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HKAR Part 66 Cat B-1

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Topic 2
Subject 17b

Fuel Systems Topic 9


INTRODUCTION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

On completion of this topic you should be able to:

1 Identify typical fuel system components and


describe systems lay-out.

2 Describe the operation of engine control and fuel


metering systems including electronic engine
control (FADEC).


FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SYSTEM OVERVIEW
A gas turbine engine fuel system includes interface with the airframe fuel
storage.

A common fuel system includes the following components:

fuel tank
boost pump
fuel flow transmitter
low pressure shut off (spar) valve
low pressure switch
fuel heater
fuel filter
high pressure fuel pump
fuel control unit
high pressure shut off valve
pressurising and dump valve
fuel nozzles
fuel pressure differential switch
AVIATION JET FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Aircraft gas turbine engines are designed to operate on a distillate


(kerosene) fuel, commonly called jet fuel

JET A 1 Colour Code

Designated JET A 1

JET A 1 is colourless or straw coloured

Contains corrosion inhibitors


OVERVIEW
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Refuelling Connections
Boost Pumps

Number 1 Tank Number 2 Tank Number 3 Tank


OVERVIEW
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Boost Pump
Bypass
valves

Engine fuel shut off valves


Engine feed manifold
Cross feed valves
Any Engine can feed from any tank

DE FUELLING TANK 2
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Manual De-fuelling valve open

Tank 2 boost
pumps ON

Tank 2 Crossfeed Valve open Fuel pumped


to truck

FUEL DUMP Refuel and Dump Manifold
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Dump and
limit valves
open

Fuel exits via


Dump nozzle valve Fuel dumped overboard
through dump nozzles


BLADDER FUEL TANKS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Bladder fuel cells.

Non-self-sealing cell
Used to reduce weight
Removable
Repairable
Usually clipped into the
tank cavity

Removal and installation must be in strict accordance with the


aircraft manufacturers instructions


INTEGRAL FUEL TANKS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Integral fuel cells are usually built into the wings of the aircraft structure.

Not removable

All seams, structural fasteners


etc are sealed with fuel proof
sealant

Often referred to as a wet wing

Use only the sealers specified


in the maintenance manual


FUEL TANK FILLER CAPS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

One of the most important components on an aircraft.

located on the upper surface of the wing

Some fuel tank caps are vented

Only the tank cap approved for that particular


aircraft should be used

Installed on all aircraft From a C150 to a B747

Lightning safe caps have non-conductive lanyards


to reduce the chance of arcing inside the tank

Over-wing refuelling cap shown


PRESSURE FUELLING CAP
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Covers the under-wing nozzle coupling.

Some caps are vented

Only the cap approved for that particular


aircraft should be used

Installed on all large aircraft

Under-wing refuelling cap shown

Lock lever opens a vent in the cap


FUEL LINES AND FITTINGS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The plumbing in aircraft fuel systems must be constructed


of the highest quality material The metal tubing is usually made of:
Aluminium Alloy in cool low pressure
areas.

Stainless Steel in high pressure, hot or


fire hazardous areas

All aircraft metal tubing has the part


number printed along its length

Only approved tubing should used.

Fittings are either Flared or


Flareless


FLEXIBLE FUEL LINES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Flexible fluid lines are used extensively on aircraft to connect stationary parts
to moving parts and in areas of high vibration.

Flexible hose construction generally consists of an inner liner covered


with layers of reinforcement to provide strength

An outer cover to protect from physical damage

Only approved hoses should used.

Specification number printed on the outer liner

Fire proof sleeves are fitted to hoses installed on the engine.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
FUEL VALVES
Selector valves are installed in the fuel system to provide
a means for shutting off the fuel flow, they may be:

Hand operated

Motor driven

Solenoid operated

Most hand and motor driven valves have


a manual open and closed lever and
indicator
Fuel Shut Off Valve

Fuel valves must also allow full flow of the fuel when open and
completely shut off the fuel when in the closed position


HAND OPERATED FUEL VALVES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Valve Open
Valve Closed
Simplest valve is the cone-type

Found on small and medium-sized aircraft

Shuts off the flow of fuel from the tanks to the engine

Brass cone is a close fit to the valve housing

Detent plate provides a positive click at the selected positions



HAND OPERATED FUEL VALVES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Poppet valves are found on small and medium-sized aircraft

Shuts off the flow of fuel from the tanks to the engine

Positive shutoff provided by spring pressure on the valve

You can feel when the valve is centred at the selected positions


SOLENOID-OPERATED
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology FUEL VALVES

Poppet solenoid valves are much quicker to open or close

Two solenoids, one to open and one to close the valve

Latch holds the valve open

Positive shutoff provided by spring pressure on the valve


MOTOR OPERATED FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

VALVES

Sliding gate is drawn to let fuel through


and shut to stop it

Used on larger aircraft

Remotely operated

Indicator shows the valve position


Fuel Shut Off Valve

FUEL PUMPS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The purpose of a fuel pump is to deliver a properly pressured,


continuous supply of fuel during engine operation.

Aircraft fuel pumps can be divided


into three groups, they are:

Auxiliary pump

Low Pressure pump

High Pressure pump


BOOST PUMP PUMPS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The most common type of auxiliary fuel pump in use in modem aircraft
is the centrifugal boost pump

Electric motor driven

A small impeller to sling fuel out


into the discharge line

Pump installed in the tank and


immersed in fuel

Not of the positive displacement


type therefore not affect by
restricting their outlet


PULSATING ELECTRIC PUMPS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Simple and inexpensive electric auxiliary


fuel pump used on light to medium aircraft

Solenoid operated plunger

Fuel transfer from chamber to chamber


is controlled by check valves

Click on graphic to view animation


VANE-TYPE FUEL PUMP
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Engine or an electric motor driven


low pressure constant displacement
pump

Four steel vanes slide back and forth


in slots cut in the rotor

Relief valve regulates the pressure


output

Bypass function allows fuel to flow past


the vanes if pump fails


GEAR TYPE FUEL PUMP
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Widely used on turbine engines.

Uses gear type pumping elements.

Constant displacement pump.


PLUNGER (PISTON TYPE)
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FUEL PUMP
Widely used on turbine
engines.

Can either be variable


displacement or constant
displacement.

A rotor assembly is fitted with


several pistons.

The end of the pistons extend


from the cylinder block and bear
on a non-rotating camplate.


HIGH PRESSURE FUEL PUMPS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Engine driven, high pressure, constant


displacement pump

Self-lubricating, spur-gears with single or


dual elements (dual element shown)

Relief valve regulates the pressure


output

Boost element ensures a constant low


pressure head to the gear elements

Shear sections protect the engine


gearbox from damage should one or both
gear elements jam

Check valves in the outlet prevent fuel re-


circulation into an inoperative element,
Pump drive

HIGH PRESSURE PUMP &
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FILTER

Engine-driven fuel pump, single element with low pressure filter

Fuel passes from the boost impeller through the low pressure filter
before entering the high pressure main gear element.


HIGH PRESSURE PUMP & FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL

Engine-driven fuel pump with fuel control in tandem.


HIGH PRESSURE PUMP & FILTER
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Small engine combination fuel pump and fuel control


FUEL HEATER
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Some engines use the lubrication system oil cooler for heat transfer to the fuel,
while others include a separate oil or bleed air fuel heater.

Fuel is heated to prevent any water


in the fuel freezing

Ice can block the fuel filter

To avoid fuel vapour lock the heater


operation is intermittent

Opens automatically when fuel


temperature nears 0 degrees
Celsius or when filter bypass is
sensed


FUEL FILTERS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Common on small to medium aircraft

Wafers can be dismantled and cleaned

Bypass valve opens to allow fuel to bypass the filter should it become blocked
(dirty fuel is always better than no fuel)

DUAL FUEL FILTERS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Dual cleanable steel mesh and pleated filter, exploded view.

Two filter elements one coarse,


the other fine

Filters can be bypassed

Filters are cleanable


FUEL FILTER WARNING
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Fuel Filter Warning Switches Bypass and Low


Pressure
Detect a differential pressure across the filter
Illuminates warning lights in the cockpit

LP FILTER WARNING SWITCHES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Impending Bypass
Bypass Warning & Differential pressure
Low Fuel Pressure Warning light Switch
Switch
FUEL OUT FUEL IN

Fuel Temperature
Transmitter

Filter Element

Filter Element Locator

Drain Valve


FUEL NOZZLES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Air Inlets
Highly polished
nozzle

Air Shroud
Fuel Inlets

Fuel nozzles (Burners), are the terminating point of the fuel system
They are located in the inlet of the combustion liner
Some mix air with fuel in correct proportions to atomise or vaporise the fuel.
Deliver a precisely patterned, highly atomized spray


SIMPLEX FUEL NOZZLES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Provides a single spray pattern

Incorporates an internally fluted spin chamber

The internal check valve prevent dribbling of fuel after shutdown.

Deliver a precisely patterned, highly atomized spray


DUPLEX FUEL NOZZLES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Provides a dual spray pattern

Incorporates two internally fluted spin chamber

Utilises a separate or integral flow divider to control primary and


secondary fuel flow.

Able to give effective atomization over a wider flow range than the
Simplex spray nozzle.

DUPLEX NOZZLES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Single-line duplex types, have one inlet port and becomes a flow divider to distribute
fuel through two spray orifices

dual line duplex types contains no flow divider separate primary and secondary fuel

Dual line duplex types utilise a separate flow divider commonly called a P&D Valve
(Pressurising and Dump Valve)


AIR BLAST FUEL NOZZLE
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Can be either simplex or duplex


types

Produces finer fuel droplets

Provides better engine starts

High velocity airflow mixes with


the fuel to more completely
atomize the fuel

Utilizes a lower fuel system


working pressure


PRESSURE & DUMP VALVE
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Used with a dual inlet duplex fuel nozzles

Divides the fuel flow into

Primary (Starting and idle) and

Secondary (above idle)

Dumps (drains) the fuel in the

nozzle manifold when the engine is

shut down


PRESSURE & DUMP VALVE
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Spring-loaded pressurizing valve and a


dump

valve is positioned based on a control


signal

that corresponds to the power lever


position.

Upon engine shutdown, spring pressure forces the

Dump valve moves to the right

Fuel flow is shutoff

Dump port is opened

Fuel in burner manifold is drained to Drain Tank


H.P. SHUTOFF
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The HP fuel shut off valve is opened to start the engine and closed to
Stop the engine
Connected to the engine start lever and has
two positions

Open allows fuel flow to the nozzles

Shutoff stops fuel flow to the nozzles

In the shut position the valve returns fuel to

the drain tank

Normally integral with the fuel control unit


DRAINS TANK
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DRAIN TANK

Rolls Royce Tay

Fuel is dumped into a drain tank to reduce environmental pollution

Drained fuel is drawn back into the engine fuel system on next engine start

Some earlier tanks are drained overboard during the next flight


COMBUSTOR DRAIN VALVE
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

A mechanical device located in the low point of a combustion case

Closed by gas pressure within the combustor during engine operation


Prevents fuel accumulation in the combustor after a false start or
any other time fuel might tend to puddle at the low point.


FUEL CONTROLS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

An engine driven accessory which can operate by mechanical, hydraulic,

, pneumatic or electronic forces

Controlled by a throttle lever in the cockpit

Maintains a correct combustion zone air- to-fuel mixture ratio of 15:1 by weight

Computes the engines fuel flow needs by monitoring signals from:

Engine RPM (Nc)

Engine air Inlet pressure (Pt2)

Compressor discharge Pressure (Ps4)

Burner Can Pressure (Pb) and

Engine Inlet temperature (Tt2)

Power (or throttle) Lever Angle (PLA A Modern Fuel Control Unit


FUEL CONTROLS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Two main types of Gas Turbine Fuel Control Units:

Hydro-Pneumatic

Hydromechanical

Hydro Pneumatic fuel control utilises a pneumatic computing section

and on common in turbo-prop engines

Hydromechanical fuel control utilises a mechanical computing section

and is common on turbo-fan and turbo-jet engines

A type of Hydromechanical fuel control is used in

conjunction with electronic fuel control units


HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

A typical hydromechanical fuel


control unit is divided into two
sections

fuel metering section

computing section


FUEL METERING SECTION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The primary purpose of the fuel metering is to:

meter the appropriate amount of fuel

at the correct pressure

The fuel metering section consists of:

a positive displacement fuel pump,

a main metering valve,

a pressure regulating valve.

and a fuel shutoff valve

The fuel shutoff valve is located downstream

from the main metering valve.


COMPUTING SECTION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The computing section of the fuel control


positions the metering valve to:

obtain the appropriate power output

control the rate of acceleration and deceleration

To do this, a typical computing section utilizes:

A Burner pressure sensitive bellows (Pb).

engine air inlet pressure sensitive bellows (Pt2)

a servo valve,

speed sensitive governor,


HYDROMECHANICAL ANIMATED
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology


HYDRO PNEUMATIC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology FUEL CONTROL

Has no mechanical linkage to the fuel metering valve

Utilises a pneumatic computing section that determines fuel flow rates based on:

Power lever position

Engine RPM (N1)

Compressor discharge air

(Px)

Modified CDP (Py)

Ambient Pressure

Ambient temperature


HYDRO PNEUMATIC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyFUEL CONTROL

Deceleration shown

Power lever moved to idle

Governor valve opened to bleed off


Py pressure

Enrichment valve opens to maintain


Px in bellows chamber

Deceleration bellows expands

Metering valve linkage moves to


close the fuel metering valve

The engine decelerates


ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROLS (EEC)
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Modern high bypass turbo fan engines


employ electro hydromechanical and
electronic engine control systems

These systems prolong engine life, improve


reliability and save fuel

Two types of electronic engine control (EEC)


systems in use are:

Supervisory Electronic Engine Control;

Full Authority Digital Engine Control


(FADEC).


SUPERVISORY EEC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

A supervisory EEC consists of an electronic control and a conventional


hydromechanical fuel control unit.

The hydromechanical fuel control unit controls most engine operations


including

Starting

Idle

Acceleration and deceleration

Shutdown

The EEC controls once the operator sets the

power lever to obtain a specific engine power setting.

As a safety feature, if a supervisory EEC should malfunction, control


automatically reverts back to the hydromechanical fuel control.

FULL-AUTHORITY EEC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

A full-authority digital engine control, or FADEC, controls engine operation during


all phases of flight and feedback is provided via valves and actuators fitted with
dual sensors.

The system consists of a redundant, two-channel EEC and receives input on

engine speed (N1 and N2),

throttle lever position or angle,

aircraft altitude,

inlet air pressure and temperature,

compressor stator vane angle,

fuel flow rate,


EEC
fuel and oil temperature,

turbine exhaust pressure and temperature,

and burner pressure and bleed air status



FULL-AUTHORITY EEC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Powered by an independent engine driven alternator.

Fail safe system - any engine can power any EEC

No mechanical linkage from the engine to the cockpit

No engine rigging or trimming

Self diagnostic and defect reporting

Two redundant channels that send and receive data


FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

OVERVIEW
Simplified fuel systems for turbo-jet engines.


ENGINE COCKPIT CONTROLS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

All engine controls are pushed forward to open and pulled back to shut

Engine Start Levers

No.1 engine

No.2 engine

Thrust levers

No.1 engine

No.2 engine


FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology


FUEL SYSTEM LAYOUT
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Solid flow of fuel into the fuel pump is important to


ensure no interruptions in fuel to the Fuel Control Unit.
Engine Driven Fuel Pump
Produces 20% Above Fuel pressure switch illuminates an annunciator in
Engine Maximum the cockpit.
Fuel Flow Requirements.

Fuel temperature must be monitored to prevent the


Fuel
formation of ice crystals which would plug up the filters
Temperature and possibly the small passages of the FCU.
Fuel Heater Fuel Heater
Pneumatic/fuel
Hydraulic Fluid
or
Low Pressure Fuel
Fuel/Oil
Airframe Fuel Flow
Fuel
Shutoff Transmitter
Tank
Valve Pump

Fuel
Fuel
Pressure
Flow Fuel flow transmitter
may also be installed
downstream of the FCU.

SYSTEM LAYOUT
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The airframe, low pressure (or boost) pumps are


mounted in the fuel tanks and provide a head of pressure
through the system.
Engine Driven Fuel Pump
Produces 20% Above These pumps have a bypass facility to allow the system
Engine Maximum
Fuel Flow Requirements.
to draw fuel if the pump is not operating.
The engine-driven, high pressure pump produces flow
Fuel
in excess of maximum engine requirements.
Temperature

Fuel Heater Fuel Heater


Pneumatic/fuel
Hydraulic Fluid
or
Low Pressure Fuel
Fuel/Oil
Airframe Fuel Flow
Fuel
Shutoff Transmitter
Tank
Valve Pump

Fuel
Fuel
Pressure
Flow

Fuel flow transmitter may also be installed downstream of the FCU.



Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
FUEL PUMP BYPASS

Internal bypass valves


allow fuel to continue
flowing to the engine in
case of:
boost stage failure;
heater blockage;
filter blockage.
In smaller engines, the fuel
pump is mounted to the
accessory gearbox and the
FCU mounted on the fuel
pump,


FUEL FILTER - LOCATIONS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Usually, there is a low pressure coarse-mesh filter between the supply tank and the
engine.
Then, there is a fine-mesh filter between the HP fuel pump and the FCU metering
valve.
The fine filter must be capable of removing particles measuring as small as 10 microns,


FUEL BYPASS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Filter assemblies are often


equipped with a bypass
valve that will open in the
event of a filter clog.
In some cases a manual
(DPI) indicator or electrical
signal is produced when this
event happens.


FCU SCHEMATIC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The high pressure (HP) shut off


valve is usually integral with the
fuel control unit (FCU).

It is used to give a positive shut


off of the fuel line from the FCU to
the fuel burner nozzles.

This arrangement keeps the fuel


control passages full of fuel when
the engine is shut down.

This keeps the FCU internally


lubricated and assists positive
fuel flow on next engine start.


H.P. SHUTOFF
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The HP shut off valve may be


connected directly to the engine
power lever.

This lever then has two functions,


power and shutoff.

More commonly, there will be a


separate power or thrust lever,
plus a shutoff or start lever.

On turbo propeller aircraft, the HP


shut off valve is normally
connected in conjunction with the
propeller feather control lever.

FUEL CONTROL SCHEMATIC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Fuel Blown Back


Secondary Primary Into Combustion Chamber
Fuel Fuel
Nozzles Nozzles
Pneumatic
Engine Fuel Combustor Drain
or
Shutoff Manifold
Pressure
Pump
(HP)
Control Start/Stop/Run/Dump
& Fuel and Flow Divider EPA
Condition Collector
Valve
Lever Manual
Metered Fuel Pressure External Drain
PLA Fuel Control Unit Drain
Power Lever Angle Adjustments Non-EPA
Acceleration Minimum Maximum
Compressor
Rate RPM RPM
or Burner Fuel Pumped / Blown Back to Tank
Pneumatic Pressure External
Minimum Maximum Limiters
Flow Flow

Unmetered
Engine Fuel Pressure
External
Engine Trimming May Be
RPM Engine Driven Fuel Pump
Fuel Return to Trimming Manual or Electronic
Produces 20% Above Engine
Inlet Side of Pump
Maximum
Fuel Flow Requirements. Fuel
Low Pressure
Airframe Fuel
Shutoff Tank
Manual or Electric Valve
Pump


FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

OVERVIEW
Fuel must be supplied and
scheduled to the engine to
facilitate:
starting;
acceleration;
constant power output
under different
atmospheric conditions;
deceleration;
shut down.


FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

OVERVIEW

The brains of the engine fuel


supply is the fuel control
unit (FCU). A basic FCU
meters fuel to the fuel nozzle
in the combustion chamber
taking into account various
operating parameters.

The purpose of an FCU is to


maintain a correct air-fuel
ratio in the combustion
chamber despite changing
conditions and demands.


FUEL CONTROL UNIT
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FUNCTIONS
Fuel Control Unit
Acceleration Minimum Maximum As part of the fuel scheduling
Rate RPM RPM function of the FCU, it supervises:
Adjust Adjust Adjust
acceleration and
Minimum Maximum
deceleration governing
Flow Flow
Adjust Adjust
(controlled overfuelling and
under fuelling);

minimum RPM control (idle


speed and shutdown);
Engine Driven Fuel Pump Bypass of
Excess Fuel
Produces 20% Above maximum RPM control
Engine Maximum to Inlet Side
(overspeed governing and
Fuel Flow Requirements. of Fuel Pump
power limiting).


FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

If too much fuel is supplied to the combustion chamber,


the turbine section may be damaged by excess heat.

Too rapid acceleration may cause the compressor to


stall or surge because of back pressure from the
combustion chambers.

A rich blowout may occur when the fuel mixture is too


rich to burn.

If too little fuel enters the combustion chambers a lean


die out may occur. A lean die out is when the mixture is
too lean to burn.


FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

A fuel control unit senses and


compensates for changes in
variables that affect thrust:
Compressor inlet pressure
(Pt2);
Compressor inlet
temperature (T2);
Compressor speed (RPM);
Engine burner (combustor)
pressure (Pb);
Power lever angle (PLA);
Fuel density (SG specific
gravity).


FUEL CONTROL VARIABLES
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Changes in the first three variables, Pt2, T2 and RPM, coupled with compressor
efficiency, affect the total mass flow of air through the engine.
The FCU needs to know this in order to schedule more fuel if the amount of air
processed by the engine increases and vice versa.


FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

OVERVIEW

Combustion chamber (burner)


pressure, Pb, is a reflection of
actual mass airflow in the
combustion chamber.

The FCU needs to know this to


maintain the 15:1 air-fuel ratio.


FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Power lever angle is the prime


method of transmitting power
requirements from the cockpit to the
FCU. The FCU is signalled, either by
mechanical input or by electrical
signal.

Specific gravity adjustment is a


means of resetting an internal valve
within the fuel control when an
alternate fuel is used.


METERED FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

When the parameters are summed in the FCU, by mechanical or electronic means,
a fuel output is sent to the fuel nozzles in the combustion chamber.
The fuel has been metered to the flow rate and pressure required by the engine.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
FUEL CONTROL
UNITS

There are four generic types of fuel


control unit:
hydromechanical;
hydropneumatic;
electro - hydromechanical;
electronic.


HYDROPNEUMATIC FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL


HYDROPNEUMATIC FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL FUNCTIONS AND INPUTS


A hydropneumatic fuel control
provides: POWER
LEVER
IDLE MAX

RPM control;
SPEEDER SPRING

acceleration and INLET AIR TEMPERATURE


DECELERATION BELLOWS GOVERNOR BELLOWS
MAXIMUM FLOW STOP
deceleration control; SENSOR
G OV E RNO R VA LV E
Py

OPEN
BI METALLIC METERING VALVE
FLYWEIGHTS
DISCS

minimum and maximum

CLOSED
FUEL TO ATOMISERS
AIRFLOW
flow control.
RPM GOVERNOR

It has inputs of: COMPRESSOR OUTLET PRESSURE Pc


Px
MINIMUM FLOW
ACCELERATION BELLOWS STOP
BYPASS AND

RPM command; FUEL IN


PRESSURE
REGULATING
VALVE
PUMP

actual RPM;

inlet temperature (T2);

compressor outlet
pressure,

HYDROPNEUMATIC FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL BYPASS

The fuel pump supplies more fuel than is required and a bypass valve returns
excess back to the pump inlet.

Therefore, fuel flow is controlled only by metering valve position,



HYDROPNEUMATIC CONTROL ON
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SPEED RPM

RPM is the primary control parameter. Compressor discharge


pressure and inlet air temperature are secondary parameters.
Together they control the metering valve via a servo bellows assembly.

HYDROPNEUMATIC
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ACCELERATION

System design ensures that increasing fuel flow matches


increasing airflow through the engine and that acceleration takes
place without risk of stall or surge. When the desired RPM is
reached, the governor again maintains on speed RPM,

HYDROPNEUMATIC DECELERATION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The bi-metal discs are a typical means of sensing


inlet duct temperature. They control a metering device
which affects pressures Px and Py.

HYDROPNEUMATIC FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

INPUTS
A typical fuel control unit:
fuel in;
metered fuel out;
Tt2 input;
Ps4 input;
N2 drive input.

When removing the FCU,


the Tt2 sense line and
probe remains connected
to the unit,


HYDROMECHANICAL
HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL

Revision 0 20/10//03 Slide 1.2.85


HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

A hydromechanical fuel control


CONTROL
provides:

RPM control;

acceleration and
deceleration control;

minimum and maximum


flow control.

It has inputs of:

RPM command;

actual RPM;

inlet pressure (Pt2);

burner pressure (Pb).



HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

PRIOR TO START

Sensing barometric
pressure
closed

Valve
closed

underspeed at
start

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HYDROMECHANICAL AT START


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
HYDROMECHANICAL


HYDROMECHANICAL ANIMATED
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology


ELECTRO - HYDROMECHANICAL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FUEL CONTROL

The pressure regulator regulates the fuel


pressure at the fuel pump rather than the
fuel control unit.

Near full power, when predetermined TGT


and compressor speed values are
reached, the pressure regulator reduces
fuel flow to the spray nozzles by returning
increasing amounts of fuel to the fuel
pump inlet.

The fuel flow regulator in this control acts


as a hydromechanical control, receiving
signals from high speed compressor (N3),
gas path pressure (P1, P2 and P4) and
power lever position to regulate fuel flow to
the engine.
ELECTRO - HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
CONTROL DIAGRAM


FULL AUTHORITY DIGITAL ENGINE
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL (FADEC)
Full authority electronic fuel control
units use electronic devices to
sense various inputs from the
engine and cockpit to determine how
much fuel should be delivered to the
fuel nozzles.

The pilot utilises Thrust Lever


Position and either EPR or N1
(depending on manufacturer) to set
engine thrust correctly.


FULLMalaysian
AUTHORITY DIGITAL
Institute of Aviation Technology ENGINE CONTROL

(FADEC)
In Auto Thrust [ A/THR] the flight crew workload is reduced because the EEC
will automatically adjust the engine to the flight requirement
Note: The pilot always has maximum thrust available to him by pushing the
throttle levers fully forward to the stop.
FADEC ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Reduced fuel consumption is attained


because the EEC controls the engine
operating parameters so that
maximum thrust is obtained for the
amount of fuel consumed.

Engine trimming is eliminated by the


use of full authority EEC, as the
engine fuel control system has fault
sensing, self testing and correcting
features designed into the EEC.

The only adjustments that are carried


out by the maintainer is specific
gravity, idle RPM and changing
engine ratings for different airframe
installations.


AUTO THROTTLE
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology


FADEC ELECTRONIC FUEL
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

CONTROL DIAGRAM

Revision 0 20/10//03 Slide 1.2.97


ENGINE TRIM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Engine trimming is performed to:


1. Set MIN and MAX engine parameters.
2. De-rate and flat rate engines.

Fuel Control Unit


3. Match thrust/power between engines.
4. Up-rate engines and re-establish
Acceleration Minimum performance.
Maximum
Rate RPM RPM
Adjust Adjust Adjust

External
Engine Trimming May Be
Trimming
Manual or Electronic


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Flat Rated to 300C

Note: Flat Rating


decreases with
altitude
TRIM LOCATION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The idle and max RPM settings influence


the operation of the mechanical governor
section.

Idle and max RPM adjustments are not the


same as the MIN and MAX flow
adjustments.

The MIN flow adjustment controls the


deceleration schedule and prevents the
metering valve from closing too much thus
prevents a lean die out.

The MAX flow adjustment controls the


acceleration schedule, prevents the
metering valve from opening too much
thus preventing a rich blow out.


MIN. & MAX. STOPS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

These adjustments can be made


at the FCU.

The adjustments influence


internal cams, springs and
linkages within the FCU.

Whenever an adjustment is
made, the final adjustment must
be made in the increase
direction.


CONCLUSION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Now that you have completed this topic, you should be


able to:

1 Identify typical fuel system components and describe systems


lay-out.

2 Describe the operation of engine control and fuel metering


systems including electronic engine control (FADEC).


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Copyright 2002.

This concludes Topic


2 Fuel Systems

Any Questions?