You are on page 1of 2

The lihologic types must be carefully mapped and studied in the field, and the thickness and

sucession of beds, flows, or minor instrusions determined. Samples should be taken for
laboratory test of strength and permeability and for the preparation of thin section
microscopic study. The Laboratory studies, supplementary to the field work, are of highest
importance for some types of lithology, namely, the unconsolidated or the weakly
consolidated sediments.

Coincident with the lithologic mapping and study, structures are mapped. Structural studies
include mapping the attitude of beds, joints, faullts, shear zones, and cleavage planes. The
spacing and minor features of structures should be noted, insofar as they bear on the problem
at hand. The weathering of the rock should be noted and the characteristics and localization
of the weatherd materials determined.

At this stage of the examination, preliminary cross-sections are drwan across the valley. The
drawing of the cross-section brings out clearly where more information is necessary. For
whereas in much geology work cross-section are often based in large part on inference,
engineering workrequires that the work be checked and that the gaps filled in by inference
must be so small as to leave no chance for major error.

After the surficial investigations, a drilling program can be planned to obtain the
suplementary geological data, and drill holes spotted which will yield the maximumk
information. Core drilling is the most satisfactory drilling method, and shot drilling is
preferable to diamond drilling because of the sensitivity of the former in detecting open joins
and cavities. Core should be carefully preserved in their original sequence and accurate
records kept of the drilling, especially should water be losses be noted. Unfortunately, core
recovery is highest for sound rock types and least for soft or fractured rocks. Crackes and
openings do not appear in the drill cores.

Water under pressure is often forced in the exploration holes to obtain information on
openings. Grunting of the drill holes give similiar information. Grout should not be forced in
under to high pressures. Mead 3 estimates that about one pound of pressure per foot of depth
is a safe maximum.

Large holes which can be drilled up to 36 inchies or more in diameter are often used because
they permit through inspection of the rock in place. The cores can be handled by bulldozer,
Fig,19-1. Locally because water enterring the hole make trouble, small diameter holes are

A systematic search for suitable construction material for the dam is an important part of the survey. . In this category of foundation and abutment materials are included also thick massive lava flows. Shatter or shear zones may be present. The engineer must know location of material sources. often the structurally weak zones are marked by decomposed rock. Dam sites underline by fresh igneous intrusives. the engineer or geologist lowerde into the hole can examined not only the rock but also the action and penetration of the grout. The strong massive rocks. quary sides should be chosen as sources for crushed stone. Joint systems may be sufficiently open in the surface zone to require grouting. Because of the large volumes required for many projects. Many lava flows are complexily jointed. The physical characteristics of the foundation abutment rock must be careflly determined. Vesiculation should be carefully noted in the study of volcanics. and other varieties are strong enough to support any load imposed upon them. If this is done. For purpose of the discussion which follows. thin-bedded sediments. excessive haulage or import of material might be prohibitively expensive. Strong massive rocks. If the vesicules have been plugged with mineral matter. The strength of the rock. The fresh rock surfaces of these types bond well with concrete and require no special treatment. and the unconsodilated rocks. or vesiculated. Particullar attention should be paid to those factory which bear on the success of the dam.drilled and grouted either inside or outside area of the large hole before the latter is put down. it may be necessary therefore to excavate and grout a portion that permits too ready circulation.weak rocks. the rock is satisfactory. syenite. its structure and permeability are the important items. The problem is to determine possible avenues of excessive perculation. and also their qualities and volumes. monzonite.cavernous rocks. Geological Characteristic of foundation and Abuments. franite. gabbro. A very concise and able summary of these characteristic has been given by Warren J Mead4. Some flows are scoriaceous. rock can be divided into five main groupa. If necessary.