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FORMWORK

INTRODUCTION

It is a temporary structure. If we can manage the formwork well and reusable we


can reduce the construction cost of the building by reasonable amount. Since the
concrete is as fresh and it needs time to settle. (That is, it needs time to get solid).
Therefore it is necessary to provide a temporary structure, it is known as shuttering
or formwork.
Materials used in the site were 2 4 timber, 8410mm plywood, 50mm
Galvanized iron (GI) pipe, adjustable steel jacks, rabid clam/form tie/butterfly nuts
with thread rod, tie rod/threaded bar, tri square and plumb bob. There are some
important characteristics for formwork, such as

It should be strong enough to resist pressure of fresh concrete.


It should rigid enough to retain the shape without undue deformation.
To prevent leakage of grout through the joints, it should be constructed
so tight.
It should be removable without difficulties.
It should not warp, bend, bulge or sink to give good appearance to the
concrete surface.
In construction mostly 10mm plywood is being used sheet for the formwork.

Kicker

Kicker was used to keep formwork vertically when constructing column. Kicker
height is 100mm and constructs by using concrete on top of the slab whatever
structure with same dimension of the column or wall.
The concrete kicker helps to keep formwork vertically and more accurately,
special for columns. This kicker is helpful to construct a column or wall easily.

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Also it is used to prevent the loss of grouts from bottom edge of column when
concreting.

Constructed Kickers

Column Formwork

Column formworks consist of a vertical box or mould, which has to resist


considerable horizontal pressure in the early stage of casting. Obviously four
timber framed plywood panels one for each face was used for forming the square
or rectangular shaped column side, and should be strengthened and securely hold
these box together during the placing of concrete.

The boards internal dimensions should be equal to the external dimensions of the
column. Timber or steel struts can be used as supports. The struts should be able to
resist the vibration and pressure during concreting.

The sides of the box were screwed firmly together by using tie bolts. Tie bolts
were rods of about 10mm diameter, which hold the formwork in place. The ends
of the rods were threaded and steadily screwed by using nuts. The important thing
to check whether the required dimensions were in the inner profile of the column

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box. After plumbing and aligning the formwork the formwork should be located
against a kicker.

Formwork for Columns

Checking the verticality of columns.

After erecting the column formwork, jacks were provided to support the four sides
of the formwork to avoid any movement. These jacks were provided at four sides
of the formwork to adjust and to obtain the verticality of the column box.

To check the verticality of the column box we used plumb-bobs hang down from
an anchor and a tri square. We measured the distance between outer side of the
plywood board and string of the plumb bob at the top and bottom of the plywood

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board. If these two readings are same, plywood board is vertical. If these two
readings are different from each other than to get the verticality of the column box
the adjustable screw jacks were adjusted.

After checking the verticality of the column boxes concreting was carried out.

Check for Vertical Alignment of a Column

Beam Formwork

A beam formwork consists of three side boards which are supported by cross
members of 2x2. Timber which is propped to the underside of the beam bottom.
Beam bottom were made to required length using plywood sheets, (2 x 2) timber
and GI pipes.

After the required elevation given for beam bottom, it was placed on the columns
in correct position .then, it was supported by pipe jacks and timber post at suitable
intervals.
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Then the sideboard of the beams can be erected to required height. When we place
the beam bottom the horizontal level of it was checked by using spit level.

Beam bottom form work

Formwork for Beam

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Slab Formwork

After laying scaffolding or pipe supports, (4x 4) timber flanks were placed over
the U jacks which were placed on scaffolding frame or pipe supports. Then 2
GI pipes were laid over the (4 x 4) timber joints.

Interval between GI pipes should be 250 300mm. GI pipes were leveled by


loosening or tightening scaffolding or pipes jacks.

After completing the leveling of GI pipes, plywood sheet were laid over the GI
pipes with the help of the (2x 2) timber and (2 x 4) timber, which was at the
edge of the side board.

Slab Formwork

Leveling of Slab Formwork

When we finished the slab formwork, the level of slab panels may not be in
required level or not same in all the places. Some panels may go upward some
may gone downward from their correct level.

If the slab panel was gone upward it was pulled downward and if the slab
panel was gone downward it was lifted to the correct level by using adjustable
props. Therefore by using engineering level the required level was checked

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out. The levelling work was done both top and under the slab. The panel
formwork was adjusted by using adjustable props.

Checking Procedure for Slab Height

The height between soffit to soffit levels was 3450mm and 1000mm 0ff from
the floor level. It was used to transfer the level to the top slab. The instrument
was placed at suitable place to see 1000mm off line and it should be placed to
cover more area.

Then instrument was levelled and first reading of staff was taken when it
was at the 1000mm off line and that reading was taken as x mm. Then staff
was placed inversely on the bottom of plywood and the level was checked
whether correct or not by comparing calculated value and measured value.

If measured value was higher than the calculated value, the slab panel pulled
downward. If measured value was less than the calculated value, the slab
panel had to be lifted upward. Above procedure was used to adjust the slab
panel. The calculated value can be found as shown below.

x- First Reading
y- Calculated value [3450-1000-x-150-10
Slab (150mm depth) = (2285-x)]

10 mm thick
plywood
Inverted Staff
y
Staff

x
Line of Collimation
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1000mm

Lower floor level


Importance Things about Formwork

Formwork and its supports should maintain their correct position, correct
shape and profile so that the final concrete structure is within the limits of
the dimensional tolerance specified.

It must have grout-tight joints.

The formwork was capable of being dismantled and removed from the cast
concrete without shocks disturbance or damage.

Formwork was designed to provide sufficient but not excessive strength and
rigidity.
Formwork was cleaned and oiled after using.

Removal of Formwork
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Vertical surface formwork such as column & wall form work, beams side boards could be
removed at early stage. But soffit form work of beams & slabs could not be removed until
the concrete reaches a sufficient strength to support its self weight and any other loads
transferred. The minimum period for removing formwork for ordinary Portland cement
without admixtures is shown on the following table.

Part of structure The minimum period for removing


Formwork

Sides boards of pile caps ,columns, 24 hours


beams and retaining wall

Under sides of slabs of up to 4.5 meter 7 days


span
Under side of slabs of above 4.5 meter 14 days
span and under side of beams and
arches up to 6 meters span

Under side of beams and arches aver 6 21 day


meters span and up to 9 meter span

Cantilever slab and beams 21 days

Slab formwork

Formwork for
Columns

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Staircase Formwork

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Reinforcement Drawings

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