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To understand the concept of relay hardwiring in process industry

To learn how to construct the wiring diagram in the form of ladder diagram of relay
based system.
To apply and design relay based system in an electro pneumatic system using hardwired

Electro pneumatics is now commonly used in many areas of industrial low cost
automation. They are also used extensively in production, assembly, pharmaceutical, chemical
and packaging systems. There is a significant change in controls systems. Relays have
increasingly been replaced by the programmable logic controllers in order to meet the growing
demand for more flexible automation.
Electro-pneumatic control consists of electrical control systems operating pneumatic
power systems. In this, solenoid valves are used as interface between the electrical and
pneumatic systems. Devices like limit switches and proximity sensors are used as feedback
Electro Pneumatic control integrates pneumatic and electrical technologies, is more
widely used for large applications. In Electro Pneumatics, the signal medium is the electrical
signal either AC or DC source is used. Working medium is compressed air. Operating voltages
from around 12 V to 220 Volts are often used. The final control valve is activated by solenoid
In Electro pneumatic controls, mainly three important steps are involved:
Signal input devices -Signal generation such as switches and contactor, Various types
of contact and proximity sensors.
Signal Processing Use of combination of Contactors of Relay or using Programmable
Logic Controllers,
Signal Out puts Out puts obtained after processing are used for activation of solenoids,
indicators or audible alarms
Lab Preparation/Pre-Lab

1. Explain with aid of diagram the operation of normally open and normally closed
switch, relays and contactors, timers and counters.
Push Button Switches

In this experiment, I will explain about push button switches. A push button is a switch
used to close or open an electric control circuit. They are primarily used for starting and
stopping of operation of machinery. They also provide manual override when the emergency
arises. Push button switches are actuated by pushing the actuator into the housing. This causes
set of contacts to open or close.
The contact of the push buttons, distinguished according to their functions:
i) Normally open (NO) type
ii) Normally closed (NC) type

Relays and Contactors

A relay is an electro magnetically actuated switch. It is a simple electrical device used
for signal processing. Relays are designed to withstand heavy power surges and harsh
environment conditions. When a voltage is applied to the solenoid coil, an electromagnet field
results. This causes the armature to be attracted to the coil core. The armature actuates the relay
contacts, either closing or opening them, depending on the design. A return spring returns the
armature to its initial position when the current to the coil is interrupted.

The basic operation of a contactor is similar to that of a relay but contactor contacts can
carry much more current than relays. Relays cannot be directly used in circuits where current
exceeds 20 amperes. In such conditions contactors can be used. Contactors are available in a
wide range of ratings and forms. Contactors are available up to the ampere rating of 12500A.
Contactors cannot provide short circuit protection but can only make or break contacts when

Timers and Counters

Timers are required in control systems to effect time delay between work operations.
This is possible by delaying the operation of the associated control element through a timer.
Most of the timers we use is Electronic timers.
An electric counter consist of a coil, associated circuits and contacts, a reset coil, manual reset,
release button and a display window. Pressure the release button of the counter and entering
the desired count valve set the pre-determining counter. The pre-determined count valve is
displayed in the window. There are two types of counters:
i. Up counter
ii. Down counter

2. Identify each component on the trainer board.

Push button
Pneumatic cylinder (single acting/double acting)

3. Explain PLC programming using ladder diagram and mnemonic code.

Basic Programming Instructions: LD, AND, OR, NOT, OUT, END, AND LD, OR LD

LD - A starting instruction for logic line

When a logic line starts with an NO (Normally Open) input, use LD.

Mnemonic Codes
Address Instruction Operands

00000 LD 000.05
AND - This is used to connect two or more inputs in serial

Mnemonic codes

Address Instruction Operands

00000 LD 00001
00001 AND 00002
00002 AND 00003
00003 AND 00004

OR - This is used to connect two or more inputs in parallel

Mnemonic Codes

Address Instruction Operands

00000 LD 00002
00001 OR 00003
00002 OR 00000
00003 OR 00001

NOT - NOT invert its inputs; Often used to form an NC (Normally Closed) input or output.
- NOT can be used with LD, OUT, AND or OR

Mnemonic Code

Address Instruction Operands

00000 LD NOT 00001
00001 AND 00002
00002 AND NOT 00000
OUT - This is used to connect output /designated operand bit

Mnemonic Code

Address Instruction Operands

00000 LD NOT 00000
00001 OUT 01000
00002 LD 00002
00003 OUT NOT 01001

END - This is used to indicate the end of program.

Mnemonic Code

Address Instruction Operands

00000 LD 00002
00001 AND 00000
00002 AND 00001
00003 OUT 01000
00004 END