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Jesse Burgess

system mathematically. Generally we wish to be able

to predict the state of the system at some time in the We take the initial velocities to be zero, leaving only

future, given the present state of the system. For a initial positions. With these conditions, the solutions to

single object, we can accomplish this by writing a the above equations are:

differential equation that describes the motion of the

object and then solving this equation. However, In our current basis, the two components of the

when the system contains multiple interacting position vector represent the individual positions of

components, we must write a differential equation for the masses. This basis is a natural choice from a

each component and then solve all equations physical point of view, but is not mathematically the

most convenient. We will instead use the But remember, these solutions are in a basis where xI

simultaneously Fortunately,

simultaneously. Fortunately by utilizing the techniques andd xII do

d nott representt the

th positions

iti off the

th individual

i di id l

of linear algebra, we can instead rewrite our eigenvectors of the above matrix as our basis,

allowing us to diagonalize the matrix and thus masses. Instead, xI and xII are in the direction of the

equations such that they may be solved individually, eigenvectors vI and vII. To get solutions which

one at a time. separate the differential equations.

correspond to the actual positions of the masses, we

Methods Diagonalize

project the vector containing these solutions back

onto our original basis.

We will demonstrate this method by considering a

one-dimensional

one dimensional system with two interacting objects: Results

Solving the eigenvalue problem for our matrix, we get

k k k the following eigenvalues and normalized

Upon projection, we finally obtain the solutions to our

original equations of motion:

m m eigenvectors:

x1 x2

Figure 1: Two identical masses attached to each

other and to the boundaries by identical springs.

Equations of Motion By representing a set of coupled differential

By using Newton

Newtonss second law together with Hooke

Hookess equations in matrix form and by projecting them onto

law, we get the following equations of motion for the their eigenbasis, we were able to separate the

positions of the two masses: giving us the following equations of motion: equations and solve them individually.

Conclusions

where the double-dot notation indicates second- As we have seen, the methods of linear algebra are

order differentiation with respect

p to time. The difficulty

y Note that the variables are no longer mixed: each readily adaptable to physical applications, largely

with these equations is that they are coupled: both equation contains only one variable, allowing us to due to the versatility of the concept of a vector,

variables appear in both equations. Thus the use standard methods for solving linear differential which neednt necessarily represent a position in real

equations must be solved simultaneously. equations. space. Such methods are widely used in mechanics.

Acknowledgments: This sample problem was developed with the aid of Principles of Quantum Mechanics by R. Shankar (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York, 1994)

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