1 S revolved about the x-axis Salary (in dollars) 60. and use the integration indicated line(s). y  x  1. y  .000. x  0 26. use a graphing utility to graph the region revolving the plane region bounded by the equations about the bounded by the graphs of the functions. y  0.  1 (a) the y-axis (oblate spheroid) rectangles to set up integrals for finding the area of the region 16 9 bounded by the graphs of the equations. consider the region bounded by the 40. x  1 1  x 2 19. y  25. y  11  x  2.axis (b) the line y  2 (c) the y. y  x. The starting revolved about the x-axis salary for each is \$30. y  0. x  y2  2y.000 Job 1 In Exercises 29 and 30. Area Find the area of the region. t 30. x  y2  2y. x  0 14. y  2. In Exercises 1–10. y  x  2. y  cos x. 7.5 65. x  1 2 x 1 x revolved about the y-axis 17. y  1 2 1 18. y  4. x  0 22. x  5 x2 R1 19. Think About It A person has two job offers. x  0 (b) the x-axis (prolate spheroid) x1 1 16. y  x. x  4 11. x  0. y  .0 1 3. find the volume of the solid generated by In Exercises 11–14. x  0 (c) the line x  4 (d) the line x  6 13. 28. 9. y  x.83e0. x  y  3 the data and graph the model in the same viewing window. x  5 & Internet Association) x2 1 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2. y  0. y  0. and after 10 years of service each 27. y  0. 21.1 40. sketch the region bounded by the graphs of 20.5 33.