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Lake Victoria

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For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation).

Lake Victoria

Location African Great Lakes

Coordinates 1°S 33°ECoordinates: 1°S 33°E

Primary inflows Kagera River

Primary White Nile (river, known as the "Victoria Nile" as

outflows it flows out of the lake)

Catchment area 184,000 km2 (71,000 sq mi)

238,900 km2 (92,200 sq mi) basin

Basin countries Tanzania



Max. length 337 km (209 mi)

Max. width 250 km (160 mi)

Surface area 68,800 km2 (26,600 sq mi)

Average depth 40 m (130 ft)

Max. depth 83 m (272 ft)

Water volume 2,750 km3 (660 cu mi)

Shore length1 3,440 km (2,140 mi)

Surface elevation 1,135 m (3,724 ft)[1]

Islands 84 (Ssese Islands, Uganda; Maboko Island,


Settlements  Bukoba, Tanzania

 Mwanza, Tanzania

 Musoma, Tanzania

 Kisumu, Kenya

 Kendu Bay, Kenya

 Homa Bay, Kenya

 Kampala, Uganda

 Entebbe, Uganda

 Jinja, Uganda

Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Victoria Nyanza. The black line indicates Stanley's route.

Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu
languages)[2] is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was named after Queen Victoria by the
explorer John Hanning Speke, the first Briton to document it. Speke accomplished this in 1858, while
on an expedition with Richard Francis Burton to locate the source of the Nile River.[3][4]
With a surface area of approximately 68,800 square kilometres (26,600 sq mi),[5][6] Lake Victoria is
Africa's largest lake by area, the world's largest tropical lake,[7] and the world's second largest fresh
water lake by surface area, after Lake Superior in North America.[8] In terms of volume, Lake Victoria
is the world's ninth largest continental lake, containing about 2,750 cubic kilometres
(2.23×109 acre·ft) of water.[9]
Lake Victoria receives its water primarily from direct rainfall and thousands of small streams.
The Kagera River is the largest river flowing into this lake, with its mouth on the lake's western
shore. Lake Victoria is drained solely by the Nile River near Jinja, Uganda, on the lake's northern
Lake Victoria occupies a shallow depression in Africa. The lake has a maximum depth of 84 metres
(276 ft) and an average depth of 40 metres (130 ft).[10] Its catchment area covers 184,000 square

7 percent of this length. and it refilled 14. and Tanzania (49 percent or 33.100 square kilometres or 1. Uganda (45 percent or 31.[15] .2Reptiles o 4.4Environmental data  7History and exploration  8Nalubaale Dam  9Transport  10See also  11References  12External links Geology[edit] Landsat 7 imagery of Lake Victoria Geologically.438 mi) when digitized at the 1:25.5Crustaceans and molluscs  5Fisheries  6Environmental issues o 6.kilometres (71.000 sq mi).[12] and is divided among three countries: Kenya (6 percent or 4. Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression.300 years ago.142 kilometres (4.[11] with islands constituting 3.[12] Geological cores taken from its bottom show Lake Victoria has dried up completely at least three times since it formed.[14] During its geological history.700 years ago.3Cichlid fish o 4.[14] These drying cycles are probably related to past ice ages.[13] Contents [hide]  1Geology  2Hydrology and limnology  3Bathymetry  4Native wildlife o 4.000 square miles).2Water hyacinth invasion o 6.000 square miles).4Other fish o 4.000 square kilometres or 12.000 years old – and it formed when westward-flowing rivers were dammed by an upthrown crustal block.1Mammals o 4. through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes.1Invasive fish o 6. The lake has a shoreline of 7.3Pollution o 6.000 level.[14] Lake Victoria last dried out about 17.600 square miles).700 square kilometres or 13. Lake Victoria is relatively young – about 400. which were times when precipitation declined globally.

this makes Lake Victoria the principal source of the longest branch of the Nile. the Kagera River. is more often considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River (the exact tributary remains undetermined). oxygen concentrations in the mixed layer were higher than in 1960–1961.[12] Average evaporation on the lake is between 2. Oxygen concentrations in hypolimnetic waters (i. from increased nutrient inflows via rivers. with nearly continuous oxygen supersaturation in surface waters. the most distal source of the Nile Basin. the main influent rivers are the Sio. and therefore the ultimate source of the Nile.4 gr/cu ft) occurring in water as shallow as 40 metres (130 ft) compared with a shallowest occurrence of greater than 50 metres (160 ft) in 1961. However. Combined. and remains perpetually cold) were lower in 1990–1991 for a longer period than in 1960–1961.[17] Lake Victoria and the Great Rift Valley This paragraph does not cite any sources.[18] These changes have arisen for multiple reasons: successive burning within its basin. Yala.[19] soot and ash from which has been deposited over the lake's wide area. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and Migori. Sondu Miriu. Please help improve this paragraph by adding citations to reliable sources.2 ft) per year.6 and 7. and which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi. In 1990–1991. is noncirculating. with values of less than 1 mg per litre (< 0.[citation needed] . almost double the precipitation of riparian areas.[16] In the Kenya sector.Hydrology and limnology[edit] Lake Victoria receives 80 percent of its water from direct rainfall. (April 2017)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) The only outflow from Lake Victoria is the Nile River.e. The lake exhibits eutrophic conditions. which exits the lake near Jinja. Mogusi. Uganda.[20] and from increased pollution associated with settlement along its shores. Although it is a part of the same river system known as the White Nile and is occasionally referred to as such. In terms of contributed water. The changes in oxygenation are considered consistent with measurements of higher algal biomass and productivity. these rivers contribute far more water to the lake than does the largest single river entering the lake from the west. The uppermost section of the Nile is generally known as the Victoria Nile until it reaches Lake Albert. Nzoia. strictly speaking this name does not apply until after the river crosses the Uganda border into South Sudan to the north.2 metres (6.0 and 2. Nyando. the layer of water that lies below the thermocline.

[25] The deepest part of the lake is offset to the east of the lake near Kenya and the lake is generally shallower in the west along the Ugandan shoreline and the south along the Tanzanina shoreline. and even out of the lake via predation by humans and terrestrial animals. and some of these are closely associated with the lake itself and the nearby wetlands.[12][21] By itself. Animal flesh decays considerably faster. most of Lake Victoria's nutrients are thought to be locked up in lake-bottom deposits. marsh mongoose. defassa waterbuck. internal recycling system. however. variable mud turtles. sitatunga. spotted-necked otter. and swamps in the upper Nile basin. rivers. Because of this. Among these are the hippopotamus.[25] Native wildlife[edit] Mammals[edit] Many mammal species live in the region of Lake Victoria. and Williams' mud turtle. and equally capable of feeding off one another.The extinction of cichlids in the genus Haplochromis has also been blamed on the lake's eutrophication. as well as African helmeted turtles. The removal of Haplochromis.[20][23][24] which may in turn be responsible for mass fish kills. moving nutrients and biomass both vertically and horizontally through the water column.[20] Bathymetry[edit] Lake Victoria bathymetric model[25] The lake is considered a shallow lake considering its large geographic area with a maximum depth of approximately 80 metres (260 ft) and an average depth of almost exactly 40 metres (130 ft). and giant otter shrew.[26] A 2016 project digitized ten-thousand points and created the first true bathymetric map of the lake. cane rats.[28] .[22][23][24] With some 80 percent of Haplochromis species feeding off detritus. they represented a tight.[27] Reptiles[edit] Lake Victoria and its wetlands has a large population of Nile crocodiles. this vegetative matter decays slowly.[28] The Williams' mud turtle is restricted to Lake Victoria and other lakes. The fertility of tropical waters depends on the rate at which nutrients can be brought into solution. so the fertility of the lake is dependent on the rate at which these nutrients can be taken up by fish and other organisms. however.[21] There is little doubt that Haplochromis played an important role in returning detritus and plankton back into solution. The influent rivers of Lake Victoria provide few nutrients to the lake in relation to its size. African clawless otter. may have contributed to the increasing frequency of algal blooms. bohor reedbuck.

[36] As a result of predation by the introduced Nile perch.000 years. as happened to Lake Victoria about 15. as further downstream movement by the Victoria Nile (to Lake Albert) is prevented by a series of waterfalls.[37] Haplochromis thereuterion survives in low numbers.[31] The main group in Lake Victoria is the haplochromine cichlids (Haplochromis sensu lato) with more than 500 species. also including those of several smaller lakes in the region. which is less affected by the decrease in water clarity caused by eutrophication than short wavelength colors[30] Lake Victoria formerly was very rich in fish. but a high percentage of these became extinct during the last 50 years. Edward—George.000 years ago. insectivores. but is believed to have been connected to Lakes Edward and Victoria by rivers until the uplifting of parts of the East African Rift.[38] Initially feared extinct. when rediscovered it had changed habitat (from near surface to rocky outcrops) and feeding behavior (from surface insects to insect larvae)[39] The ecology of the Victoria haplochromines is extremely diverse. the Owen Falls (now flooded by a dam) between Victoria and Kyoga were essentially a series of rapids that did not effectively block fish movements between the two lakes.[29] Compared to several other cichlids. including many endemics. by some estimates 65 percent of the total species. In contrast. its eyes are particularly sensible to light. and Kivu. notably Murchison.[34] This is far more species of fish than any other lake in the world. which is part of the present-day Congo River basin. Haplochromis nyererei remains common. especially red.[32][36] The Victoria haplochromines are part of an older group of more than 700 closely related species.[33][36][40] Initially it was feared that this number was even higher. eutrophication and other changes to the ecosystem. zooplanktivores. it is estimated that at least 200 species (about 40 percent) of Lake Victoria haplochromines have become extinct. except Lake Malawi.[15][32] Most of these lakes are relatively shallow (like Victoria) and part of the present-day upper Nile basin.[41] but several . molluscivores and piscivores. prawn- eaters. Albert.[15] This deep lake may have functioned as an "evolutionary reservoir" for this haplochromine group in periods where other shallower lakes in the region dried out. falling into at least 16 groups.Cichlid fish[edit] Unlike many other Lake Victoria cichlids. almost all endemic[15][32][33] and some still undescribed.[15] In recent history only Lake Kyoga was easily accessible to Victoria cichlids. including detritivores. notably Kyoga. The exception is Lake Kivu.[15][32][35]Their extraordinary diversity and speed of evolution have been the subjects for many scientists studying the forces that drive the richness of life everywhere.[34] These are the result of a rapid adaptive radiation in the last circa 15.

Garra. airbreathing catfish (Clariallabes. Coelatura. changes in the feeding apparatus. and a few species are extinct in the wild (only survive in captivity). although consisting of fewer species and often switching their diet towards macroinvertebrates.g. Bulinus. Sphaerium. cyprinids (Enteromius. variabilis).[55][56] The only shrimp/prawn is Caridina nilotica. Cleopatra.[36] Others have become extinct in their pure form.[30][36] Some of the threatened Lake Victoria cichlid species have captive "insurance" populations in zoos.[57] which is common and widespread in the lake. and the common Rastrineobola is near- endemic. or above.[33][36] The zooplanktivores have been least affected and in the late 1990s had reaches densities similar to.[43] Some species have survived in nearby small satellite lakes. Labeo. but the very rare Xenobarbus and Xenoclarias are endemic to the lake.[31] Disregarding the haplochromines.species that were feared extinct have been rediscovered after the Nile perch started to decline in the 1990s.. Mormyrus. Rastrineobola and Xenobarbus). bagrid catfish (Bagrus). Petrocephalus. changes to the eyes (giving them a better sight in turbid water)[30][36] and smaller head/larger caudal peduncle (allowing faster swimming). Bellamya.[45] The piscivorous (affected by both predation and competition from Nile perch[46]). Marcusenius. the only native Victoria cichlids are two critically endangered tilapia. Labeobarbus.[54] Crustaceans and molluscs[edit] Two species of freshwater crabs are known from Lake Victoria. but survive as hybrids between close relatives (especially among the detritivores). public aquaria and among private aquarists. the spiny eel Mastacembelus frenatus. most of these are widespread in Africa. Hippopotamyrus.[54] At a genus level.[47][48][49][50][51] Before the mass extinction that has occurred among the lake's cichlids in the last 50 years.[36][42] Several of the remaining species are seriously threatened and additional extinctions are possible. silver butter catfish (Schilbe intermedius).[36][40] Such adaptions include a larger gill area (adaption for oxygen-poor water). elephantfish (Gnathonemus. Clarias and Xenoclarias). and Byssanodonta). poeciliids (Aplocheilichthys and Micropanchax). molluscivorous and insectivorous haplochromines were particularly hard hit with many extinctions.[59] Fisheries[edit] . Biomphalaria.[52][53] Other fish[edit] The non-cichlid native fish include African tetras (Brycinus). and Pollimyrus). and Melanoides)[58] and several species of bivalves (Corbicula. Nothobranchius killifish. the Singida tilapia (Oreochromis esculentus) and Victoria tilapia (O. about 90 percent of the native fish species in the lake were haplochromines. Gabbiella.[44] or have adapted to the human-induced changes in the lake itself. but neither is endemic: Potamonautes niloticus is widespread and P. Synodontis squeaker catfish. the densities before the drastic declines. emini has been recorded from the vicinity of Bukoba in Tanzania. the climbing gourami Ctenopoma muriei and marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus).[36] Lake Victoria is home to 28 species of aquatic gastropods (e. loach catfish (Amphilius and Zaireichthys).[42] have survived in refugias among rocks or papyrus sedges (protecting them from the Nile perch).

Clarias. non- native Nile perch (60 percent) and the native Lake Victoria sardine (30 percent). but this has declined significantly in later years. and Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). had already declined in the first half of the 20th century due to overfishing. the natives continued to dominate fisheries until the 1970s where their decline meant that there was a strong shift towards the non-native Nile tilapia (now 7 percent of catches).[60] Initially the fishery involved native species. redbelly (C.[36][62][64] Although these have contributed to the extinction of native fish by causing significant changes to the ecosystem. several species have been introduced to Lake Victoria where they have become invasive and a prime reason for the extinction of many endemic haplochromine cichlids.[62] At the peak in the early 1990s. several species of non-native tilapia and Nile perch were introduced to the lake in the 1950s. ningu (Labeo victorianus) and marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus).[43] Invasive fish[edit] Starting in the 1950s.[36][62]Because of its small size. especially tilapia and haplochromine cichlids.[31][36][62] .[36][63] To boost fishing. zillii). the most infamous introduction was the large and highly predatory Nile perch (Lates niloticus). the abundant open-water Lake Victoria sardine only supported minor fisheries until the decline of other natives. Synodontis and silver butter catfish).000 long tons) of Nile perch were landed annually in Lake Victoria.Fishers and their boats on the shore of Lake Victoria Main article: Fishing on Lake Victoria Lake Victoria supports Africa's largest inland fishery (as of 1997).[31] Among the introductions are several tilapias: redbreast (Coptodon rendalli).[36] Environmental issues[edit] A number of environmental issues are associated with Lake Victoria and the complete disappearance of many endemic cichlid species has been called the "most dramatic example of human-caused extinctions within an ecosystem". 500. elephantfish.[61][62] Some of these. leucostictus. and O. including tilapia and ningu (Labeo victorianus). outcompeted natives and (in the case of the Nile tilapia) possibly hybridized with the highly threatened native tilapias. Nevertheless. but also catfish (Bagrus.000 metric tons (490.

[64] The origin of the first Victoria introductions in the 1950s is not entirely clear and indisputable evidence is lacking.[64] The first introduction of Nile perch to the region. there were few objections when more Nile perch were transferred to Victoria to further bolster the stock in 1962—63. At the same time it was warned that this could present a serious danger to the native fish species and required extensive research into possible ecological effects before done. Nile perch began being caught in Lake Victoria.[64] Scientists argued that further introduction should wait until research showed the effect of the introduction in Kyoga.[65] As early as the 1920s.[64] These warnings primarily concerned the native tilapia O.[64] In the following decades. . esculentus. This allowed it to spread to Lake Kyoga where additional Nile perch were released in 1955. but by the late 1950s.[64] As the species was already present.The Nile perch was introduced to Lake Victoria for fishing. and can reach up to 2 metres (6. happened upstream of Murchison Falls directly after the completion of the Owen Falls Dam in 1954. but circumstancial evidence suggests otherwise and local Africans employed by UGFD have said that they introduced the species in 1954—55 under the directive of senior officials.[64] UGFD officials argued that Nile perch must have spread to Lake Victoria by themselves by passing through the Owen Falls Dam when shut down for maintenance. but not Victoria itself. as the smaller haplochromine cichlids (despite playing an important role in local fisheries) were regarded as "thrash fish" or even a vermin by the British colonial authorities.6 ft) and 200 kilograms (440 lb). Uganda Game and Fisheries Department (UGFD) officials denied that they were involved. the pressure to introduce the Nile perch continued. done by the Uganda Game and Fisheries Department (then part of the British Colonial rule) and local African fish guards. as did warnings about the possible effects of doing it. it was proposed to introduce a large pelagic predator such as the Nile perch to improve the fisheries in the lake.

[69][73] . The subsequent decrease in the member of algae-eating fish allows the algae to grow at an alarming rate. tilapia. forcing all life to exist within a narrow range of depth. Nile perch. but a drastic increase happened. and more evidently. Local fisheries once depended on catching the lungfish.but this is considered highly unlikely by many scientists. which colonised the lake in the late 1990s". broken by the indiscriminate eating habits of the Nile perch. The increasing amounts of algae. the natural balance of the lake's ecosystem has been disrupted. Without oxygen. are still unknown. the composition and yields of such fish catches are virtually negligible. have been able to make the switch to catching the Nile perch. the plant's mat or "web" creates a barrier for boats and ferries to maneuver. any aerobic life (such as fish) cannot exist in the deeper parts of the lake. there has even been the reappearance of some fish species thought to have been extinct in recent years. however.[36] Initially the population of the Nile perch was relatively low. loss of habitat and overfishing have caused many fisheries to collapse and many protein sources to be unavailable at the market for local consumption. increase the amount of detritus (dead plant material) that falls to the deeper portions of the lake before decomposing. in turn. raising toxicity and disease levels to both fish and people. The release of large amounts of untreated wastewater (sewage) and agricultural and industrial runoff directly into Lake Victoria over the past 30 years has greatly increased the nutrient levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake "triggering massive growth of exotic water hyacinth. In this way. interferes with hydroelectric power generation. Today. Kenya. peaking in the 1980s. At the same time. The overall effects of the water hyacinth. water hyacinth mats can potentially have a positive effect on fish life in that they create a barrier to overfishing and allow for fish growth. Their loss is devastating for the lake.[66] Water hyacinth invasion[edit] Main article: Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria A hyacinth-choked lakeshore at Ndere Island. The abundance of aquatic life is not the only dependent of the lake: more than thirty million people in Tanzania. Lake Victoria. Hundreds of endemic species that evolved under the special conditions offered by the protection of Lake Victoria have been lost due to extinction. for the local fisheries. impedes access to the shoreline. The water hyacinth has become a major invasive plant species in Lake Victoria. Extensive fish kills. The food chain is being altered and in some cases.[36] Due to the presence of the Nile perch. thereby choking the lake. As a by-product of this the oxygen levels in the deeper layer of water are being depleted. since that requires a significant amount of capital resources. Few fisheries. carp and catfish that comprise the local diet. and blocks the intake of water for industries. followed by a decline starting in the 1990s. though.[64] The Nile perch had spread throughout the lake by 1970.[67][68] This invasive weed creates anoxic (total depletion of oxygen levels) conditions in the lake inhibiting decomposing plant material. and several more are still threatened. genetics and evolution biology. Kenya and Uganda rely on the lake for its natural resources.[67][69][70][71][72] On the other hand. the fields of ecology. the Nile perch has degraded the diverse and thriving ecosystem that was once Lake Victoria.

and Musoma in Tanzania. nutrient supply. Its shores in particular are dotted with the key cities and towns. which are more suitable to the plants growth (as there are large urban areas to the north end of the lake. bathymetry. and Bukoba.[72] The water hyacinth is in remission and this trend could be permanent if control efforts are continued. reaching its maxima biomass in 1997 and then declining again by the end of 2001. instead merely moved to another location. Public awareness exercises were also conducted. Additionally. Mwanza. which may be linked to current and weather patterns and could also be due to the climate and water conditions. in Uganda). an environmental data repository exists for Lake Victoria. Kisii. History and exploration[edit] . temperature. dumping of domestic and industrial waste. in relatively protected areas. and Homa Bay in Kenya. including two different water hyacinth weevils and large harvesting and chopping boats. and other important data for both the lake and the wider Basin. The Lake Victoria basin while generally rural has many major centres of population. the water quality. and fertiliser and chemicals from farms. pollution. however. temperature. re-growth occurred quickly.[72][74][75][76] Other factors which may have contributed to the decline of the water hyacinth in Lake Victoria include varying weather patterns. they were more effective than any one deterrent would have been by itself.Growth of the water hyacinth in Lake Victoria has been tracked since 1993. removed manually from the lake. in combination. Jinja and Entebbe in Uganda. including Kisumu. Overall. Large parts of these urban areas also discharge untreated (raw) sewage into the river. These cities and towns also are home to many factories that discharge some chemicals directly into the lake or its influent rivers.[69] Greater growth was observed in the northern part of the lake.[77] Pollution[edit] Population density around Lake Victoria Pollution of Lake Victoria is mainly due to discharge of raw sewage into the lake.[72] More recently. and other environmental factors could have played a role. wind vector. such as El Niño during the last few months of 1997 and first six months of 1998 bringing with it higher levels of water in the lake and thus dislodging the plants. The plants may not have been destroyed. increasing its eutrophication that in turn is helping to increase the invasive water hyacinth. Kampala.[78] Environmental data[edit] As of 2016. which seem to be much more effective in eliminating the water hyacinth. The repository contains shoreline. the timing of the decline could be linked to all of these factors and perhaps together. Heavy winds and rains along with their subsequent waves may have also damaged the plants during this same time frame.[72] The invasive weed was first attempted to be controlled by hand. measures have been used such as the introduction of natural insect predators.

circumnavigating the lake and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the lake's northern shore. The lake as it is visible from the shores of the Speke Resort in Kampala. known as the Muhammad al-Idrisi map from the calligrapher who developed it and dated from the 1160s. confirmed the truth of Speke's discovery. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time. ivory.[80] Ultimately.Bismarck Rock The first recorded information about Lake Victoria comes from Arab traders plying the inland routes in search of gold. Nalubaale Dam[edit] Main article: Nalubaale Power Station . An excellent map. and slaves. but also much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery. Speke named the lake after Queen Victoria. and attributes it as the source of the Nile. the famous British explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke's discovery. on an expedition funded by the New York Herald newspaper. other precious commodities.[79] In the late 1860s. which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day. A very public quarrel ensued. instead pushing too far west and entering the River Congo system instead. Burton. which Burton regarded as still unsettled. the Welsh-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley. clearly depicts an accurate representation of Lake Victoria. who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile River. Uganda The lake was first sighted by a European in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the Great Lakes.

Transport[edit] Main article: Lake Victoria ferries Since the 1900s.[citation needed] See also[edit]  Africa portal  Geography portal  Geography of Kenya portal  Darwin's Nightmare  Kishanda References[edit] . In 1952. was designated a Royal Mail Ship. A standard for mimicking the old rate of outflow called the "agreed curve" was established. Entebbe. engineers acting for the government of British Uganda blasted out the weir and reservoir to replace it with an artificial barrage to control the level of the lake and reduce the gradual erosion of the rock weir.700 cubic metres per second (392–2. The only outflow for Lake Victoria is at Jinja. with World Bank assistance. Bukoba. The water since at least 12. Kenya. The ferry MV Bukoba sank in the lake on 21 May 1996 with a loss of between 800 and 1.[81] and was primarily responsible for recent drops in the lake's level. the water levels in Lake Victoria had reached an 80-year low. Lake Victoria ferries have been an important means of transport between Uganda. MV Victoria. making it one of Africa's worst maritime disasters. In 1966.000 lives.000 years ago drained across a natural rock weir. setting the maximum flow rate at 300 to 1. Port Bell. where it forms the Victoria Nile. Mwanza. By 2006. Until Kenyan independence in 1963. and Kenya.224 cu yd/sec) depending on the lake's water level. Uganda completed a second hydroelectric complex in the area. the fastest and newest ferry. The main ports on the lake are Kisumu. train ferry services between Kenya and Tanzania were established with the introduction of MV Uhuru and MV Umoja. Tanzania. an independent hydrologist living in Nairobi. calculated that Uganda was releasing about twice as much water as is allowed under the agreement. and Jinja. and Daniel Kull. Uganda. In 2002. the Kiira Hydroelectric Power Station.The Nalubaale Hydroelectric Power Station in Njeru. Uganda.

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24. Young (1996).P.salisbury. 21. 25. London. Jump up^ "LV_Bathy". C. 34. "The late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and the origin of its endemic biota". Peter Ochumba (1993). Allender. (2016). Academic Press. Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake Victoria. Lake Victoria Bathymetry. 7 (3): 719– 730. Jump up^ Kingdon. ^ Jump up to:a b c Witte. The lessons of Lake Victoria Uganda 23. T. "Cascading effects of the introduced Nile perch on the detrivorous/phytoplantivorous species in sublittoral areas of Lake Victoria". ISBN 0- 12-656470-1. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 42(2-3): 214–232. & Seehausen (2017). JSTOR 2386703. 19 (4): 203– 207. ^ Jump up to:a b Les Kaufman. F. ^ Jump up to:a b c DeWeerdt.1993. Recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria: an examination of factors leading to differential extinction. Drewes. C. Frans Witte. IUCN Red List of Threatened . Jump up^ Lucy Richardson.. Wanink. ^ Jump up to:a b doi:10. and Ashe (2002).07030686. Seehausen.1989. Hydrobiologia. F. 27. raster. 35. Katunzi. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa. S. S. and T.1046/j. & Brooks. Stager. P. and Goldschmidt (2000). Marques. Mwaiko. Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations.1007/s10750-007-9158-2. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 10: 233—241. East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation. "Evolutionary and conservation biology of cichlid fishes as revealed by faunal remnants in northern Lake Victoria". Victoria.1. Msuku. Conservation Biology. 27 (1): 23– 34. A. (28 February 2004). P. Goudswaard. Version 2017. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Meier. London. Fisheries and cichlid evolution in the African Great Lakes: progress and problems.1038/ncomms14363 33. Beauchamp (1954).1523-1739. Freshwater Reviews 2: 131-151. Seehausen. (1997). Jump up^ Witte. doi:10. doi:10. "Haplochromis thereuterion". Retrieved 27 March 2017. de Zeeuw. T.1111/j. faculty. JSTOR 2386700. M. African Journal of Ecology. 30. ISBN 978- 0195108170 38. doi 10.1365-2028. Dark secret of the lake. 32. Howell. ^ Jump up to:a b Turner.1163/156854291X00298. 22. Conservation Biology. 28.x. Jan Wanink (1993). 596 (1): 5–16. and Robinson (2001).LakeVicFish Dataverse". (2010). Johnson (2008). E. Retrieved 26 March 2017. Jump up^ Witte.1046/j. Retrieved 24 October 2016. van Oijen & Wanink (1992). 26. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Witte. de Zeeuw. (2009). 201—206. 7 (3): 686–700. & Brooks. Knight. How many species of cichlid fishes are there in African lakes? Molecular Ecology 10: 793–806. "Fishery research in the lakes of East Africa". ISBN 0-12-408355-2. Ligtvoet.x. New Scientist. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ^ Jump up to:a b Tijs Goldschmidt. Academic Press Limited. Kenya". doi:10. 31.tb00925. 2016 . Jump up^ McClanahan. The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. East African Agricultural Journal. "Haplochromis nyererei". E.1523- 1739. J.. doi:10. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Jump up^ J. Pp. R. ^ Jump up to:a b Spawls. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lowe-McConnell. M.7910/dvn/soeknr.1993.. 36. Nature Communications 8: 14363. Excoffier. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Bathymetry TIFF. 29.07030719. DOI: 10. Wagner. 37. Goldschmidt. Goudswaard.

Version 2017. ^ Jump up to:a b van Rijssel. (27 November 2015). Buescher. 40. Cascading Effects of the Introduced Nile Perch on the Detritivorous/Phytoplanktivorous Species in the Sublittoral Areas of Lake Victoria. 89. Wetland ecotones as refugia for endangered fishes. Retrieved 14 April 2017. D: Looking At Victoria Cichlids. 51. Jump up^ Zeeuw. M. Chapter 27. .1.. pp. Jump up^ Twongo. Witte. J. Jump up^ Rizza. Retrieved 28 March 2017. Conservation Biology: For the Coming Decade. Conservation Biology 7(3): 686–700. Chapman. and Wainwright (2015). (2016). ZooKeys 256: 1–34. Jump up^ Goldschmidt. 358. Conscientious Aquarist Cichlid-Forum. 43. DOI: 10. P. Jump up^ Steeves. "Oreochromis variabilis".aab0800 47. and Chandler (1996). Retrieved 25 March 2017. (1997). Species. Retrieved 25 March 2017. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Westbroek. Tanzania. Jump up^ Yirka. T. Jump up^ Lévêque. K. doi: 10. press release. D. 45. Environments. & Hanssens.Ecol. M. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Seehausen. 42. Warmolts (25 May 2015). 27:253–267. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Boston Aquarium Society. DOI: 10.256. New York. 48. Cichlid- Forum. and P. International Union for Conservation of Nature.. Springer. Progress in breeding freshwater fish. The Nile. (2006). Phys. 50. B. P. "Oreochromis esculentus". International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 March 2017.1007/s10682-012-9596-9. 547—561 in : Dumony. Version 2017. 55. Version 2017. "Potamonautes emini". J.I. N. Study shows evolution does not always mean more diversification. G: New to the hobby Haplochromines.. ^ Jump up to:a b Fiedler. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 28 March 2017. International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2009). Retrieved 28 March 2017.1. Evol.. & Hanssens. D. ^ Jump up to:a b FishBase: Fish Species in Victoria. 53. Jump up^ Cumberlidge. Science 350(6264): 1077-1079. Jump up^ Cumberlidge. Eastern Africa.3871 46. 41. R. H. Retrieved 25 March 2017. and Wanink (1993). C.1126/science. 2nd edtion. Kareiva. Vol. Freshwater Crabs and Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Nile Basin. Retrieved 25 March 2017. R. ISBN 978-0412096617 44. Adaptive responses in resurgent Lake Victoria cichlids over the past 30 years. Biodiversity Dynamics and Conservation: The Freshwater Fish of Tropical Africa. (editor). Jump up^ McGee. Witte (2013). van Oijen. ISBN 978-1-4020-9726-3. and Witte (2013). K. M. Retrieved 27 March 2017. L. Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria. N.3897/zookeys. Bayona. ISBN 978-0521570336 49. Jump up^ Chapman. Origin. Jump up^ Steeves. Jump up^ Twongo. editors (1998). 39. T. Bayona. Monographiae Biologicae. and D. 52. 54. (2006). 209— 210. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids. Borstein.1. J. 56. R. ^ Jump up to:a b IUCN Red Lists: Geographic Patterns. Neches.1. Pp. Retrieved 28 March 2017. Jump up^ McAndrews. Version 2017. G: 'Haplochromis' thereuterion. Biological Conservation 78: 263-270. Limnology and Human Use.

Jump up^ FishBase team RMCA & Geelhand. J. Jump up^ Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (2016). S. D. (2017). Jump up^ Goudswaard. J.1007/s10750-005-1385-9 58.. (1994). Jump up^ Ochiel. G. T. Mailu. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Njiru. ^ Jump up to:a b Luilo. thesis). "Lates niloticus" in FishBase. (2000) Micro-invertebrate fauna of water hyacinth in Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria. Njoka.. Journal of Environment & Development.D. Tanz. A. Water Hyacinth: An Environmental Disaster in the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria and its Control. eds. The diversity of benthic molluscs of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi. T. L. 61.html 67. L. "Labeo victorianus". Jump up^ Kim Geheb (1997). p. Triest and F. Retrieved 27 March 2017. March 2017 version. 2004). 2001. 73. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. African Journal of Aquatic Science. (2005). Species inventory and the local uses of the plants and fishes of the Lower Sondu Miriu wetland of Lake Victoria.A. W. Ochiel. doi:10. 33. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kateregga. 71. 72. 73-84. Hydrobiologia. Jump up^ Mwambungu. 62-78. 115-118. "Lake Victoria Fisheries: An introduction". W. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Albright. The Regulators and the regulated: fisheries management. Waithaka. Jump up^ Brown. Njoka. W.. J. 105-113. Dahdouh Guebas. 1999. Moorhouse. (2008). Rabour.. Witte. 70. O.. (2004). J. K. J. Freshwater snails of Africa and their medical importance. W. A. 2nd edition. C.. 2008). 64. Version 2017. & Sustainability Project. E. 1989-2001. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 20: 281– 302 69. Biological Control of Water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria. F. Jump up^ Mailu.. Exotic introductions to the fishery of Lake Victoria: What are the management options? Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 10: 147–155.57. S.homehighlight. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. BioScience 55 (9): 780-787. D.. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. Kenya. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and prospects: a need for equitable and sustainable institutional and regulatory frameworks. Mugo. 2. 563 (1): 31–44. J.. Jump up^ http://www. J. before and after the Nile perch increase. Muchiri. ISBN 0-7484-0026-5 59. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Pringle. & J. Jump up^ Muli. (January 01. 1998. options and dynamics in Kenya's Lake Victoria Fishery (Ph. R. B. Gitonga and S. 68. (August 01.. L. recreation/nature/nile-perch-and-the-future-of-lake-victoria. van Knaap. & McNabb. Kenya. 18. M.. The shrimp Caridina nilotica in Lake Victoria (East Africa). The Origins of the Nile Perch in Lake Victoria. Hydrobiologia 458:99-106. M. Daniel. 42. Jump up^ Jäger. 60. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 62. G. 65. 74. H. University of Sussex. p. and Ntiba. G. Jump up^ Gichuki. K. J. Rainer and Pauly. 63. Radosh. Our planet: How much more can earth take?. F. T. (2016). Jump up^ Froese. Wanink (2006). Sci.M. Retrieved 2017-03-27. Lake Victoria Fish Stocks and the Effects of Water Hyacinth. . G. Mavutu. 30(1): 21—32. 66. Bohunovsky. 1. & Sterner. 2009). The Rise and Fall of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River Basin. (January 01. 101-105. and Cowx (2005). Gitonga and S. P. Dehairs. T. London: Haus.1.

A. NASA. Jump up^ United Nations Environment Programme. Chapman. "Uganda pulls plug on Lake Victoria". 75. 25-29. 80. Conservation. February 21. London. L. F. (2003). 81. 1885–1900.  Dams Draining Lake Victoria  A Naturalist on Lake Victoria. Image of the Dat. John Hanning".youtube. ecology. Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Lake Victoria. Biodiversity Archive  https://www. Jump up^ Crisman. Elder & Co. Jump up^ Fred Pearce (9 February 2006). (2006). Jump up^ Mallya. Retrieved 14 July 2008. London: Smith. Colin A... Water hyacinth control in Tanzania. Africa's lakes: Atlas of our changing environment. 77. Africa – Lake Victoria in Kenya". Jump up^ "Water Hyacinth Re-invades Lake Victoria". New Scientist.  Decreasing levels of Lake Victoria Worry East African Countries  New Scientist article on Uganda's violation of the agreed curve for hydroelectric water . 78. Les S. 1999. Jambo Kenya Network. 2538: 12. G. Jump up^ "Kenya. Jump up^ "Speke. Nairobi. & Belgium.. T. 76. Kenya: UNEP. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. with an Account of Sleeping Sickness and the Tse-tse Fly (1920). T. 2007. 79. p. Unwin Ltd.. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Victoria. & Kaufman.A beautiful video of Lake Victoria  Institutions of the East African Community: Lake Victoria Fisheries Organisation [show] African Great Lakes [show] . Lauren J. Dictionary of National Biography. and management of African fresh waters. Chapman.

Lakes of Tanzania [show] Lakes of Kenya [show] Hydrography of Uganda  WorldCat Identities l VIAF: 315526599  GND: 4063454-1 Categories:  Lake Victoria  African Great Lakes  Lakes of Kenya  Lakes of Tanzania  Lakes of Uganda  Kampala  Nile  Kenya–Uganda border  Kenya–Tanzania border  Tanzania–Uganda border  International lakes of Africa  Border tripoints  Geography of the Kagera Region  Geography of the Mwanza Region  Geography of the Mara Region  Kisumu County  Homa Bay County .

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