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Course Book

Mechanics and properties of matter


Lecturer: Aziz Muhemed Abdullah
Physics Department/ College of education /
Aziz.abdullah@charmouniversity.org/ /


/ /

Course overview
This course is a basic course in Physics. It exposes students to a beginning course in
Mechanics and Properties of Matter. Mechanics is broken down into its three
components: Statics, dynamics and kinematics.
These are clearly explained to students so as to bring out their differences and
interrelationship. Students are introduced to the various groups of properties of
matter. Basic machines and the areas of hydrostatics are treated in their basic forms.


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Course objectives
The aims are to:
1. Provide the student with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and
principles of physics.
2. Expose students to Physics in their everyday lives.
3. Bring into limelight, the meaning and applications of Mechanics and Properties of
Matter; and introduce students to higher courses related to Mechanics and Properties
of Matter.
References

()
.1 https://physics- Halliday and Resnic; Physics, vol. I
http://theory.uw stk.wikispaces.com/Unit+1++M
innipeg.ca/physi echanics+and+Properties+of+M
cs/
atter
1
.2 University Physics with Modern Keppler and Kolenkow; Classical
Physics with Mastering Physics Mechanics
Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman,
Lewis Ford

.3 http://www.freebookcentre.net/Physics/I Physics for Scientists and


ntroductory-Physics-Books.html Engineers
Raymond A. Serway and John W.
Jewett

Course Syllabus
Chapter Subject
1 Introduction

2 Measurements
3 Vectors and Scalars
4 Motion in One Dimension
Equations of Motion (including projectiles)
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Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
6 Dynamics (Newton's Law of Motion)
7 Work and Energy
8 Conservation of Energy and Linear Momentum
9 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
10 Static Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
11 Mechanical Wave
12 Thermal Physics
13 Pressure & pressure in a fluid
14 Gas Laws
15 Viscosity
16 Elasticity

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Homework and Exams:
The only proper way to learn new material in physics is to study. More problems should be
solved by each student during individual or group study time to form a more complete basis of
problem solving skills. Homework problems will be assigned, collected, and graded. Solutions to
the problems will be made available through the physics web server for a short period of time.
Not doing the problems will adversely affect your understanding of the material and your skills
along with your grade.
a) Problems will be assigned during class. Occasionally these problems will include
example problems from the textfor presentation to the class. We will present and discuss
these problems in the next class period.
b) I encourage you to discuss problems with each other, but write up your own solutions
individually. Direct copying is prohibited. You should also give credit to anyone you
worked with. Exceptions to this are only work done by me, or perhaps in my office, or if
we have all discussed the problem in class.
c) Doing the homework is the best way to learn the material. Please take it seriously and do
it on time.
d) Presentation of Problems: When you come into class, you should be prepared to
e) put homework problems on the board. One person will present each problem and then we
will all discuss it.
f) Quizzes: the quizzes grades will be folded into the homework grade. Each quiz will be an
equivalent percentage to one homework set.
g) Exams: There will be at least two one or one half -hour exams (before midterms) and two
one-one half hour exams (after the midterms). .
h) Final Exam: The final exam will be three hours long.
i) Attendance: Although attendance will be taken each day, it is strongly recommended
that you attend lecture. You are responsible for any material you missed during your
absence.

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j) Exams cannot be made up without an approved excuse. Approved excuses are such
things as illness and family or personal emergencies. If you must miss an exam, you must
contact me prior to the exam to make arrangements.
k) Note that ALL changes in the exam date and make-up exams are subject to approval of
the Lecturer and are handled on a situational basis.The Lecturer reserves the right to
refuse the administration of a make-up exam if they feel the reason given is unacceptable.
l) Grading: Each assignment, quiz, homework, and exams will be recorded as a percentage.

Study Tips
a) Read text before lectures.
b) Come to lectures, discussions, consolations with questions.
c) Work through by yourself as many problems as possible.
d) The point of physics is derivation from first principles.
e) Correct reason is more important than correct final number.
f) Math is a language, not the goal.
g) If you work on homework with other students, redo the problems later by yourself to see if you can
do them yourself.

Chapter One: Introduction


What is Physics? The classical branches of physics, our view of the universe, the relation of
physics to other sciences the experimental method

Chapter Two: Physics and measurements


Like all other sciences, physics is based on experimental observations and quantitative
measurements. The main objectives of physics are to identify a limited number of fundamental
laws that govern natural phenomena and use them to develop theories that can predict the results
of future experiments. The fundamental laws used in developing theories are expressed in the
language of mathematics, the tool that provides a bridge between theory and experiment.
This chapter reviews the basic ideas you need to start mechanic. To describe natural phenomena,
we must make measurements of various aspects of nature. Each measurement is associated with
a physical quantity, such as the length of an object. The laws of physics are expressed as
mathematical relationships among physical quantities that we will introduce and discuss
throughout the book. In mechanics, the three fundamental quantities are length, mass, and time.
All other quantities in mechanics can be expressed in terms of these three.
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This Chapter includes:

2.1 Standards of Length, Time and Mass


2.2 Dimensional Analysis
2.3 Conversion of Units
2.4 Estimate and Order of Magnitude Calculation

LEARNING GOALS
By studying this chapter, you will learn:
Three fundamental quantities of physics and the units physicists
use to measure them.
How to differ between the physical quantities.
How to use the conversion of units
Chapter Three: Vectors
We often need to work with physical quantities that have both numerical and directional
properties. This chapter is primarily concerned with general properties of vector quantities. We
discuss the addition and subtraction of vector quantities, together with some common
applications to physical situations. A description of a location in space can be specified using
Cartesian coordinates.
This Chapter includes:
3.1 Coordinate Systems
3.2 Vector and Scalar Quantities
3.3 Some Properties of Vectors
3.4 Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors

LEARNING GOALS
The difference between scalars and vectors, and how to add and subtract
vectors graphically.
What the components of a vector are, and how to use them in
calculations.
What unit vectors are, and how to use them with components to
describe vectors, unit vectors.
Two ways of multiplying vectors. scalar and vector product

Chapter four: Motion in one dimension


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We describe the motion of an object while ignoring the interactions with external agents
that might be causing or modifying that motion. This portion of classical is called kinematics. In
this chapter, we consider only motion in one dimension, that is, motion of an object along a
straight line includes:
4.1 Position, Velocity, and Speed
4.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
4.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity
4.4 Acceleration
4.5 Motion Diagrams
4.6 Freely Falling Objects
4.7 Kinematic Equations
By studying this chapter, you will learn:
How to describe straight-line motion in terms of average velocity, Instantaneous velocity,
average acceleration, and instantaneous acceleration.
How to interpret graphs of position versus time, velocity versus time,and acceleration
versus time for straight-line motion.
How to solve problems involving straight-line motion with constant acceleration, including
free-fall problems.
How to analyze straight-line motion when the acceleration is not constant.

Chapter Five: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions


In this chapter, we explore the kinematics of a particle moving in two dimensions. Knowing
the basics of two-dimensional motion will allow us in future chapters to examine a variety
of situations, ranging from the motion of satellites in orbit to the motion of electrons in a
uniform electric field. We begin by studying in greater detail the vector nature of position,
velocity, and acceleration. We then treat projectile motion and uniform circular motion as
special cases of motion in two dimensions. We also discuss the concept of relative motion,
which shows why observers in different frames of reference may measure different
positions and velocities for a given particle.
This chapter includes
5.1 The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
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5.2 Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
5.3 Projectile Motion
5.4 Analysis Model: Particle in Uniform Circular Motion
5.5 Tangential and Radial Acceleration
5.6 Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration
By studying this chapter you will learn:
1. How to write the equation of the Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors.
2. How to solve problems regarding kinematic
3. How to sketch the projectile motion
4. Meaning of the principle maximum range and height
7. How to discuss the uniform motion

Chapter Six: Dynamics (Newton's Law of Motion)


In Chapters 3 and 5, we described the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity,
and acceleration without considering what might influence that motion.

Now we consider that influence: Why does the motion of an object change? What might
cause one object to remain at rest and another object to accelerate? Why is it generally easier
to move a small object than a large object? The two main factors we need to consider are the
forces acting on an object and the mass of the object. In this chapter, we begin our study of
dynamics by discussing the three basic laws of motion, which deal the relation between a
force and the acceleration were formulated more than three centuries ago by Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) known as Newtonian mechanics. We shall focus on the:

6.1 The Concept of Force

6.2 Newtons First Law and Inertial Frames

6.3 Mass

6.4 Newtons Second Law

6.5 The Gravitational Force and Weight

6.6 Newtons Third Law

6.7 Forces of Friction

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By studying this chapter, you will learn:
What the concept of force means in physics, and why forces are vectors.
The significance of the net force on an object, and what happens when the net force is
zero.
The relationship among the net force on an object, the objects mass, and
its acceleration.
How the forces that two bodies exert on each other are related.
That the Newtonian mechanics does not apply to all situations.
The concept of the Newton's First Law: If no force acts on a body, the body's velocity
cannot change; That is, the body cannot accelerate.
How to discuss that the Newton's first law is not true in all reference frames, but only
holds in an inertial reference frame is one in which Newton's laws hold.
How to solve the problem regarding Newton's Second Law

The origin of the action and reaction "Newton's Third Law"

Chapter Seven: Work and Energy


The definitions of quantities such as position, velocity, acceleration, and force
and associated principles such as Newtons second law have allowed us to solve a
variety of problems. Some problems that could

theoretically be solved with Newtons laws, however, are very difficult in practice,
but they can be made much simpler with a different approach. Here and in the
following chapters, we will investigate this new approach, which will include
definitions of quantities such as Work' energy kinetic and potential. This chapter includes

7.1 Systems and Environments

7.2 Work Done by a Constant Force

7.3 The Scalar Product of Two Vectors

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7.4 Work Done by a Varying Force

7.5 Kinetic Energy and the WorkKinetic Energy Theorem

7.6 Potential Energy of a System

7.7 Conservative and Non-conservative Forces

7.8 Relationship between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

By studying this chapter, you will learn:


What it means for a force to do work on a body, and how to calculate the amount of work
done.
The definition of the kinetic energy (energy of motion) of a body, and
What it means physically.
How the total work done on a body changes the bodys kinetic energy, and how to use this
principle to solve problems in mechanics.
How to use the relationship between total work and change in kinetic
energy when the forces are not constant, the body follows a
curved path, or both.
How to solve problems involving power.
How to use the concept of gravitational potential energy in problems
That involves vertical motion.
How to use the concept of elastic potential energy in problems that
involve a moving body attached to a stretched or compressed spring.
The distinction between conservative and nonconservative forces,
and how to solve problems in which both kinds of forces act on a moving body.
How to calculate the properties of a conservative force if you know the corresponding
potential-energy function.
How to use energy diagrams to understand the motion of an object
moving in a straight line under the influence of a conservative force

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Chapter Eight: Conservation of Energy and Linear
Momentum and Collision
8.1 The Center of Mass

8.2 Newton's Second Law for a System of Particles

8.3 linear Momentum

8.4 The linear Momentum of a System of Particles

8.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum

8.6 Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions

8.7 Inelastic collisions in One Dimension

8.8 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

8.9 Collisions in Two Dimensions

After studding this chapter you will:

Discuss how to determine where the center of mass of a system of particles is located.

Define the center of mass with the language of vectors.

Determine the center of mass of a continuous distribution of matter.

Discuss how external forces can move a center of mass.

Define the linear momentum of a system of particles.

Know the law of conservation of linear momentum.

Know the difference between elastic and non-elastic collision

Understand the momentum and kinetic energy in collision

Solve the collision problems regarding stable and moving mass and varying mass as in
rocket.

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Chapter Nine: Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
9.1 Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
9.2 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under Constant Angular Acceleration
9.3 Angular and Translational Quantities
9.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy
9.5 Calculation of Moments of Inertia
9.6 Torque

Chapter Ten: Static Equilibrium and elasticity


10.1 Analysis Model: Rigid Object in Equilibrium

10.2 More on the Center of Gravity

10.3 Examples of Rigid Objects in Static Equilibrium

By studying this chapter, you will learn:


The conditions that must be satisfied for a body or structure to be in
equilibrium.
What is meant by the center of gravity of a body, and how it relates to the bodys
stability.

Chapter 11: Mechanical Wave


11.1 Motion of an object Attached to a spring

11.2 Analysis Model: Particle in Simple Harmonic Motion

11.3 Energy of the Simple Harmonic motion

11.4 Comparing Simple Harmonic motion with Uniform Circular Motion

11.5 The Pendulum

After studding this chapter you will learn:

What is meant by a mechanical wave, and the different varieties of mechanical waves.

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How to use the relationship among speed, frequency, and wavelength for a periodic
wave.
How to interpret and use the mathematical expression for a sinusoidal periodic wave.
How to calculate the rate at which a mechanical wave transports energy.
What happens when mechanical waves overlap and interfere.
The properties of standing waves on a string, and how to analyze these waves.
How stringed instruments produce sounds of specific frequencies.
By studying this chapter, you will learn:
How to describe oscillations in terms of amplitude, period, frequency, and angular
frequency.
How to do calculations with simple harmonic motion, an important type of oscillation.
How to use energy concepts to analyze simple harmonic motion.
How to apply the ideas of simple harmonic motion to different physical
situations.
How to analyze the motions of a simple pendulum.
What a physical pendulum is, and how to calculate the properties of
its motion.

Chapter 12: Thermal Physics


Chapter 13: Density, Pressure & pressure in a fluid
13.1. State that density is mass per unit volume.
13.2. Carry out calculations involving density, mass and volume.
13.3. Describe the principles of a method for measuring the density of air.
13.4. State and explain the relative magnitudes of the densities of solids, liquids and gases.
13.5. State that pressure is the force per unit area, when the force acts normal to the surface.
13.6. State that one pascal is one newton per square metre.
13.7. Carry out calculations involving pressure, force and area.
13.8. State that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is given by h8g.
13.9. Carry out calculations involving pressure, density and depth.
13.10. Explain buoyancy force (upthrust) in terms of the pressure difference between the top and
bottom of an object.
Chapter 14: Gas Laws
14.1. Describe how the kinetic model accounts for the pressure of a gas.
14.2. State that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is inversely
proportional to its volume.
14. 3. State that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is directly
proportional to its temperature measured in kelvin K.
14.4. State that the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is directly
proportional to its temperature measured in kelvin K.
14.5. Carry out calculations to convert temperatures in oC to K and vice versa.
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14.6. Carry out calculations involving pressure, volume and temperature of a fixed mass of gas
using the general gas equation.
14.7. Explain what is meant by absolute zero of temperature.
14.8. Explain the pressure-volume, pressure-temperature and volume-temperature laws
qualitatively in terms of the kinetic model.
Chapter 15: Viscosity
Stress- strain- Hookes law- elastic module- Poissons ratio- bending of beams-bending moment-
Youngs modulus (cantileer-mirror and telescope)- Youngs modulus (uniform and non uniform
bending-microscope) torsional oscillations-rigidity modulus- static torsion(mirror and telescope)I
section girder.
Chapter 16: Surface tension
Molecular theory of surface tension- surface energy- excess pressure in
a liquid drop-transverse waves on the surface of a liquid- effect of gravity- effect of surface
tension- factors affecting surface tension- applications.

SAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS


1. Find A+B+C.

Solution: First, we find A+B then add it to vector C.

We find R1, now we add C to R1 to find resultant vector.

R2=A+B+C

2. Find resultant vector.

Solution: F1+F2=5-2=3N

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F1+F2+F3=R=3N

3. A bike accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed of 7.10 m/s over a


distance of 35.4 m. Determine the acceleration of the bike.
Solution:
Given: Find:
vi = 0 m/s vf = 7.10 m/s d = 35.4 m a = ??
2 2
vf = vi + 2*a*d
(7.10 m/s)2 = (0 m/s)2 + 2*(a)*(35.4 m)
50.4 m2/s2 = (0 m/s)2 + (70.8 m)*a
(50.4 m2/s2)/(70.8 m) = a
a = 0.712 m/s2

4. Two blocks are travelling toward each other. The first has a speed of 10 cm/sec
and the second a speed of 60 cm/sec. After the collision the second is observed to be
travelling with a speed of 20 cm/sec in a direction opposite to its initial velocity. If
the weight of the first block is twice that of the second, determine: (a) the velocity of
the first block after collision; (b) whether the collision was elastic or inelastic.

Solution: We have a collision problem in 1-dimension. We draw both 'before' and


'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown.

Before After
vA i vB i vA f vB f
A B A B
x x

Since the surface is frictionless, and since no work is performed by


either mg or the normal, then the net force acting on the system is 0, and
we have conservation of linear momentum:
p1i p2i = p1i p1f
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Thus adding the x-components we have: m1v1i - m2v2i = m1 v1f
+ m2 v2f
Since m1 = 2 m2 we find: 2 v1i - v2i = 2 v1f + v2f (2)(10) -
(60) = 2 v1f + 20
Thus 2 v1f = - 60 and v1f = - 30 cm/sec ('-' means to left).

The initial KE is given by: KEI = (1/2) m1 (v1I)2 + (1/2) m2 (v2I)2 .


This gives:
= (1/2)(2 m2)(10)2 + (1/2) m2 (60)2 = (1/2)(200 + 3600) m2
= 1900 m2
The final KE is: KEf = (1/2) m1 (v1f)2 + (1/2) m2 (v2f)2 . This
gives:
= (1/2)(2 m2)(30)2 + (1/2) m2 (20)2 = (1/2)(1800 + 400) m2
= 1100 m2
Since KEf is not equal to KEI, the collision is inelastic.
5. In the picture given above F pulls a box having 4kg mass from point
A to B. If the friction constant between surface and box is 0,3; find the
work done by F, work done by friction force and work done by resultant
force.

Solution: Work done by F;


WF=F.X=20.5=100 joule
Work done by friction force;Wfriction=-Ff.X=-k.mg.X=-0,3.4.10.5=-60
joule
Work done by resultant force; Wne t=Fnet. X=(F-Ff).X=(20-0,3.4.10)5
Wnet=40 joule
6. Picture given below shows the motion of two boxes under the effect
of applied force. Friction constant between the surfaces is k=0,4. Find
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the acceleration of the boxes and tension on the rope. (g=10m/s2,
sin370=0,6, cos370=0,8)
Solution: Free body diagram of these boxes given below.

Components of force,
FX=F.cos370=30.0,8=24N, FY=F.sin370=30.0,6=18N
N1=m1.g-Fy=30-18=12N
N2=10N
Ff1 and Ff2 are the friction forces acting on boxes.
Ff1=k.N1=0,4.12=4,8N and Ff2=k.N2=0,4.10=4N
We apply Newton's second law on two boxes.
m1: Fnet=m.a======= 20-T-Ff1=3.a 20-T-4,8=3.a
m2: T-Ff2=1.a T-4=a
a=2,8m/s2 T=6,8N
7. A box is released from point A and it passes from point D with a
velocity V. Works done by the gravity are W1 between AB, W2 between
BC and W3 between CD. Find the relation between them.

Solution: Work done by gravity is equal to change in potential energy of


the object.
Interval AB: W1=Ep=-mgh, Interval BC: W2=Ep=-mgh
Interval CD: W3=Ep=0
W1=W2>W3
9. An object thrown with an initial velocity V from point A. It reaches
point B and turns back to point A and stops. Find the relation between
the kinetic energy object has at point A and energy lost on friction.

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Solution: Object has kinetic energy at point A;
EK=1/2.mV2
Object stops at point A, which means that all energy is lost on friction.
EK=Efriction
10. we can express the centripetal acceleration at that point in
terms of angular speed as:
1. = vr 2. = r 3. = r Solution: 3

11. An object hanged on a rope L=0,5m, does rotational motion. If the


angle between rope and vertical is 370, find the tangential velocity of the
object. (g=10m/s2, cos370=0,8, sin370=0,6)

Solution: Free body diagram of system is given below;

Horizontal component of tension on the rope makes object rotate.


TX=mV2/r, TY=m.g
Radius of the motion path is; r=L.sin370=0,5.0,6=0,3m
tan370=TX/TY, 3/4=mV2/r/m.g
3/4=V2/g.r, V=3/2m/s
12. An object having mass m does rotational motion. Its angular velocity
is and radius of motion path is r. Find kinetic energy of the object in
terms of r, , and m.
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Solution: EK=1/2m.V2
V=.r
EK=1/2m(.r)2 EK=m2.r2/2
13. Stone having mass 0,5kg rotates in horizontal. It is hanged on 1m
rope. If the tension on the rope is 80 N, find the frequency of the
motion.
Solution: Fnet=80N=m.2.r
80=m.4.2.f2.r 80=0,5.4.32.f2.1. f=2s-1

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And

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