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Borders, Boundaries, and Citizenship

Author(s): Seyla Benhabib
Reviewed work(s):
Source: PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Oct., 2005), pp. 673-677
Published by: American Political Science Association
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the Paris connected--andI almost20 millionrefugees.increased peoplesto be includedwithinthe boundariesof almostsix-foldoverthe courseof these 90 the demos." developments episodessuchas the experienceof self-govem.between (Marshall1950).by contrast.the self-governance. is realizedthroughthe institutionsof democratic To ascertainsuchtrendsone need not commit PSOnline www. Boundaries. immigrationandcitizenshippolicies.the anarchistandsocialist traditionalconceptionsof 673 todayin crisis.75 millionpeople self-governancewas increasinglyinterpreted undertookcross-bordermovementsto settle as the formalequalityof citizenswho now in countriesotherthanthatof theirorigin(UN sought to realize the equal value of their liberty International Migration Report 2002). in termsof an equivalentscheduleof rights While migratorymovementsin the latter andentitlements.conceivesof the citizen firstandforemostas the subjectof Benhabib2004).or of ity andrelativesuccessto the comingtogether publicandprivateautonomy. Originating with the territorialboundaries.The civic-republican ideal of half of the 20th centuryhaveaccelerated. This relativelysuccessfulsynthesisof Modemliberaldemocraciesowe theirstabil- republicanandliberal-democratic ideals. governancedefinesfreedomas the ruleof law It has now becomecommonplacein norma- amonga communityof equalswho arecitizens tive politicalthoughtas well as in the social of the polis andwho havethe rightto ruleand sciencesto foretell"theend of the nation-state" to be ruled.6 to en. andnon-Christian andnon-Whitecolonial 5.butit is mostlynationssuch as Chad.andthe monopolyoverterritoryis exercisedthrough SpanishCivil War. on the one handandadherenceto universalhu- Since the 17th cen.andIngushetiathatarehometo hun- autonomy.if theydo not also addressthe norma- ministration.for even in the face of the collapseof communeof 1871. Froma normativepointof view.democracyand practicesof politicalmembershipmay bestbe the consolidationof the illuminated through an internal reconstruction by modernm nation-statehave and critiqueof these dualcommitments(See Seyla Benhabib.andworkersto win suffragegave way this sameperiod(1910-2000).publicautonomy tively (Reiff2003). The crisisis not the crisisof democracyin the cal periods:the idealsof self-governanceand firstplacebutratherthe crisisof the territorially territorially circumscribed nation-state.respec- the equalvalueof theirliberty.Thereare equalsin a publicspace.the exerciseof freedomamong plightof refugeeshas also grown.The privateautonomyof citizenspre.Strikingly. 2001) areempty. transnational this experimentwith good governancein a self- migrationsbringto the fore the constitutive regulatingcivil societyhas been the defining dilemmaat the heartof liberaldemocracies: conceptionof the social contractin the worksof betweensovereignself-determination claims ThomasHobbesandJohnLocke. dredsof thousandsof refugeesfleeingfromwars supposesthe exerciseandenjoymentof liberty in the neighbouringcountriesof CentralAfrican througha rights-framework whichunderwrites Republican.Moderndemocraciesseek northernhemisphereface a growingnumberof to integratetheserepublicanandliberalideals migrants. manrightsprincipleson the other.This idealemergesin 5th-century and "thedemiseof Westphalianconceptionsof Athensandis revivedthroughouthistoryin Yetcontemporary sovereignty. of two idealswhichoriginatein distincthistori.artisans. thantheirown as migrants. In this period.Migrations. communesof the RussianRevolution.I arguethat tury. of citizenshipas the practiceandenjoymentof The resource-richcountriesof Europeandthe rightsandbenefits.and Citizenship Democratic Citizenship and the self-governancein increasinglycomplexsociet- Crisis of Territoriality ies. or more positively. as the subject tive regulationof peoples' movementacross of rights and entitlements.The demo.morethanhalf of the increase citizenshiprightscamethe enrichmentof the of migrantsfrom 1910 to 2000 occurredin the scope of rightsfromcivil to politicalto social last threedecadesof the 20thcentury. aremuchmorecomplicatedthanthese phrases ing city-statesin the Renaissance. of the worldhas grownthreefold. Yale University timescontradictingand The UN estimatesthatin 1910 roughly33 at times supplementing millionindividualslived in countriesother each other. into the practicesof "private"and"public" Pakistan. thatnumberhadreached175 million.During farmers.3 billion. sovereignty(Buchanan2000. the population in the early20thcenturyto the struggleof wom.apsanet. circumscribed nation-stateformation.the ideal of 1965 and2000.andChechnya. wouldarguenecessarily--tothe liberalideal and"internallydisplacedpersons"in the contrast.Borders. the year2000 craticstrugglesof propertylessmales. therefore.Along withthe formalexpansionof years.from 1.In this process. marchedtogether.All pleas The idealof the territoriallycircumscribed to develop"post-Wetsphalian" conceptionsof nation-state. transitionfromfeudalismto the absolutiststate.

htm). the existing nation-state structuresalone. our norma. sub-national as well as supra-na- and territorialsovereignty are built right into the logic of the most tional spaces for democratic attachments and agency are emerging comprehensive internationallaw document in the world. ch. I will not call for the end of the state The Universal Declaration is silent on states' obligations to system nor for world-citizenship. existing polities. ship rights today must dom of movement be resituated in a across boundaries: it transnationalcontext. whereas Habermas envisages the "rights of others"-immigrants. military. the world-society of states. in the contemporary of admittees. while strengthening their commitments to emerging norms of ments nor the creation of the United Nations High Commissioner cosmopolitical justice. Both. occasionally. recognizes the right to How can private and emigrate-that is. While the terrainwe are sian law of peoples makes tolerance for regimes with different travelling on. Quite to the contrary: as the Declaration upholds the sovereignty of individual states. international soft law. the public autonomy be right to leave a coun. goes tural movements. have internationalhuman rights regime has emerged. attainment of political man rights treaties as membership rights by well as customary and non-members. and asylum seek. permit citizenship to alien residents and denizens. understandings of the moral and religious good its cornerstone tive map has not. The growing normative incongruities between and compromises universal human rights claims for the sake of internationalhuman rights norms. an the constitutionalization of international law. the expansion of such universalistic claims in ever-widening ers-and continuing assertions of territorialsovereignty are the networks of solidarity. 2004). Despite the cross-border characterof these rights. Thus a institution of citizenship is disaggregated and state sovereignty series of internal contradictions between universal human rights comes under increasing stress. and to tradition of cosmopolitan federalism (Cf. most pressing con- ment of interrelated temporary questions and overlapping global is access to citizen- and regional regimes ship rights. and they need to be advanced with. Rather. however. on Refugees have altered the fact that this Convention and its 674 PS October 2005 .The old ing have emerged in response to these questions: the "law of political structuresmay have waned but the new political forms of peoples" model defended by John Rawls (1999) and the model of globalization are not yet in sight. Nevertheless. still keep out aliens and intruders.unhchr. along to disregard treaties. The crises of the Yet states' sovereignty nation-state. Article 14 anchors the right to enjoy asylum under certain liberal ideal of the equal value of liberty? circumstances. following the Kantian grant entry to immigrants. added in 1967. In contemporary political philosophy two lines of think- while more porous. and its Protocol. including their importantinternationallegal documents governing cross-border distinctive cultural. It is importantto respect Refugees. There are no easy solutions to the dilemmas posed eng. in a post-Wetsphalian man rights regime" world. and constitutional self-understandings. drawn at a different as suggested by Juergen Habermas (1998. 1. and technological domains has been greatly tory states themselves. have shifted the lines The Universal between citizens and Declaration of Human residents. 2001). the republican ideal of enter a country (Article self-governance and the 13). Yet one of the to mean the develop.ds immigrate-the right to neighbouringcountries. legal.1Habermas seeks to transcend it along the model of Since the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human exaggerated claims about the end of the state system. an unknown terrainwith the help of old maps. movements. These rights Benhabib 2004. Kant [1795]1994. I will underscore the significance have no specific addressees and they do not appear to anchor of membership within bounded communities and defend the need specific obligations of compliance on the part of second and third for "democratic attachments"that need not be directed toward parties."The second half of Article 15 stipulates that between human rights declarations and states' sovereign claims "No one shall be arbitrarilydeprived of his nationality nor denied to control their borders and to monitor the quality and quantity the right to change his nationality" (www. Rawls takes the nation-state framework novel features of this new landscape. or the that encompass hu. particularlyas they pertain to achieving international stability. The Rawl- time and in response to different needs. for granted. while Article 15 proclaims that everyone has "the There is not only a tension. it is nonetheless vigorously asserted. eroded. I understandan said relatively little about the dilemmas of democratic citizenship "internationalhu. to uphold the right of asylum. nationals and Rights recognizes a foreigners. by these dual commitments. has changed. unchecked. neither the existence of these docu. The irony Protocol are binding on signatory states alone and can be brazenly of currentpolitical developments is that while state sovereignty in disregarded by non-signatories and. The Geneva Convention of 1951 Relating to the Status of ratherthan in lieu of. even by signa- economic. national borders. refugees. Citizen- limited right to free. reconfigured? How can try-but not a right to Nationssuchas Pakistanare hometo hundre of thousands of refugeesfleeing from wars in we do justice both to . are the second most the claims of diverse democratic communities. with globalization and to abide by or not the rise of multicul- implement them. but often an outright contradiction right to a nationality. We ate like travellers navigating cosmopolitan citizenship centered around a new law of nations.

minedby generaldevelopmentsin the worldsocietyof states.If they arelong-termresidentsin their peanUnionin particular..One can have the idealof the unifieddemoshas becomefracturedthroughthe politicalmembershiprightswithoutsharingthe commonidentity increasingmulticulturalism of the demosandgrowingtransna- of the majority.Whatall these modelshavein commonthoughis that Netherlands.obtainthe andculturalorigins. and well as of refugeesandasylum scope of democraticlegitimacycannotextendbeyondthe demos seekers. Ironically.How can democraticvoice andpublicautonomybe otherthanthoseof theirnationality.albeitin muchreduced warlike.the privilegesof politicalmem.andthe residency. fashion. is of whichthis disaggregationeffect as a processof self-constitutionthroughmoreor less conscious has proceededmostintensively(See Benhabib2002a. thatthe peoplearethe authoras well as citizensalongthe lines of sharedlanguage. privilegesof politicalmembershipnow accrueto all citizensof The core of democraticself-governanceis the ideal of public membercountriesof the Unionwho may be residingin territories autonomy. Irelandtheserightsaregrantedat the local girdingrepresentation.We arewitness.TheEU is caughtamongcontradictory currentswhich preciselytowardthe uncouplingof democraticvoice andterrito- move it towardnormsof cosmopolitanjusticein the treatment rialrepresentation. thereis a returnto citizenshipin the city respectiveforeigncountries.Common. normativeforcein guidingourinstitutionshavegrownobsolete.andtechnologyacrossborders.religion. The declineof the unitarymodelof citizenshipshouldsuggest information.whose countries Asiancountries.remainsin thatmurkydomainbetweenlegality whichhas circumscribed itself as a peopleupona giventerritory. "Flexibleciti- an equivalentpackageof socialrightsandbenefits.It is no longernationality reconfigured? Candemocraticrepresentation be organizedalong of originbutEU citizenshipwhichentitlesone to residentalienshavebeen governanceandterritorialrepresentation (See also Warrenand incorporated into civil can haveaccess to social rightsandbenefits tionalismof nationalsocieties.The negotiation boundariesset by the ruleof law.Withinthe Euro- the EuropeanParliament."aliensuffrage"is increasingly to legislation.Yetin this respectas well changesarevis.the idealof a unifieddemos.Yetthereis a cruciallinkbetweendemocraticself- uponthe statusof contrast. bershipin the sense of access to the rightsof publicautonomy.the strugglesof inclusionandexclusion.arecut off fromrightsandbenefitsandmostlylive and as faras the powerof thatcenterto controlits peripheryextended.third-country nationalscan participatein local and theyretainthe principleof territorialmembershipfor under- regionalelections.this is not the case for third-countrynationals.andhold office in local as well as Union-wide practicedat the anothersuch attemptto multiplythe voice and of origindo not belongto the EU. territory. to certainthird-country nationals(mainlythosefromSouth residencyupon.insidersandoutsiders.Imperial to certainformsof medicalcare.andeventualmembershipwithina circumscribed America).ethnicity. east Asia.Their for example.was issuedfroma centerandwas binding 675 . Whileterritorialandeconomicself-sufficiencyhavebeen under- andthe entitlementto socialrightsandprivileges.The unityof the demosoughtto withoutsharingin self-governanceandwithoutbeing a national. workin clandestineways.London. hospitalityhas weakenedin intensitybuthas by no meansbeen Therearealso currentdevelopments. EuropeanUnioncitizenshipmakesit possiblefor all EU citizens As a resultof these developments.all foreignresidentswho arethird-country nationals. zenship. El Salvador. runfor."particularlyin the case of CentralAmericanandSouth The conditionof EU's third-country nationals.the DominicanRepublic. AihwaOngrecountsthe creationof "multinational cal agencyandsubjectivitywhichanticipatenew modalitiesof zones of sovereignty"in the formof growthtriangles(GTs).2002b).Finland.Disaggregation of Citizenship within the Reconfigurations of Citizenship and European Union Sovereignty The conceptof citizenshipin the modernstatecan be analyti.The condi.the tion of undocumented aliens. enclosedandautonomousterritoryoverwhichthe demosgoverns.theycan also participatein electionsto as well as trans-national modesof citizenship.however. lines going beyondthe nation-stateconfiguration? Thenew recon- Citizensof the EU can vote andstandfor office in local elections figurations of nationaldemocracies are giving rise to sub-national in theirhost countries.on the whole. aresupposedto bindthosewho legitimatelyauthorizethem.Undocumentedmigrants. be understoodnot as if it were a harmoniousgiven. Democraticsovereigntyis basedon threeregulativeideals: cally dividedintothreecomponents:the collectiveidentityof publicautonomy.In the eraof cosmopolitannorms.In some cases.we arewitnessinga shrinkingof the effectivenessof accordancewith outmodedWestphalianconceptionsof unbridled popularsovereigntyandthe emergenceof sovereigntybeyondthe sovereigntytowardthosewho areon the outside. rightto vote andto organizepoliticalpartiesafterfive yearsof ible throughoutthe EU: in Denmark.The politicalcitizenship. In the UnitedKingdom. the Portugal.however. Representation canrunalongmanylines besidesterritorial opmentsis thatthe entitlementto rightsis no longerdependent residency. asyleesandrefugeesareentitled representation mustbe accountableto a forms threeGTs formedby linkingneighboringcountriesareIndonesia- of politicalagencyhaveemergedthatchallengethe distinctions Malaysia-Singapore (Sijori). Preciselybecausedemocraciesenactlaws that protectedby supra-andsub-nationallegislations.Sweden. the subjectof the laws.or well as being Castiglione2004).alongwith the spreadof cosmopoli- of those who arewithinits boundaries. childrenof refugeesandasylees Democraticlaws requireclosurepreciselybecausedemocratic can attendschool.reciprocityrightsto vote in local electionsaregranted modelof democraticrepresentation is dependentuponaccessto.butrather Withinthe EuropeanUnion.While the sites for the exerciseof democraticcitizenship(Ong 1999). andillegality.while leadingit to act in tannorms.and a self- commonhistory.Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand.whichpoint eliminated. In the Netherlands elections.Vis-a-vispeoples'cross-border betweeninsiderandoutsiderstatushas becometense andalmost movements. In Spainand Mexico. The mostimportantconclusionto be drawnfromthese devel. or dualcitizenshipbetween wealthcitizenscan vote in nationalelectionsas well.andthe U.the stateremainssovereign.on the whole they arealso entitledto as well as the transnationalinstitutionsof the EU. Amsterdam. Transnational corpora- PSOnline www.The conflictbetweensovereigntyand Empireshavefrontiers. ing todayan "unbundling" of these components.the state neitherthatits holduponourpoliticalimaginationnorthatits todayis morehostagethansovereign. In heranalysisof economicglobalizationprocessesin South- It does meanthatwe mustbe readyto imagineformsof politi.apsanet.andmemories. Whetherit is residencyin cities suchas butnot the regionallevel. entitlementto politicalrightsremainsattachedto theirnational thatis citizensof countrieswhicharenot EU members.Vis-i-vis the movementof capitalandcommodities.

even if they are state-likefunctions.this is no longerplausibleandfunctionsmoreas sovereigntywith theirown complicity. in additionto state-rundelegations.''invisibleprofessionalcommunities.rangingfromsecurityandarmscontrolto combating losersin this processarethe citizensfromwhomstateprotection povertyanddisease.Democratic law.populardemocraticcontrol.They of law whichis self-generatingandself-regulatingbutwhichdoes requirethe partialdelegationof certainformsof statesovereignty.representation. jurisdiction and territory in that the state transfers its own pow.If one appliesthe principleof democraticlegitimacy Statejurisdictionandterritoriality areuncoupledas new agents to theirfunctioning.A worldstateis rejectedbuta possible social networks'"(8). Yet structuresof transnational governancemustremainaccount- tionallegislators(See Teubner1997).'invisible whomtheyrepresent.overnon-statalinstitutionswhichincreasinglyassume whichthemselvesunderminethe nation-state. This distinctionis intendedto Despitethe greatvariationacrosscountrieswithrespectto the highlightthe needfor structuresof cooperationandcollective interactionsof the globaleconomyandstates. this form throughthe categoryof nationality. The innocuoustermfor these shipandthe disaggregationof sovereigntyarepartandparcel developmentsis globalization.ecologicalconcerns. of haveto cut backon welfarebenefitsandrelaxlaborandenvi. tion in the generalization actioncoordinationwhichgo beyondthe morefamiliarones of can be safely made:economicglobalizationis leadingto a funda.etc. not originatethroughthe legislativeor deliberativeactivityof na. of transportingto upona hostilitytowardthe nation-state. undisclosedforeigncountriesillegal enemyaliensandmaybe Only withina frameworkof sub-andtransnational modesof even of prisonersof war. Advocatesof multinationalandtransnational sites of citizen- power and mercy of transnational corporations and other forms of shipdistinguish between transnationalgovernanceandtransna- venturecapitalists.whose limitsas set by "'invisiblecolleges. This will takevarious rangedthrougha multinational networkof smartpartnerships decreasing.economiccooperation. Along with structuresof transnational governance. ers of jurisdiction. Globallaw is transterritorial ableto peopleswho havetheirown governments.these arenot the only alternativeswith which citizenshipcan also be multipliedby institutinga worldpeoples' globalizationprocessesconfrontus. inter-statalorganizationsbasedupontreatyobligationssuchas mentaltransformation of legal institutionsandof the paradigmof NATO. remainaccountableto democraticallyorganizedpeoples. the statedisbursesits ownjurisdictionto private stakesin manypartsof the worldthey affect. andtowardmoreclosely integratedandmore the ruleof is importantto notethatthe worldalreadyhas or- the migrations. It appearsthatGTworkersare less subjectto therulesof theirhomecountryandmoreto the votingrightswithnationalityis no longerconvincing.whetherit be by citizensand beyondnation-stateboundariesis necessitatedby developments residents.As fancifulas this may seem."(Ong1999.222) by collectivedecisionsin whichtheyhavea stake-as workers.who neverhad strongstateprotec. andcollaborationis it possibleto Thuswe arecaughtin cross-currents whichon the one hand protectthe fundamentalvaluesof liberalandrepublicanliberty. parents.tions suchas Nike.quiteto the contrary.or throughthe pressureto adaptstatebureaucracies to Bank. processwe havebecomepainfullyfamiliarwith throughthe Bush This sketchyvision of cosmopolitanfederalismis not based Administration's policy of "rendition. tonomyto thosewho did notformerlypossess it.The nation-stateis the betweenlong-termresidentsandnationalcitizens.or.sites of man2004) Surely. the interestof donorcountriesthanthosewhose livelihoodand In some cases.Heretoo thereis a agenciesin orderto escapethe controlof popularlegislators--a democraticdeficitwhichmustbridged.residents-also havea say in these decisions. extendthe domainof citizenshipby weakeningthe divisions thatis of privateandpublicautonomy.Long- termresidencyin a city.Extendingthe vote to long-termresidentsat city and state andthatexploitthecheaplaborthatexistswithintheorbitof a levels has becomenecessarybecausethe traditionalcouplingof globalhubsuchas Singapore.GATT. Multiplyingsites of citizenshipat the sub-statelevels.on the other home of the moderncitizen.Increasingly. countability. cooperation.or stategovernmentmakesone Whetherit is the growthtrianglesof SoutheastAsia or the a stakeholder. epochalchangeis underwayin which structuresof transnational governancewithoutdemocraticac- aspectsof statesovereigntyarebeing dismantledchipby chip.Thereis an uncouplingof a mechanismof exclusionthaninclusion. It is importantto emphasize assemblyin the UnitedNationsto accompanythe stateswhichare thatsovereignstatesareplayerswith considerablepowerin this represented.whetherin full knowledgeor by unintended is hardlyan adequatemeasureto cope with manyof the world's consequence. is withdrawn. tionalgovernment(Held2004).' 'invisiblemarkets governmentmustremainaccountableto the citizensandresidents andbranches.andthe summitmeetingsof G-7 andG-8 areincipient the new capitalism.the empireandstrengthening the democraticcitizen.region.The reconfiguration of citizenship hand.whichwill ronmentalregulationsto attractglobalcapital?(See Scheuer. morelikely." thatis. Modernstatesregulatedthe circleof stakeholders maquilladorasof CentralAmerica(See Emcke2004).to non-statalprivateandcorporatebodies.Democratic rulesof companiesandto thecompetitive conditionssetby legitimacyrequiresthatall thosewhose interestsareaffected othergrowthtrianglesin theregion.national.andwho thusbecomedependentuponthe etc.the moreominousepithetis that of the samelandscapebuthavedistinctivenormativelogics."Cosmopolitanfederalismis a projectwhichattempts Whereasdisaggregatedsovereigntymeansthe escapeof public to reinin the forcesof globalizationwhile resistingthe spreadof powerfromthe purviewof the publicautonomyof citizens.butin view of the develop- of economicglobalizationresultsin the disaggregationof states' mentsrecounted. Reebok. blindlypromotedby it as well. imaginea world-wideelectionof peoples'representatives to the formationswhichappearto curtailor limittheirown powers. Whetherit be throughthe changingpatternsof transnational Finally. reconfiguration of stateboundariesin the formof everlargercon- Lawwithouta State?Orraceto the bottomby stateswhich figurations cooperationandpopularsovereigntyis possible.globalizationis engenderinga body permanentinstitutionsfor addressingthe world'sproblems.andthe Gapemploymillionsof disaggregationof citizenshipmeansthe extensionof publicau- womenwho work 12 hoursa day andmakeless than$2 a day. 676 PS October 2005 .through emergence of growth triangles and new ganizationsof transnational cooperationthataremarkedby lack globalformsof law withouta statein the fluidglobalmarket.the World place. regulatingthe flow of electroniccommerceandcommunication.The IMF. Ongobservesthatthese To assertpopularsovereigntyin an eraof the twilightof state sovereigntymeansmultiplyingsites of citizenshipat the sub-na- "growthtrianglesarezonesof specialsovereignty thatarear- tional. UN.andtransnational levels. of "empire. of transparency andof is not impossibleto process:theythemselvesoftennurtureandguidethe verytrans.The disaggregationof is clearthattheseorganizationsservemore of jurisdictionin the formof multinationalcorporationsemerge.The problems.

Citizenshipand Social Class and OtherEssays. Aihwa. by Hans Reiss. "FromNurembergto Kosovo:The Moralityof Illegal Interna.Note 1. Press. -. Ong.. Brookfield." (Rawls 1993. 1993. . Europe.apsanet. 2004. ."Ethics 111 (July):673-705."The LeonardShapiroMemorialLecture. 2004.Governmentand Op. Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress. 2002b. 2004. The Claims of Culture:Equalityand Diversity in the Global trans.Frankfurt:Fischer Verlag.Justiceand Representation position 37 (Autumn):439-465.New York:CambridgeUniversity Suhrkamp.eds. Emcke. . 1999. . 2001."Democracyand Society 2 (fall): 5."Ethics 110 (July):697-721. 2000. Thus. UK: CambridgeTexts in the History of Political Thought.1998. "Rawls'sLaw of Peoples: Rules for a VanishedWest."In TheInclusion of the Other: Warren.NC: Duke UniversityPress.Second. in Global Institutions.New York:ColumbiaUniversityPress. like any where we will lead a complete life.edition.this initial step of abstractionhas significantconsequences it is only by death. bridge.William. the WashingtonConsensus. B.and Dario Castiglione. 2002a. Durham. Cambridge. See Rawls's astonishingcomment:"a democraticsociety. Global Law withouta State. Gorcum. In Kant: Political Writings.T. Nisbet.ed. 2004. H. Transformationsof Citizenship:Dilemmas of the Nation-State Marshall. "PerpetualPeace: A PhilosophicalSketch. we mightjoin an association. Global Covenant:TheSocial DemocraticAlternativeto of TimeBaltimore:Johns Hopkins UniversityPress. "Transformations of Citizenship:The Case of Contemporary and enlarged." . CiaranCroninand Pablo De Greiff. The Law of Peoples.but as being born into a society References Benhabib.VT: DartmouthPublishingCompany.)Even political society.MA: HarvardUniversity .Immanuel.H.2004. "TheEuropeanNation-State:On the Past and Law and Policy.MA: MIT Press. is to be viewed as a completeand closed social system. Der Gespaltene Westen:Kleinepolitische Schriften.Oxford:Oxford UniversityPress. My emphasis. cratic Representation.2004. LiberalDemocracyand the Social Acceleration Held.. . Vondem Krieg [Of War]. we are not seen as joining society at the age for the rest of his argumentation. John. Rawls. in thatentry into it is only by birthand exit from political liberalism. DemocracybeyondBorders. Kant.Amsterdam:Van CambridgeUniversityPress. 2004.The Spinoza Lectures. 2001. bridge.[1795] 1994. Cam- Era.Alan. 1950.Andrew. Teubner. ity.Seyla.designed to justify the principlesof of life.ed.Juergen. tional Reform. Kuper. It is if Rawls uses the model of a "completeand closed social system"as a coun- complete in that it is self-sufficientand has a place for all the main purposes terfactualstep in a thoughtexperiment. Press. Cam. Futureof Sovereigntyand 677 .Gunther. phalianWorld.. Carolin. TheRights of Others:Aliens. 1997. 1999. Residentsand Citizens. of reason. "TheTransformationof Demo- Studies in Political Theory.Frankfurt: The John Seeley MemorialLectures. It is also closed . Political Liberalism. London: in the Era of Globalization. Flexible Citizenship:The CulturalLogic of Transnational- Buchanan. David. 41.Mark..London:Polity Press. PSOnline www. Studies in Modern Habermas.