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Engineeringdrawingabbreviationsand
symbols
Engineering drawing abbreviations and symbols are used to communicate and detail the characteristics of an
engineeringdrawing. This list includes abbreviations common to the vocabulary of people who work with engineering
drawingsinthemanufactureandinspectionofpartsandassemblies.

Technical standards exist to provide glossaries of abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols that may be found on
engineeringdrawings.Manycorporationshavesuchstandards,whichdefinesometermsandsymbolsspecifictothem
onthenationalandinternationallevel,ASMEstandardY14.38[1]isprobablythemostwidelyused.

Jumpto:09ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
seealso

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Abbreviation
Definition Description
orsymbol
09
A
AC Commonlyusedwhenmeasuringthecornersofahexdrive,suchasahex
acrosscorners
nut.
AF Commonlyusedwhenmeasuringtheflatsurfacesofahexdrive,suchasa
acrossflats
hexnut.
Adimensionthatestablishesadistanceawayfromthefinishedfloor.Example
AFF abovefinishedfloor wouldbethetopofacoffeetabletotheshagofthecarpet,notwherethe
bottomofthetablesfeetdigin.
AISI TheAISIacronymiscommonlyseenasaprefixtosteelgrades,forexample,
AmericanIronand
"AISI4140".TheSAEsteelgradesystemwasformerlyajointAISISAE
SteelInstitute
system.
AlorAL aluminium
ALY alloy
AMER American ReferringtotheUnitedStates
AMS AerospaceMaterial StandardsinmaterialsscienceandengineeringmaintainedbySAE
Standards Internationalandwidelyusedintheaerospacemanufacturingindustries.
AN Aprefixforstandardhardware(cataloghardware)IDnumbers.Camefromthe
eraofcirca1890s1945,whentheU.S.ArmyandNavywereleadingtheway
onproductstandardizationforlogisticsimprovement,yieldingtheUnited
ArmyNavy StatesMilitaryStandardssystem.TodayindustryandISOalsodoalotofthis
standardizationspecification,freeingtheU.S.DODandmilitarytodolessof
it(asexplainedatUnitedStatesMilitaryStandard>Originsandevolution),
althoughmanyMILstandardsarestillcurrent.(SeealsoMSandNAS.)
ANN anneal,annealed
ANSI AmericanNational
Andthemanystandardsthatitissues,forexample,ANSIZ87.1.
StandardsInstitute

APPROX[2] approximately

AQL Thethresholdofdefectivenessthatisallowableinagroupofparts.Itistrivial
tosaythatnoonewantsanyerror,andthateveryonewantsuniform
acceptablequality
perfectionbutintherealworld,italmostneverhappens.Theintelligence
level
behinddefiningAQLsisinfiguringouthowmucherroristolerablegiventhe
coststhatwouldbeincurredbyanyeffortstofurtherreduceitsincidence.
AR Anabbreviationusedinpartslists(PLs,LMs,BoMs)inthequantityper
assemblyfieldwhenadiscretecountisnotapplicable.Forexample,inan
asrequired assemblywithaboltedjointusingfourbolts,thePLquantitycolumnwillsay
"4"fortheboltPN,"4"forthenutPN,and"AR"fortheliquidthreadlockerthat
willbeapplied.
AS 1.AerospaceStandards,technicalstandardsmaintainedbySAEInternational
AerospaceStandards andwidelyusedintheaerospacemanufacturingindustries.Standard
AustralianStandards aerospacehardwaresometimeshastheASprefixinthecatalognumbers.2.
AustralianStandards,standardsperAustralianindustry.
AS,APS, approvedproduct WhenonlycertaincompaniesareapprovedbytheCDAtomanufacturethe
APV,AV, supplier,approved product(thatis,tomakewhatthedrawingdepicts/defines),theyarecalledby
APSL,AVL vendor,approved namessuchas"approvedsupplier","approvedproductsupplier","approved
productsupplierlist, vendor",or"approvedproductvendor".Thelistofsuchcompanies(which
approvedvendorlist usuallychangesovertime)iscalledanAPSL,AVL,orsimilarnames.Vetting
thecompaniesonthislistrequirestheCDAtoaudit(andpossiblyperiodically
reaudit)thecompanies,whichincursanoverheadexpensefortheCDA.
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Therefore,smallercompanieswilloftencitelargercompanies'listsinorderto
avoidthecostofduplicatingtheeffort.
ASA AmericanStandards
FormernameforANSI(1920s1960s).
Association
ASME AmericanSocietyof
Andthemanystandardsthatitissues,forexample,ASMEY14.5.
MechanicalEngineers
ASSYor referringtoanassemblyofpartsratherthanjustone(sub)part("piecepart",
assembly
ASY "detailpart").
ASTM Formerlythe
AmericanSocietyfor
Maintainstechnicalstandards,especiallyregardingmaterialsscienceand
TestingandMaterials
engineeringandmetrology.
nowASTM
International
AVG average
AWG AmericanWireGauge
B
BASIC Abasicdimensionisonethatisthetheoreticalvaluewithoutanytolerance
range.Itdoesnotserveasanacceptancecriterion.Itisthussimilarinsome
respectstoareferencedimension.Thereasonwhyabasicdimensiondoes
notcarryatoleranceisthatitsactualvaluewillfall(acceptably)whereveritis
putbyotherfeatures'actualvalues,wherethelatterfeaturesaretheones
basicdimension withtolerancesdefined.Acommonandsimpleexampleisholelocation:Ifa
hole'scenterpointlocationhasapositiontolerance,thenthecenterpoint's
coordinatesdonotneed(andshouldnothave)separatetolerancesappliedto
them.Thustheyareinsteadgivenasbasicdimensions.Inmodernpractice
basicdimensionshavearectangularboxaroundthem,orsometimestheword
"BASIC".
BCorB.C. boltcircle
BHCS buttonheadcap
LikeanSHCSbutwithabuttonhead.
screw
BHN Brinellhardness
number
BoMorBOM Alsocalledalistofmaterials(LMorL/M).Overlapsalotinconceptwitha
billofmaterials partslist(PLorP/L).Thereisnoconsistentlyenforceddistinctionbetweenan
L/M,aBoM,oraP/L.
BoPorBOP boughtoutpart Apartwhichisoutsourcedfromanexternalsupplier,or"boughtout".
BP,B/P blueprint "perB/P"="perdrawing"
BRZ bronze
BSC basicdimension Seebasicdimensioninfoabove.
C
CAD computeraided
design,computer
aideddrafting
cadmium[plating]
CAGE Commercialand ACAGEcodeisauniqueidentifiertolabelanentity(thatis,aspecific
GovernmentEntity governmentagencyorcorporationataspecificsite)thatisaCDA,ODA,or
[code] MFRofthepartdefinedbythedrawing.Onecorporationcanhavemany
CAGEcodes,ascanonegovernment,becauseeachdivision,department,
andsite(campus)canhaveitsownCAGEcode.ThesameCAGEcodecan
changeownersovertheyears.Forexample,aCAGEcodethatformerly
referredtoacertainMartinMariettasitewillnowrefertoLockheedMartinat
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thatsamesite(althoughthebuildingsmayhavebeenreplacedandthe
signagemaysaydifferentnames).
CCorCTO centretocentreon
Definescentretocentredistanceoftwofeatures,suchastwoholes.
C centres
CBN cubicboronnitride Amaterialfromwhichsomecutterinsertsaremade.
CDA TheCDAistheentity(whetheritbeacorporation,aunitofanationalmilitary
orministryofdefence,oranotherciviliangovernmentagency)thatcurrently
hasdesignauthorityoverthepartdesign(definition).Itmaybetheentitywho
firstdesignedthepart(thatis,theODA),buttodayitisalsolikelytobea
designatedsuccessorentity,owingtomergersandacquisitions(M&A)activity
(e.g.,ODAcompanywasboughtbyCDAcompany)contractletting(e.g.,an
ArmyengineeringdepartmentODAturnsoverthedesignactivitytotheprime
currentdesignactivity contractorthatmakesmostoralloftheparts,turningthatcontractorintothe
newCDA)privatization(e.g.,agovernmentprivatizesthedesignand
manufactureofmateriel,andastatearsenal[statearmory]ODAtransfers
designauthoritytoaprivatearmory[defensecontractor]ODA)orpatent
licensing(e.g.,apatentholdinginventor[ODA]licensesoneorseveral
companiestomanufactureproductsusinghisintellectualproperty,inwhich
casethe"same"partcouldendupwithmultipledesignauthorities,although
theymaynotbeconsideredtheofficial/nominalCDA).
CERTorcert certification Forexample,certificationofmetallurgicalcontentandprocesses
CG centerlessground,
centerlessgrinding

Centermark Definesthecenterofacircleorpartialcircle.

CH chamfer
CHAM chamfer
CI castiron Nolongeracommonlyusedabbreviation.Bettertospelloutforclarity.
CLor 1.Centerline,thecentralaxisofafeature.2.Class,forexample,"paintper
specXYZrevisionCtype1class2"maybeabbreviatedas"paintperspec
centerlineclass XYZREVCTY1CL2"oreveninsomecases"paintperspecXYZC12".
(Thelatterpracticeisnotuncommonbutiscrypticforworkerswithminimal
trainingandexperience.Thefirsttwooptionsarebetterpractice.)
CNC computernumerical
control
CR Radiusofanarcorcircle,withnoflatsorreversals.Thisstrictversionof
radiusdefinitionisspecifiedindemandingapplicationswhentheformofthe
radiusmustbecontrolledmorestrictlythan"justfallingwithinthedimensional
tolerancezone".ItispoorengineeringtospecifyaCRinsteadofanRsimply
controlledradius
onthetheoryofenforcinggoodworkmanship.CRisforcriticalfeatures
whoseperformancetrulyrequiresnearperfectgeometry.Likemostsuch
characteristics,itspresenceincreasesthepriceofthepart,becauseitraises
thecostsofmanufacturingandqualityassurance.
CRES Largelysynonymouswithstainlesssteel,unlessspecificgrades,specs,and
corrosionresistant
distinctionsaremadeonthedrawing.SomepeopletreatCRESasasubsetof
[steel]
thestainlesssteels.
CRS coldrolledsteelon
Definescentretocentredistanceoftwofeatures,suchastwoholes.
centres
C/T Correlation/Tracking
C'BOREor
CBOREor counterbore

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CSKor countersink
CSINKor

CTN,ctn carton
D

depth,deep,down Definesthedepthofafeature.

[2] Diameterofacircle.Inafeaturecontrolframe(FCF),thesymboltellsyou
diameter thatthetolerancezoneforthegeometrictoleranceiscylindrical.Abbreviations
for"diameter"include,DIA,andD.

D Abbreviationsfor"diameter"include,DIA,andD.Fordeltausage,seefor
diameterdelta
example"deltanotes".

DIA[2] diameter Diameterofacircle.Abbreviationsfor"diameter"include,DIA,andD.

DIP ductileironpipe
DIM dimension,
dimensioning
DO,do ditto Seenoccasionallyinolderdrawingsinsteadofrepeatingagivendimension.
DOD,DoD [U.S.]Departmentof
SeealsoMOD.
Defense
DPD digitalproduct
AsynonymofMBD.
definition
DWG,dwg drawing Referringtotheengineeringdrawing
E
Drilledholes,andfastenersarecommonlyrequiredtohaveaminimumedge
ED edgedistance
distance(minED).
EO,ECO, Anorderfromtheengineeringdepartment(tobefollowedbytheproduction
ECN departmentorvendor)overriding/supersedingadetailonthedrawing,which
engineeringorder getssupersededwithrevisedinformation.Alsocalledbyvariousothernames,
suchasengineeringchangeorder(ECO),engineeringchangenotice(ECN),
drawingchangenotice(DCN),andsoon.SeealsoREV.
EQ Forexample,"104XEQSPACEDONBC"means"drillfourholesof10mm
equal,equally
diameterequallyspacedaroundtheboltcircle."
ERC electricalrulecheck
F
f Anitalicf(Latinsmallletterf)writtenonalinerepresentingasurfacewasan
oldwayofindicatingthatthesurfacewastobemachinedratherthanleftin
theascastorasforgedstate.The"f"camefrom"finish"inthesenseof
"machinefinish"asopposedtorawstock/casting/forging.LatertheASA
finish
conveneduponaletterV(specificallyasansserifV)touchingthesurface.
Soonthisevolvedintothe"checkmark"signwithaccompanyingnumberthat
tellsthereaderamaxroughnessvalue(RMS,microinchesormicrometres)for
themachinedfinish,tobemeasuredwithaprofilometer.
FAO finishallover Anotetellingthemanufacturerthatallsurfacesofthepartaretobemachined
(asopposedtoleavinganysurfacesascastorasforged).Notanobsolete
usage,butnotseenascommonlyasitwasdecadesagonotleastbecause
partsthatoncewouldhavebeenspotfacedcastingsarenowlikeliertobe
contouredfrombilletwithCNCmilling.Butmoreimportantly,bestengineering
practicetoday,reflectingdesignformanufacturabilityandavoidanceof
spuriouscostdrivers,iseithertospecifyspecific,quantifiablerequirements
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forsurfaceswithspecificneeds(suchasRMSroughnessmeasurementsin
microinchesormicrometres,plusanyplatingorpaintingneeds),ortoleave
finishoutofthepartdefinition(andthusatthemanufacturer'sdiscretion)
becauseitisnotimportanttofit,function,orcriticality.Thissamespiritis
behindtheshiftinmilitarystandardsfromwritingrequirementsaboutmethods
towritingtheminsteadaboutperformance,withthemethodtoreachthatgoal
beinguptotheingenuityofthedesigner.
FCF Therectangularbox(withseveralcells)thatconveysgeometrictolerancesin
GD&T.Ittypicallytellsyouwhatsortofgeometriccondition(e.g.,parallel,
perpendicular,round,concentric),followedbywhatsize(andmaybeshape)
featurecontrolframe thetolerancezoneis,andfinallywhichdatumsitrelatesto,theorderof
gagingagainstthem,andwhatmaterialconditionappliestothem(LMC,
MMC,orRFS).Adiametersymbol()tellsyouthatthezoneforthe
geometrictoleranceiscylindrical.
FDorF/D The[main]fieldofthedrawing,asopposedtootherareasofit,suchasthe
partslist(P/L),generalnotes(G/N),flagnotes(F/NorFL),titleblock(T/B),rev
block(R/B),billofmaterials(B/MorBoMorBOM),orlistofmaterials(L/M).
fieldofthedrawing Rationalesfordrawingchangesthatarenotedintherevblockoftenusethese
abbreviationsforbrevity(e.g.,"DIM14.00was12.50addeddefaultTOLinfo
toT/BaddedleaderlinestoF/DaddedalternatehardwareIDstoP/Ladded
alternatealloytoL/M").
FIM fullindicator
SeealsoTIR.
movement
FL Anotethatiscalledoutinspecificspotsinthefieldofthedrawing.Itis
flagnote,flagnote numberedwithastylizedflagsymbolsurroundingthenumber.Ageneralnote
appliesgenerallyandisnotcalledoutwithflags.
FL FloorLevel FloorLevelofanexistingorproposedbuildingorconcretepad
FNorF/N 1.Flagnote:Aflagnoteisanotethatiscalledoutinspecificspotsinthefield
ofthedrawing.Itisnumberedwithastylizedflagsymbolsurroundingthe
number(orsometimesadeltasymbol).Ageneralnoteappliesgenerallyandis
flagnote,flagnote
notcalledoutwithflags.2.Findnumber:"FN"meaning"findnumber"refersto
findnumber
theordinalnumberthatgivesanIDtagtooneoftheconstituentsinaparts
list(listofmaterials,billofmaterials).Thus"fastenusingFN7"referstoa
fastenerthatis"findnumber"7inthelist.
FoS Atypeofphysicalfeatureonapart.AnFoSisafeaturethatcanhavesize
associatedwithit,usuallyinvolvingtheoppositionoftwosurfaces(e.g.,the
twodiametricallyoppositesidesofaholewallthetwooppositewallsofaslot
orflange).Featuresofsize(FoSs)inrealityalwayshaveactualsizesand
featureofsize formsthatdifferfromtheirtheoreticalsizeandformthepurposeoftolerancing
istodefinewhetherthedifferenceisacceptableornot.Thusmaterial
condition(LMC,MMC,somewhereinbetween,orRFS)isimportantinGD&T.
)AgivengeometrictolerancemaybedefinedinrelationtoacertainFoS
datumbeingatLMCoratMMC.
FS farside Thedrawingnotations"nearside"and"farside"tellthereaderwhichsideof
thepartafeatureison,inoccasionalcontextswherethatfactisnot
communicatedusingtherulesofprojectionalone.Contextsofusageare
ratherlimited.Oneexampleisholelocations"3XAND3XFARSIDE"
definessymmetricalgroupsof3holesonbothsidesofapart(6total),without
havingtoredefineequivalentholecentercoordinatesontwoseparateviews,
oneforeachgroup.Thisisnotonlyaconvenienceforthedesignerbutalsoa
methodoferrorprevention,becauseitprovidesawaytoavoidforking
geometricdefinitionthatideallyshouldbekeptunforkedtoprevent
discrepancies.Forexample,thegroupsdefinedabovecannotaccidentally
becomeasymmetricallydiscrepantinafuturerevisionbytherevisorfailingto
revisebothgroupsequally(becausetheirdefinitionisunifiedinonlyone
place).Anotherexampleispartmarkinglocations.Anareaforpart
identificationmarkingcanbecircledonatopviewbutassignedtoeitherthe
toporbottomofthepartsimplywitha"nearside"or"farside"notation

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whichobviatesaddinganyotherwiseunneededbottomviewtothefieldofthe
drawing.
FSCM FederalStock/Supply
Anoldernamefor"CAGEcode".AlsoNSCM(NationalStock/SupplyCode
Codefor
forManufacturers).
Manufacturers
FTG fitting
G
GCI graycastiron
GD&Tor geometric
Astandardizedlanguagefordefiningandcommunicatingdimensionsand
GDT dimensioningand
tolerances.
tolerancing
GNorG/N Mostengineeringdrawingshaveanoteslist,whichincludesbothgeneral
generalnote(s)
notesandflagnotes.
H
HBW hardness,Brinell, SeeBrinellscale.(The"W"comesfromtheelementsymbolfortungsten,W,
tungstentip whichcomesfromtheGermanWolfram.)
HHCS hexheadcapscrew
HRA hardness,Rockwell,
SeeRockwellscale.
Ascale
HRB hardness,Rockwell,
SeeRockwellscale.
Bscale
HRC hardness,Rockwell,
SeeRockwellscale.
Cscale
HRS hotrolledsteel
HTTR heattreat,heat
treatment
H&TorH/T hardenedand Aformofheattreatmentinwhichthemetalisfirsthardenedandthen
orHT tempered tempered.CompareN&T.
I
AcommonneedinengineeringdrawingsistoinstructtheusertodoactivityX
inaccordancewithtechnicalstandardY.Forexample,"Weldall
subassembliesIAWAWSXYZ.123"means"Weldallsubassembliesin
accordancewithAmericanWeldingSocietystandardnumberXYZ.123"(the
numberishypotheticalinthisexample).Theword"per"isfunctionally
equivalentto"IAW"insuchcontextsthus"rivetallsheetmetalperMILPRF
IAW inaccordancewith 123456"or"[...]IAWMILPRF123456".Partofthemotivationbehindthe
choiceofwords"inaccordancewith"isthattheydonotallegethatany
particularactivityisexplicitlyspecifiedbystandardXYZ.123(which"per"
couldbeinterpretedasalleging,atleastinconnotation)rather,thesewords
merelyinstructtheuserthatwhatevers/hedoesmustnotcontradictthe
standardinanyway.Butthisisasubtleconnotativedistinction,and"per"and
"IAW"aredenotativelyequivalent.
ID innerdiameter
identity,identification
number
Drilledholescommonlyhavearequiredminimumedgedistance,ifthe
InsufficientEdge
IED inspectionfindsthattheedgedistanceisbelowminimum,thencommonly
Distance
reportedashavinganIEDcondition.
ISO International Andthemanystandardsthatitspecifies,forexample,ISO10303
Organizationfor
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Standardization
J
K
KEY Drawingcalloutsmarked"KEY"define"keycharacteristics"thatare
key consideredespeciallyimportantforfit,function,safety,orotherreasons.They
arethussubjectedtohigherinspectionsamplinglevels.
KPSI,kpsi kilopoundspersquare
inch,thatis,
SeediscussionatsynonymKSI.
thousandsofpounds
persquareinch
KSI,ksi KSI(orksi),alsoabbreviatedKPSIorkpsi,isacommonnonSImeasurement
kilopoundspersquare scaleforultimatetensilestrength,thatis,thenumberofunitsoftensileforce
inch,thatis, thatamaterialcanendureperunitofcrosssectionalareabeforebreaking.In
thousandsofpounds theSIsystem,theunitisthepascal(Pa)(oramultiplethereof,often
persquareinch megapascals(MPa),usingthemegaprefix)or,equivalentlytopascals,
newtonspersquaremetre(N/m).
L
LDD Animplementationofmodelbaseddefinitionthatstillusesa2Ddrawing,but
LimitedDimension
onlycontainingcriticalinformation.Allinformationmissingfromthedrawingis
Drawing
tobepulledfroma3Dmodelofthepartorassembly.
LH Referringtohandedness,suchasthehelixhandednessofscrewthreadsor
lefthand
themirrorimagehandednessofasymmetricalpairofparts.
LMorL/M Alsocalledabillofmaterials(BoM,BOM).Overlapsalotinconceptwitha
listofmaterials partslist(PLorP/L).Thereisnoconsistentlyenforceddistinctionbetweenan
L/M,aBoM,oraP/L.
LMC AmaterialconditioninGD&T.Meansthatafeatureofsize(FoS)isatthelimit
ofitssizetoleranceinthedirectionthatleavestheleastmaterialleftonthe
part.Thusaninternalfeatureofsize(e.g.,ahole)atitsbiggestdiameter,or
leastmaterial
anexternalfeatureofsize(e.g.,aflange)atitssmallestthickness.TheGD&T
condition
symbolforLMCisacircledL.(SeealsoMMCandRFS.)Agivengeometric
tolerancemaybedefinedinrelationtoacertainFoSdatumbeingatLMCorat
MMC.
M
MACH machinemachined
MAJ major Asinmajordiameter,ormajorcharacteristic(forsamplinglevel)

MAX[2] maximum

MBD Definitionofthepartviaa3DCADmodelratherthanviaa2Dengineering
modelbaseddefinition drawing.Drawingsmaybeprinted(plotted)fromthemodelforreferenceuse,
butthemodelremainsthegoverninglegalinstrument.
MBP measurement threads,splines,gears(internal,female)(synonymouswithMBW)(seealso
betweenpins MOP,MOW)
MBW measurement
threads,splines,gears(internal,female)(seealsoMBP,MOP,MOW)
betweenwires
MForM/F Whenonepartnumberismadefromanother,itmeanstotakepartAand
makefrom machinesomeadditionalfeaturesintoit,creatingpartB.ThepartslistorL/M,
inthe"material"field,willsay"M/FPN12345".
MFD manufactured
MFG manufacturing
MFR manufacturer MaybethesameentityastheCDAorODA,ormaynotbe.

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MIL [U.S.]Military AprefixforthenamesofvariousUnitedStatesMilitaryStandardsand


Specifications,forexample,MILSTD*,MILSPEC*,MILDTL*,MILPRF*,
MILA*,MILC*,MILS*,MILSTD1913,MILSTD1397.

MIN[2] minimumminutes
minor
MMC AmaterialconditioninGD&T.Meansthatafeatureofsize(FoS)isatthelimit
ofitssizetoleranceinthedirectionthatleavesthemostmaterialleftonthe
part.Thusaninternalfeatureofsize(e.g.,ahole)atitssmallestdiameter,or
maximummaterial
anexternalfeatureofsize(e.g.,aflange)atitsbiggestthickness.TheGD&T
condition
symbolforMMCisacircledM.(SeealsoLMCandRFS.)Agivengeometric
tolerancemaybedefinedinrelationtoacertainFoSdatumbeingatLMCorat
MMC.
MOD,MoD MinistryofDefence
SeealsoDOD.
[U.K.andothers]
MOP,MoP measurementover threads,splines,gears(external,male)(synonymouswithMOW,
pins measurementoverwires)
MOW,MoW measurementover
threads,splines,gears(external,male)(seealsoMBW,MBP,MOP)
wires
MPa,MPA ThecommonSImeasurementscaleforultimatetensilestrength(UTS),that
is,thenumberofunitsoftensileforcethatamaterialcanendureperunitof
crosssectionalareabeforebreaking.Thereisonlyonecorrectcasingforthe
symbol,capMcapPsmalla,which,likeanySIunitofmeasurementsymbol,
megapascals properlyshouldbepreservedevenwhensurroundingtextisstyledinallcaps
(whichlatterisafrequentlyemployedtraditioninengineeringdrawing).Butit
isnotuncommontosee"MPA"throughcarelessness.Usersarenotconfused
regardless.InnonSIterms,theunitforUTSistheKSI(orksi),whichsee
herein.
MRB Acommitteethatreviewssomenonconformingmaterialswhicharesubmitted
materialreviewboard aspotentiallystillusable/saleable(ifthenonconformancedoesnothinderfitor
function).
MS StandardsestablishedbytheU.S.militaryandwidelyusedintheaerospace
[U.S.]Military manufacturing(militaryandcivil)andotherdefenseindustries.Standard
Standard hardwaresometimesusestheMSprefixinthecatalognumbers.(Seealso
ANandNAS.)
N
NAS StandardsmaintainedbySAEInternationalandwidelyusedintheaerospace
manufacturingindustries.The"National"formerlyimplicitlyreferencedthe
NationalAerospace
USA,buttodayNASandotherstandardsareusedglobally.Standard
Standards
hardwareforaerospaceworksometimesusestheNASprefixinthecatalog
numbers.(SeealsoANandMS.)
NC NationalCoarse The[U.S.]NationalCoarseseriesofpre1949correspondstodaytothe
numericalcontrol UnifiedNationalCoarse(UNC)oftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
NCM nonconforming Thisabbreviationisusedinamachineshopwhenrecordingnonconformances
material(s) (outoftolerance,etc.).Forexample,"AnNCMtagwastiedtothescrappart."
NCR Areportlistingnonconformances(outoftolerance,etc.).Helpstoanalyze
nonconformance
systemweaknesses(suchaswornoutequipment,operatorsinneedofmore
report
training,orriskypractices).
NEC notelsewhere Inthesenseof"notelsewhereclassified",theabbreviationiswellknown
classifiedNational withincertainfields,butnototherstoavoidconfusion,spellout.TheNational
ElectricalCode ElectricalCodeisastandardforelectricalwork.
NEF The[U.S.]NationalExtraFineseriesofpre1949correspondstodaytothe
NationalExtraFine
UnifiedNationalExtraFine(UNEF)oftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
NF NationalFine The[U.S.]NationalFineseriesofpre1949correspondstodaytotheUnified
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NationalFine(UNF)oftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
NLorN/L Alistofnotesthatappearssomewhereonthedrawing,oftenintheupperleft
noteslist
corner.

NOM[2] nominal

NORMor
normalized referringtonormalization,astressrelievingheattreatment.SeealsoHTTR.
NORMD
NPS NavalPrimary (Nottobeconfusedwithannotatingstraitpipe.Thisshouldbeabbreviated
Standard[3] NPSM,NPSLorNPSH[4])
NPT NationalPipeTaper AsubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
NS 1.NationalSpecial,ascrewthreadseriesseeUnifiedThreadStandard.An
extensibleseries,coveringvariousspecialthreads.2.Nearside:Thedrawing
NationalSpecialnear notations"nearside"and"farside"tellthereaderwhichsideoftheparta
side featureison,inoccasionalcontextswherethatfactisnotcommunicated
usingtherulesofprojectionalone.Contextsofusageareratherlimited.See
"farside"forexamples.
NSCM NationalStock/Supply
Anoldernamefor"CAGEcode".AlsoFSCM(FederalStock/SupplyCodefor
Codefor
Manufacturers).
Manufacturers
N&TorN/T normalizedand Aformofheattreatmentinwhichthemetalisfirstnormalized(stressrelieved)
orNT tempered andthentempered.CompareH&T.
NTS nottoscale SeealsoEngineeringdrawing>Scale.
O
OAL overalllength
OC Thatis,centretocentredefinescentretocentredistanceoftwofeatures,
oncenter(s)
suchastwoholes.
OD outerdiameter
ODA Theentitythatoriginallydesignedapart.ComparetoCDA,theentitythat
originaldesignactivity
currentlyhasdesignauthorityoverthepartdesign(definition).
OHL Thisabbreviationisusedinamachineshopwhenrecording
overhighlimit nonconformances.Forexample,"partscrappedbecauseIDisOHL."Seealso
ULL.
OPP opposite SeePartnumber>Symmetricalpartsforexplanation.
ORIG original
P
pc,pcs piece,pieces
PD pitchdiameter
PDM,PDMS productdata
Adatabase(s)andrelatedapplication(s)thatfacilitateallaspectsofmanaging
management,product
datafilese.g.,TDPs,TDPversions,drawings,modeldatasets,specs,
datamanager[app],
addenda,certs,memoranda,EOs,ECOs,DCNs,RFQs,quotes,POs,e
productdata
mails,faxes,photos,wordprocessordocuments,spreadsheets.Seealso
managementsystem
PLM.
[app]
PHorP/H precipitation
hardening,

precipitationhardened
pilothole
PHRBRZ phosphorbronze

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PLorP/L partslist Alist,usuallytabularandoftenonthedrawing(ifnotaccompanyingthe


drawingonaseparatesheet),listingthepartsneededinanassembly,
includingsubparts,standardparts,andhardware.Thereisnoconsistently
enforceddistinctionbetweenanL/M,aBoM,oraP/L.
PLM productlifecycle
managementplant SeealsoPDM.
lifecyclemanagement
PNorP/N partnumber
POI Apointthatmakeseasierthelayout,toolpathprogramming,orinspectionof
thepart.Itistheintersectionpointoflinesthatmaynotmeetonthefinished
pointofintersection
part,suchasthetangentlinesofacurveorthetheoreticalsharpcorner(TSC)
thatedgebreakinganddeburringwillremove.SeealsoSC,TSC,andAC.
Afasteningormatingbetweentwopartswhichisachievedbyfrictionafterthe
P.F. pressfit
partsarepushedtogether.
PSI poundspersquare
Aunitofmeasurementforpressure.SeealsoKSI.
inch
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene AlsowellknownbythebrandnameTeflon.
PVC polyvinylchloride
Q
QMS Asysteminplacetoensurethatqualityofmanufactureisproducedand
qualitymanagement
maintainedasystemtopreventdefectivepartsfrombeingmade,or,evenif
system
made,fromgettingintofinishedinventories.
QTYorqty quantity
R
R Radiusofanarcorcircle.Flatsandreversals(fallingwithinthedimensional
radius tolerancezone)aretoleratedunless"CR"(controlledradius)isexplicitly
specified.
RA,Ra roughness,average
SeesurfaceroughnessseeRockwellscale.
RockwellAscale
RB,Rb RockwellBscale SeeRockwellscale.
RC,Rc RockwellCscale SeeRockwellscale.

REFor()[2] Thedimensionornoteisgivenonlyforreferenceandthusisnottobeusedas
apartacceptancecriterion(althoughitmaybeusedasanaidtoproductionor
inspection).Thedimensionmayalsobesurroundedbyparenthesestosignify
areferencedimension.Whenadimensionisdefinedinoneviewbutalso
reference mentionedagaininanotherview,itwillbegivenasreferenceinthesecond
case.Thisrulepreventsthemistakeofdefiningitintwodifferentways
accidentallythe"main"(nonreference)mentionistheonlyonethatcountsas
afeaturedefinitionandthusasapartacceptancecriterion.Seealsobasic
dimensions,whicharesimilarinsomerespects.
REQDor Forexample,"4REQD"writtennexttoafastenermeansthatfourofthose
required
REQ'D fastenersarerequiredfortheassembly.
REV revision Engineeringdrawingsandmaterialorprocessspecificationsareoftenrevised
theusualrevisioncontrolconventionistolabeltheversionsA,B,C,D,etc.
arevisionblock(revblock)isatabularareaonthedrawing(typicallyinthe
upperrightcorner)thatliststherevisionletters,abriefdescriptionofthe
changesandreasons,andapprovalinitialsanddates.Revisionsbeyond"Z"
startthealphabetoveragainwithdoubling,e.g.,AA,AB,AC,AD,andsoon.
Inthedaysofmanualdrafting,redrawingwasexpensive,soengineering
orders(EOs,ECOs,DCNs,ECNs)werenotalwaysincorporatedintoanext
letterrevision.TheythusaccompanythedrawingaspartoftheTDP.Withthe
disseminationofsoftwareusage(CAD,CAM,PDMSs),revisioncontrolis
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oftenbetterhandlednowadays,incompetenthandsatleast.Inrecentyears
therevisioncontrolofengineeringdrawingshasevenbeenstandardizedby
ASME,intheirstandardY14.35M.[5]
RFS Amaterialcondition(ormoreprecisely,freedomfromsuch)inGD&T.Means
regardlessoffeature
thatagivengeometrictoleranceistrueinrelationtoacertaindatum
size
regardlessofitsactualsize(LMCactualsizeMMC).
RH Referringtohandedness,suchasthehelixhandednessofscrewthreadsor
righthand
themirrorimagehandednessofasymmetricalpairofparts.
RHR roughnessheight
Seesurfaceroughness.
reading
ReducedLevelor
RL SurfaceLevel
RelativeLeve
RMA returnmaterial
SeealsoRTV.
authorization
RMS RMSingeneralisastatisticaltechniquetodefinearepresentativevaluefora
groupofdatapoints.Withregardtosurfaceroughness,itmeansthatthe
rootmeansquare heightsoftheindividualmicroscopicpeaksandvalleysshallbeaveraged
togetherviaRMStoyieldameasurementofroughness.Seealsohereinfasa
finishmark.
RTorR/T Roughturnedmeansturnedonalathebutnotfinishedtoafinalmachined
roughturn,rough
dimensionandsurfaceroughness.Canapplytobarstockortopartsin
turnedroom
process.Roomtemperatureissometimesabbreviated"RT"withintablesof
temperature
specsforfinishingoperations(plating,painting,etc.).
RTP Theissuanceofadrawingfromtheengineering/designactivitytothe
productionactivity.Inotherwords,theeventwhenadraftbecomesa
releasetoproduction
completed,officialdocument.Astamponthedrawingsaying"ISSUED"
documentsthatRTPhasoccurred.
RTV roomtemperature 1.RTVsealants,awaytosealjoints.2.Returntovendor,sendpartsbackto
vulcanizingreturnto avendorforreworkorrefundbecausetheyarenonconforming.SuchRTV
vendor oftenrequiresanRMA.
RZ,Rz roughness,mean
Seesurfaceroughness.
depth
S
SAE FormerlytheSociety
ofAutomotive Andthemanystandardsthatitissues,forexample,theSAEAMSandSAE
EngineersnowSAE ASstandardsseries.
International
SCorS/C Dimensionsmaybegivenas"acrosssharpcorners"althoughthecornersget
radiused.Inotherwords,distancesmaybegivenfromintersectionpoints
sharpcorners wherelinesintersect,regardlessofedgebreaksorfillets.Thisisusually
impliedbydefault,so"S/C"oftenneednotbeexplicitlyadded.Butinsome
casesitclarifiesthedefinition.SeealsoTSC,POI,andAC.
SForS/F spotface
SFACEor
spotface
S/FACE
SHCS socketheadcap Acapscrewwithasockethead(usuallyimplyingahexsocket,drivenwitha
screw hexkey.
SHN shown SeePartnumber>Symmetricalpartsforexplanation.
SHSS socketheadset Asetscrewwithasockethead(usuallyimplyingahexsocket,drivenwitha
screw hexkey.
SI Systmeinternational Themetricsysteminitscurrentform(lateststandards).
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[d'units]
[InternationalSystem
ofUnits]
SNorS/N serialnumber
SOLANN solutionanneal,
solutionannealed
SPECor
specification
spec
SPHERANN spheroidizeanneal
SPOTFACE Spotfacing
SR sphericalradius Radiusofasphereorsphericalsegment.
SSorS/S 1.Stainlesssteel,seealsoCRES.2.Supersede/supersedes/superseded,
stainlesssteel
referstowhenonedocument(specification,standard,drawing,etc.)replaces
supersede
(supersedes)another(seealsorevisioncontrol).
SST Asomewhatunusualabbreviationspelloutforclarity."SS"or"CRES"are
stainlesssteel
morelikelytoberecognizedwithcertainty.
STD Standard
STEP Standardforthe
AstandardformatdefinedbyISO10303forMBDdatageneration,storage,
ExchangeofProduct
andexchange.
ModelData
STA solutiontreatedand
aged
STI screwthreadinsert
STL steel
STK stock Anominaldimensionforthestockmaterial,suchasbarstock
T
TAP Tappedhole Usuallyimpliesdrillingaholeiftheholedoesnotalreadyexist.
TBorT/B Anareaofthedrawing,almostalwaysatthebottomright,thatcontainsthe
titleofthedrawingandotherkeyinformation.Typicalfieldsinthetitleblock
includethedrawingtitle(usuallythepartname)drawingnumber(usuallythe
partnumber)namesand/orIDnumbersrelatingtowhodesignedand/or
manufacturesthepart(whichinvolvessomecomplicationbecausedesignand
manufacturingentitiesforagivenpartnumberoftenchangeovertheyears
duetomergersandacquisitions,contractletting,privatization,andthebuying
andsellingofintellectualpropertyseeCDAandODA)companyname(see
previouscomment)initials/signaturesoftheoriginaldraftsman(aswellsas
titleblock theoriginalcheckerandtracerinthedaysofmanualdrafting)
initials/signaturesofapprovingmanagers(issuance/releasetoproduction
information)crossreferencestootherdocumentsdefaulttolerancingvalues
fordimensions,geometry,andsurfaceroughnessrawmaterialinfo(ifnot
giveninaseparatelist/billofmaterials)andaccesscontrolinformation
(informationaboutwhoisauthorizedtopossess,view,orsharecopiesofthe
informationencodedbythedrawing,e.g.,classificationnotices,copyright
notices,patentnumbers).Drawingrevision(versioning)informationisnot
alwaysincludedinthetitleblockbecauseitoftenappearsinaseparate
revisionsblock.
TDP Thecompletepackageofinformationthatdefinesapart,ofwhichthedrawing
itselfisoftenonlyasubset.Italsoincludesengineeringorders(drawing
technicaldata
changenotices),3Dmodeldatasets,datatables,memoranda,andany
package
specialconditionscalledoutbythepurchaseorderorthecompanies'terms
andconditionsdocuments.

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THDorthd thread
THKorthk thickness
THRU Optionallyappliedtoaholedimensiontosignifythattheholeextendsthrough
theworkpiece.Forexample,THRUmaybestatedinaholedimensionifthe
Through
hole'sendconditionisnotclearfromgraphicalrepresentationofthe
workpiece.[6]
THRUALL SimilartoTHRU.Sometimesusedonholedimensionsforclaritytodenote
Throughall thattheholeextendsthroughmultipleopenspacefeaturesasitgoesthrough
thewholeworkpiece.[7]
TIR totalindicatorreading
Formeasurementsofeccentricityandotherdeviationsfromnominalgeometry
totalindicatedrunout
TOL tolerance,tolerancing
TSC theoreticalsharp
SeediscussionatSCandPOI.
corner(s)
TY Foranexplanationof"type"abbreviatedas"TY",seetheexamplegivenat
type
"CL"meaning"class".

TYP[2] Otherfeaturessharethesamecharacteristic.Forexample,ifthedrawing
shows8holesonaboltcircle,andjustoneisdimensioned,with"TYP"or"
(TYP)"followingthedimensionlabel,itmeansthatthatholeistypicalofall8
holesinotherwords,itmeansthattheother7holesarethatsizealso.The
Typical latestrevisionsofY14.5deprecate"TYP"byitselfinfavorofthespecifyingof
anumberoftimes,suchas"2X"or"8X".Thishelpsavoidanyambiguityor
uncertainty.TYPorTypicalwasdescribeinMilStd8,thedirectingbodyprior
toadoptionofthedimensiontoleranceinterpretationY14.5series.Itslast
revisionwasCin1963,butcanstillbefoundinmanyolderaircraftdrawings.
U
UAI useasis OneofthepossibleMRBdispositions.Othersincludescrapandrework.
ULL Thisabbreviationisusedinamachineshopwhenrecording
underlowlimit nonconformances.Forexample,"partscrappedbecauseODisULL."See
alsoOHL.
UNC UnifiedNational
AsubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
Coarse
UNEF UnifiedNationalExtra
AsubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
Fine
UNF UnifiedNationalFine AsubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard.
UNJC AsubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard,withcontrolledrootradiusand
UnifiedNational"J"
increasedminordiameter.Forapplicationsrequiringmaximumfatigue
seriesCoarse
resistanceamidchronicvibration(suchasinaircraft).
UNJF AsubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard,withcontrolledrootradiusand
UnifiedNational"J"
increasedminordiameter.Forapplicationsrequiringmaximumfatigue
seriesFine
resistanceamidchronicvibration(suchasinaircraft).
UNS UnifiedNationalSpecialisasubsetseriesoftheUnifiedThreadStandard.It
UnifiedNational
isanextensibleseries,coveringvariousspecialthreads.Theunified
Specialunified
numberingsystemisavaguelynamedstandardfornamingalloysbyprincipal
numberingsystem
elementpercentages.
UON unlessotherwise Alittleused(thusnotwellrecognized)abbreviation.Toavoidconfusion,spell
noted out.
UOS unlessotherwise
Afairlywellknownabbreviation,buttoavoidconfusion,spellout.
specified
USASI UnitedStatesof FormernameforANSI(19661969).
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AmericaStandards
Institute
USS U.S.StandardthreadsbecametheNationalseries(e.g.,NC,NF,NEF),
UnitedStates whichbecametheUnifiedNationalseries(e.g.,UNC,UNF,UNEF)see
StandardUnited UnifiedThreadStandard.AsforU.S.Steel,itwasoncethelargeststeel
StatesSteel companyonearth,oftenanapprovedsupplier,andnotinfrequentlyasole
sourcehenceitsmentionondrawings.
UTS ultimatetensile
strengthUnified
ThreadStandard
V
v Aletterv(Latinsmallletterv)writtenonalinerepresentingasurfaceisaway
toindicatethatthesurfaceistobemachinedratherthanleftintheascastor
asforgedstate.Theoldersymbolforthiswasasmallscript(italic)f(see
hereinf).LatertheASAconveneduponaletterV(specificallyasansserifV)
finish
touchingthesurface.Soonthisevolvedintothe"checkmark"signwith
accompanyingnumberthattellsthereaderamaxroughnessvalue(RMS,
microinchesormicrometres)forthemachinedfinish,tobemeasuredwitha
profilometer.
W
WC The"W"comesfromtheelementsymbolfortungsten,W,whichcomesfrom
tungstencarbide
theGermanWolfram.
WI Boththematerialandtheabbreviationareobsolete,ornearlyso.Spelloutthe
wroughtiron
wordsifthismaterialistobementionedatallinmoderndrawings.
W/I,w/i within Alittleusedabbreviation.Bettertospelloutforclarity.
W/O,w/o without Bettertospelloutforclarity.
X
_X_ usedtoindicatethe WhentheletterXisprecededbyaspace,thismeans"by".Forexample,a
wordby chamfermaybecalledoutas12X45

X[2]or() Whenadimensionisusedinmultipleplaceseitheroftheseprefixescanbe
addedtothedimensiontodefinehowmanytimesthisdimensionisused.This
examplesignifieseightplaces.Thereshouldbenowhitespacebetweenthe
numberofplacesfor numeralandtheletterX.(Noteoncharacterencoding:Althoughintypography
example,8Xor(8) (includingUnicode)theletterXandthemultiplicationsign()aredistinct
characterswithdifferingglyphs,itisalongstandingtraditioninengineering
drawingthattheletterXisinterchangeablewiththemultisign,unless
otherwisespecifiedbytheCAxsystemsused.)
Y
Y14.X Callsoutthedrawingstandardthatthisdrawingisfollowing.Forexample,
ASMEY14.5andY14.100arecommonlyusedstandardsthatdefineallofthe
symbolsanddraftingconventionsused.
YS yieldstrength
Z

Jumpto:09ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
seealso

Contents
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1 Seealso
2 References
3 Bibliography
3.1 Sourcescited
3.2 Furtherreading

Seealso
Listofgeometricdimensioningandtolerancingsymbols

References
1.ASME2007.
2.Sheaffer,M.K.Thomas,G.R.Dann,R.K.Russell,E.W.(May1998),EngineeringDrawingsfor10CFRPart71
PackageApprovals(http://www.orau.org/documents/ivhp/healthphysics/5502.pdf)(PDF),pp.1112,retrieved
20110625.
3.ASMEY14382007page102
4.ANSI/ASMEB1.20.11983Section6.1
5.ASME1997.
6.DimensioningandTolerancing,ASMEY14.52009.NY:AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers.2009.pp.16,17
paragraph1.8.10.ISBN0791831922.
7.DimensioningandTolerancing,ASMEY14.52009.NY:AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers.2009.p.16
paragraph1.8.10.ISBN0791831922.

Bibliography

Sourcescited
ASME(1997),Y14.35M1997:Revisionofengineeringdrawingsandassociateddocuments(https://archive.is/2013041
4091417/http://www.asme.org/products/codesstandards/engineeringdrawingsandassociateddocumented),ASME,
archivedfromtheoriginal(http://www.asme.org/products/codesstandards/engineeringdrawingsandassociateddocu
mented)on20130414.
ASME(2007),Y14.382007:Abbreviationsandacronymsforuseondrawingsandrelateddocuments(http://www.asm
e.org/products/codesstandards/abbreviationsandacronymsforuseondrawingsand),ASME.
French,ThomasE.Vierck,CharlesJ.etal.(1953),Amanualofengineeringdrawingforstudentsanddraftsmen(http
s://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering_Drawing_(textbook))(8thed.),NewYork,NewYork,USA:McGrawHill,
LCCN52013455(https://lccn.loc.gov/52013455).Throughout,butespeciallypp.689690,appendixlistofabbreviations
andsymbols.

Furtherreading

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Y14.1002004 Engineeringdrawingpractices
Y14.241999 Typesandapplicationsofengineeringdrawings
Y14.32003 Multiviewandsectionalviewdrawings
Y14.312008 Undimensioneddrawings
Y14.36M1996 Surfacetexturesymbols
Y14.382007 Abbreviationsandacronymsforuseondrawingsandrelateddocuments
Y14.4M1989 Pictorialdrawing
Y14.412003 Digitalproductdefinitiondatapractices
Y14.422002 Digitalappr
Y14.52009 Dimensioningandtolerancing
Y14.5.1M1994 Mathematicaldefinitionofdimensioningandtolerancingprinciples
Y14.62001 Screwthreadrepresentation
Y32.71972 Graphicssymbolsforrailroadmapsandprofiles

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