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AnIntroductiontoLexicography
TYPESOFDICTIONARIES
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Criteriaforclassification EncyclopaedicandlinguisticDictionaries
HistoricalandEtymologicalDictionaries SpecialDictionaries
GeneralDictionaries

Criteriaforclassification:
TheOxfordEnglishDictionarydefinesadictionaryasa"bookdealingwiththeindividualwordsofalanguage(orcertainspecifiedclassofthem)soasto set forth
theirorthography,pronunciation,significationanduse,theirsynonyms,derivationandhistory,oralleastsomeofthesefacts,forconvenienceofreferencethewords
arearrangedinsomestatedorder,nowinmostlanguages,alphabetical,andinlargerdictionariestheinformationgiveninillustratedbyquotationsfromliterature".

Oneofthecomponentsoftheabovedefinition"arrangedinsomestatedorder..alphabetical"1hasbeenextendedtocoverotherreferencebooksgivinginformation
ofdifferenttypesinalphabeticalorderandthetermdictionarycan"applyquitelooselytoanyreferenceworkarrangedbywordsornames".(Malkiel1967.23).Thus
wehavedictionariesofnationalbiography,dictionaryoffolklore,caritrakosa,abhidhaanakosa,dictionaryofplacenames,etc.

The classification of dictionaries is a very important aspect of lexicography "bearing a direct practical significance" (Shcherba in Srivastaba 1968, 119) to the
preparation of dictionaries. The entire work of dictionary making from the planning stage to the preparation of press copy, at its different stages, viz. collection of
materials,selectionandsettingofentriesandarrangementofentriesandtheirmeaningsislargelygovernedonthebasisofwhichthedictionaryisclassified.

Dictionariescanbeclassifiedintodifferenttypesonthebasisofseveralcriteria,varyingfromthenatureofthelexicalentrytotheprospectiveuserofthedictionary.
Belowarepresentedsomemaincriteriafortheclassificationofdictionaries.2

(1)Densityofentries:whetherthewordlistisgeneralorrestrictedandspecial?Doesitalsocoverregionalandsocialdialects,jargonsandslangsandarchaisms?
(2)Thenumberoflanguagesinvolved:monolingual,bilingual,multilingualetc.
(3)Thenatureofentries:whetherlexicalonlyoralsoencyclopaedic,thedegreeofconcentrationonstrictlylexicaldata.
(4)Axisoftime:whetherdiachronic(dynamic)orsynchronic(static).
(5)Arrangementofentries:alphabeticalorsemanticorcausal.
(6)Purpose:whethernormativeorreferential.
(7) The prospective user: whether meant for the general reader to find out general linguistic information or for special users to know some special aspects of the
lexical unit say etymology etc.? Is it meant for the general language or only for the language of literature, there too, the language of some author, here again the
languageofsomeofhisworks?

All these criteria can be applied, sometimes alone and sometimes with others, for the classification of dictionaries. For example when we talk of the Sanskrit
Dictionary (Poona) we find that although its aim is to present history of the words, it treats two languages and is arranged in alphabetical order. An etymological
dictionary presents the development of forms of the word, it has a very highly specialized audience. The Malayalam Lexicon and Tamil Lexicon combine in them
severalclassificatorycriteria.

Although a typological classification is essential and has been attempted by many writers, it is impossible to delimit the types into a strict watertight frame work.
Whenweanalyseanyentryfromanydictionaryweusuallyfindthatmanycharacteristicsofdifferenttypesofdictionarieshavebeenincludedinit.Asweshallsee
later,thereisalargeamountofoverlappingindifferenttypesofdictionaries.

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Butalthoughthereisnoclearcutdivisionbetweenthescopeandthecoverageofthedictionaries,therearedictionarieswithdefinitefocusonsomemajoraspectof
thelanguage.

Wearepresentingbelowthedescriptionofdifferenttypesofdictionariesclassifiedontheabovecriteria.

EncyclopaedicandlinguisticDictionaries:
we start with the degree of the inclusion of lexical (i.e. linguistic) and nonlexical (i.e. encyclopaedic) information in the dictionary as also the treatment of each
individualiteminit.

The lexical or linguistic information pertains to linguistic characteristics of the lexical unit viz., pronunciation, definition, etymology, grammatical category, etc. the
encyclopaedicinformationhasthefollowingfeatures.
(a)theinclusionofnamesofpersons,places,andliteraryworks,
(b)coverageofallbranchesofhumanknowledge,
(c)extensivetreatmentoffacts.

Thedictionaries, giving information of the former type, are called linguistic or general dictionaries and those giving information of the latter type, the encyclopaedic
dictionaries.Butbeforethesearedescribeditwouldbeusefultomakeadistinctionbetweenanencyclopaediaandanencyclopaedicdictionary.Theencyclopaedia
are more concerned with the concepts and objects of extra linguistic would, that is the things and in a narrow sense they may be called 'thing books'. Information
presentedinthemisunderfewgeneraltopics.Theiraimistopresentinformation,asnotedearlier,onallaspectsofhumanknowledge.Theitemspresentedaremore
of denotational character including names of plants, animals, diseases. They also give historical events, geographical features, biographical sketches of important
personalities.Manyitemsfoundinlinguisticorgeneraldictionariesdonotfindplaceinthem.Suchitemsarefunctionwords,verbalforms,andvarietyofotherwords
e.g. Eng. he, she, Hindi jaanaa, 'go' agar 'if' Eng. father, mother etc. The information provided is more detailed and relates to the history and the description of the
item.

The encyclopaedic dictionary is a combination of an encyclopaedia and a linguistic dictionary. It also includes items that are generally characteristic of an
encyclopaediainadditiontotheitemsofalinguisticdictionary.Intheamountoftheinformationandthemannerofitspresentation,again,itcombinesthefeaturesof
both.Asamatteroffact,therecanbenodivisionlikealinguisticdictionaryandnonlinguisticdictionaryequatingthelatterwithencyclopaedicdictionary.Asalready
stated any dictionary combines the features of both. The bigger dictionaries like The Century Dictionary, The Oxford English Dictionary, Malayalam Lexicon, Tamil
Lexicon,HindiSabdaSagaretc.,areencyclopaedicbutallofthemarelinguisticdictionaries.

Eventheabridgedandconcisedictionariespresentencyclopaedicinformationinsofarastheyincludepropernamesandexplanationofcultureitemsalthoughithas
beencontendedifpropernames(realia)couldbeincludedinthepurelylinguisticdictionariesbecauseitmaymakethedictionaryencyclopaedic.(Zgusta1971,245
246).So,manydictionariesgivethemnotinthemainbodyofthedictionarybutinappendices.Anordinarydictionaryincludesthemonlywhentheyattainthestatus
ofthecommonwords.

Thelinguisticdictionarydealswithonlythelexicalstocki.e.wordsasspeechmaterialandmayberoughlycalled'wordbook'.Thelinguisticdictionaryusuallyattains
thestatusoftheencyclopaedicdictionaryindifferentways,givenbelow:
(a) when a linguistic definition becomes inadequate to describe the lexical item, especially when it is a culture bound word, the lexicographer has to include
encyclopaedicinformatione.g.Maltokudko:lan.'anearthenpotinwhichtheumbilicalcordispreserved'.Hindibaghnakh,baghnakhaan.ekaabhuuan?ajismeN
baaghkenaakhuuncaaNdiiyaasonemeNmar?hehotehEN.'atypeofornamentinwhichthenailsofatigerarestuddedingoldorsilver'.
(b)Inthedefinitionofcertainwordstheencyclopaedicdefinitiondeterminestheunderlyingconcept':
Coaln.1.Hardopaqueblackorblackishmineralorvegetablematterfoundinseamsorstratabelowearth'ssurfaceandusedasfuelandinmanufactureofgas,tar

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etc.,(COD)cf.thisdefinitionwithcoaln.ablack,hardsubstancethatburnsandgivesoffheat.(LadderDictionary)
(c) when we give different meanings of a polysemous word and mark them with labels, we give a hint that the meaning belongs to a particular branch of human
knowledge like botany, astronomy, medicine etc,. impliedly indicating the encyclopaedic information there. The same thing happens to the quotations in illustrative
exampleswithcitations.Again,whenwejustrefertosomeworkforfurtherdetailsaboutanytypeofculturalinformation,wegiveindirectlyencyclopaedicinformation.

Fromthepointofviewoftimethedictionariescanbeeitherdiachronic(dynamic)orsynchronic(static),theformerdealingwithwordsacrosstimeandthelatterat a
particularpointoftime.

Asamatteroffact,itisverydifficulttodrawalinebetweendiachronicandsynchronicdictionaries.Biggerdictionariesofsynchronic/descriptivecharacter,forthat
mattereventhesmallerones,havetoincludeatleastsomeamountofhistoricalinformation.Whenadictionarygivesthederivativesourceofawordinformofthe
origintag,usuallyappendedtotheheadwordinthelemma,thereisanattempttogive,howeversuperficialitmaybe,theetymologyofthewordandinthisway the
dictionarypresentselementsofdiachronicnature.

Larger dictionaries of many Indian language, meant for the understanding of the literature of the language, include some words from texts of the earlier period. In
these cases the lexicographer has to arrange the different usages of the different senses of a lexical unit in some chronological order and thus the descriptive
dictionaryattainsahistoricalcolour.Again,whendescribingthelexicalunitsofthelanguage,thelexicographerfindssomewordsofrareuseorgraduallygoingoutof
use he makes use of some labels, e.g. archaic, obsolete, obsolescent etc., to describe these words. In doing so he takes his dictionary to the domain of the
diachronicone.

HistoricalandEtymologicalDictionaries:
Thediachronicorhistoricaldictionaryhasaspecialclassinitwhichcanbecalledetymological.Althoughitsfocusisalsotopresentthehistoryofalexicalunit,its
form and purpose are totally different from historical dictionary and it has a limited readership. Its word list is different from the general dictionaries, even from the
historicaldictionaryandinthisregarditcomesunderspecialtypeofdictionaries,describedlater.

Themainfunctionofboththehistoricaldictionaryandtheetymologicaldictionaryistopresentthehistoryofalexicalitem.Thedifferenceliesintheirapproach.The
historical dictionary records the development of a lexical item in terms of both the form and the meaning of the particular lexical unit, whereas the etymological
dictionarypresentstheoriginofwordsbytracingthepresentdaywordstotheiroldestforms.

Thehistoricaldictionaryisconcernedwithasystematicstudyofchangesaffectingalexicalunitduringitslifei.e.withinaperiodfromwhichthereisevidence.e.g.in
OEDfromthedaysofKingAlfredtothepresenttime.Inordertopresentthesechangesinthestructureandmeaningofawordthelexicographertracesitbacktoits
earliestavailableoccurrenceintheliteratureofthelanguagesandrecordsitsdevelopmentinsubsequentstagesofthelanguage.Inordertodothisthelexicographer
makes use of all the available works of the language. All the occurrences of the lexical units in different contexts in all works are found out. These contexts are
analysedandcomparedwitheachother.Bydoingthis,thelexicographerfindsoutthedifferentsensesofalexicalunitandfinernuancesofitsmeanings.Thenthese
meaningsandsubmeaningsarearrangedinchronologicalorder.Asfortheforms,thechangesintheirshapeisalsorecordedchronologically.Butthisisbynomeans
a simple task. The number of words in a language is very large and changes in case of all the words are difficult to record in all their minor details. Moreover, the
semanticchangesofindividuallexicalitemsarearbitraryandcannotbegeneralized.Asaresultthelexicographerhastoanalysealargeamountofdatatofindout
thesemanticchangesofalexicalunit.4

Theproblemarisesastowhetherahistoricaldictionarycancoveralltheworksavailableinalanguageandgiveallcitationsforallthelexicalitems.Nodictionary,
whatever be its resources, can afford to give all this. The lexicographer has to choose some workable way for his dictionary. In order to do this, works are at first
listed. Then a selection of works as to which of them would form the corpus of the dictionary is done. For selecting works for the dictionary, two considerations
governthedecisionofthelexicographer:(1)timeand(2)thesubjectortheme.First,certainbroadclassificationscanbemadeoftheentireperiod.Thisclassification

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isbasedonsomecriterionlikesomelandmarkinthehistoryofthedevelopmentofthelanguagee.g.someoutstandingauthororsomenotableliteraryorotherevent.
Works from all the periods are selected for the dictionary. The lexicographer has to see that all the periods in the history of a language are given due and even
attention.Noperiodshouldbeleftwithoutproperrepresentation,otherwiseitwouldbeimpossibletofindacoherentsemanticdevelopment of a lexical item. It has
beencontendedwhetheradictionarylikeOED,whichdealswithalltheperiodsofthehistoryofthelanguage,canbeatruehistoricaldictionary.Itissuggestedthatit
wouldprovidemorescientificandaccurateaccountofthehistoryofthewordsofalanguageifaparticularperiodistakenupandadetailedanalysisofalltheworks
ofthatperiodisdone,ratherthantakingtotalhistoryanddivideitintosomeperiodsandthenmakinggeneralizations.ForthisPeriodDictionariesdealingwithsome
particularperiodmaybeprepared.Adictionarydealingwiththeentireperiodofthehistoryofthelanguagemaynotdojusticeinpresentingfullpictureofthesemantic
historyofthelexicalstockoflanguage.5

The second point a lexicographer has to keep in mind while selecting works for a historical dictionary is to see that all the subject fields are equally and evenly
represented in the corpus of the dictionary. For this representative works of all the branches of human knowledge available in the language should be analysed.
Variationofregion, style and subject matter should be carefully marked and entered in the dictionary. The Sanskrit Dictionary (Poona) has used 1500 books as its
source material. Malayalam Lexicon has utilized 7000 works in addition to manuscripts etc. besides these works, even the available dictionaries can be utilized.
KannadaDictionary(Bangalore)analysed2000booksandallavailableinscriptionalmaterial.

The etymological dictionary, as stated earlier, traces the present word to its oldest form and gives the parent form. The interest of an etymological dictionary is
primarilyintheprehistoryofthelanguage.Forarrivingattheparentformthelexicographertakesrecoursetohistoricalcomparativemethod,whereinonthebasisof
recurringcorrespondencesofformandmeaningofwordsindifferentcognatelanguages,theprotowordformoretymonisreconstructed.

In some cased even when the dictionary does not give reconstructed protoforms it may be considered etymological. In these cases a particular point in the
development of a language is fixed as a terminal point and the etymologies are traced back to that point. For IndoAryan languages this point may be Sanskrit
hypotheticalorreconstructedformsaregiven.Sometimes,thoughitisnotscientific,thenearerattestedformsaregivenasthesourceword.Somedictionariesgive
onlythecognateformse.g.DravidianEtymologicalDictionary.

The etymological dictionaries have been classified in several categories on the basis of the range of coverage, the number of languages covered etc. the most
commonistheonewhichclassifiesthedictionariesonthefactwhetherthefocusofthedictionaryisasinglelanguageormanylanguages.Thedictionarywithone
languageasfocusdealswiththelexicalitemsofonelanguage.Theentryofthedictionaryisgiveninthatlanguage.Theoriginofthewordsofthislanguageis traced
backtotheprotolanguage.Inthisprocesscognateformsformrelatedlanguagesarecited.Sincethehelpofcomparativemethodistakenbygivingcognatewords
suchdictionariesdevelopintocomparativedictionaries.

Inthedictionarywhichhasmanylanguagesasitsfocustheentrywordisgiveninthe proto language. The developed forms in different languages are given in the
descriptionpartoftheentry.

Forborrowingsinthelanguage,theetymologicaldictionarygivestheimmediatesourceoftheborrowing,itsoriginalmeaningandformsincognatelanguages.Ifthe
borrowingisthroughsomeotherlanguage,thenameoftheintermediatelanguageandtheformthereinarealsogiven.

The dictionary of borrowed or foreign word in a language can be included in the class of etymological dictionary, because by giving the origin of these words the
dictionaryprovidescluetotheetymologyofthesewords.

Althoughthefocusoftheetymologicalandhistoricaldictionariesisdifferent,theyarenotopposedtoeachother.Eachone,ontheotherhand,canbehelpfulforthe
othertogetmorereliableresults.Foranetymologicaldictionarythereconstructionofprotoformsgetsgreaterauthenticityiftheyareattestedbyformsintheearlier
stageofthehistoryofthelanguage.Thisinformationismadeavailablebythehistoricaldictionary.Again,itisinthehistoricaldictionarythatwefindwhatnewwords
arederivedformtheoriginalwordandatwhatstage.

Mostoftheanalyticalanddescriptivedictionariescontainsomeelementsofanetymologicaldictionaryissofarastheygivewhatisthederivationortheoriginofthe
word. In descriptive dictionaries, the etymological analysis helps in solving some of the basic problems of lexicography, Etymology helps in deciding the cases of

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homonymyandpolysemyandinorderingthesequenceofthemeaningsofthepolysemouswordsbygivingtheoriginalorbasicmeaning.Etymologyalsohelpsin
solvingtheproblemofunclearmeaningsofsomelexicalunits.

The synchronic dictionaries are generally grouped into two classes, general and special. General dictionaries contain those words of the language which are of
general use representing various spheres of life and presenting a complete picture of the general language. They are meant for the general user of the language.
Specialdictionarieseithercoveraspecificpartofthevocabularyorarepreparedwithsomedefinitepurpose.Bygeneraldictionaryitshouldnotbeunderstoodthatit
containstheentirelexicalstockofthelanguage.Nodictionary,exceptthedictionaryofdeadlanguageswhereinthepossibilityofcreationofnewwordsisseverely
restricted,cangiveallthewordsofalanguage.Althoughthegeneraldictionariescontaingeneralwordlistsomeofthespecialdictionarieswiththeirfocus on some
particularpurposecontainthegeneralwordlists.Forexample,thedictionariesofpronunciation,thereversedictionaries,thefrequencycountshave special purpose
buttheirwordlistisgeneral.

SpecialDictionaries:
Thespecialdictionariesmaybeclassedintothefollowinggroupsonthebasisofthenatureoftheirwordlists:
(1)Theircoveringspecialgeographicalregions,socialdialectsorspecialspheresofhumanactivity,
(2)Theirformalshape,
(3)Theirsemanticaspectandtheirrelationalvalueinthelexicalstockofthelanguage
(4)Theircollocationalvalue,
(5)Speciallanguageunitsandothers.

Thefirstgroupincludesthedictionariesofthefollowing:
(a),dialects,
(b)technicaltermsglossaries
(c)specialprofessions,artsandcraftsetc.,
(d)slangs,jargonsandargotetc.

(a) Dialect dictionaries: dialect dictionaries present all the characteristic of a general dictionary in their description of the lexical units. But they deal with the word
stockofaparticulargeographicalregionorsocialgroup.Thedictionariesusuallycontainwordsnotfoundinthestandardlanguagei.e.wordswhicharevariations of
the standard form, or words whose meanings are restricted to a particular area or social group. The preparation of these dictionaries is generally associated with
dialect surveys. The entries are selected form the data collected on the basis of extensive field work, preparation of linguistic atlases, recording of all the regional
variationsofthelexicalunitsetc.

Therearedifferentmethodsofpresentation.Sometimesoneofthevariantsisselectedastheheadwordonthebasisofstandard,frequencyanduniversalityofthe
variant, and all other variants are given in the entry. Such regional or social variations are labeled suitably. The other information provided is regarding the
grammaticalcategory,meaningandprofuseexamplesillustratingtheuseofthelexicalunits.

Insomedictionariesallthelexicalunitsaregivenasheadwordsandtheirdistributionindifferentregionsisshown.Examplesaregivenformtheseregions.(Wright.
1898).

Thedialectdictionarymayeitherdealwithonlyonedialectormaycontainvariationsfrommanydialects.
Underthedialectdictionariesmaybeincludedthedictionariesofregionalisms.E.g.ADictionaryofCanadianisms.

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(b) The dictionary of technical terms6 deals with technical terms in a language. Terminology is a major and vital part of the vocabulary of any language. These
dictionaries are generally prepared by special bodies and commissions formed specially for the purpose. They contain either terms peculiar to a particular subject
fieldorgeneralwordswithspecialmeaningsforspecialfields.

(c)Closelyrelatedtothedictionariesoftechnicaltermsarethoseofdifferentprofessions,trades,crafts,sportsetc.Thesedictionariespresentwordspeculiarto a
particularprofessionse.g.Dictionaryoffishingtermsetc.ManydictionariesofagriculturetermshavebeencompiledinIndia,Grieson'sBeharPeasantLifeisagood
exampleofprofessionaldictionary.

(d)Notveryfarremovedformthesedictionariesarethedictionariesofslangs,jargons,argotetc.Thesedictionariescontainclosedsetofwordsusedbyaparticular
classofpeople.Thesewordsareeithernewlycoinedwordsorgeneralwordswithsomenewspecialandsecretmeaningattachedtothem.Inbothcasesthesecrecy
ofthewordisstrictlymaintainedandisconsideredatakenofgroupsolidarity.Anyviolationsinthenormsresultsinthedisowningofthepersoninthegroup.

2.Specialdictionariesclassifiedonthebasisoftheformalaspectsofthelexicalunitsareofthefollowingtypes:
(a)Spellingororthographicaldictionaries,
(b)Pronouncingdictionaries,
(c)Wordformationdictionaries(includingdictionariesofroots,verbsetc.),
(d)Dictionariesofhomonyms,
(e)Dictionariesofparonyms,
(f)Grammaticaldictionaries,
(g)Reversedictionaries
(h)Dictionariesofabbreviations,acronymsetc.

(a) Spelling or orthographical dictionaries give spelling of words with their phonetic variants. They give tones, stress and accents also, wherever relevant. To this
groupbelongdictionarieswhichgiveinformationwhetherwordswouldbewrittentogetherorseparately.Thesedictionariesarenormativeincharacterandareusedas
reference points for correct spelling. The general dictionaries are also refereed for correct spelling, especially by the foreigners. But the orthographical dictionaries
differfromthegeneraldictionariesinnotgivinganyotherinformationthanspelling.

(b) Pronouncing dictionaries record contemporary pronunciation. They are also normative and are referred to for correct pronunciation. The information supplied in
thesedictionariesisdifferentformthegeneraldictionaries.Theypresentvariantpronunciationaswellasthepronunciationofgrammaticalforms.
(c)Wordformationorderivationaldictionariesgivedifferentwordformingelementsviz.,prefixes,suffixesetc.Someofthelearner'sdictionariesattainthenatureof
word formation dictionaries is so for as they give lists of prefixes and suffixes. To this class belong the dictionaries of roots, verbs etc. Whitney's Dictionary of
Sanskritverbrootbelongstothisclass.TheDhatupahaofPaniniisadictionaryofthisgroup.

(d)Dictionariesofhomonymspresentthehomonymsofalanguage.Someofthemgiveillustrativeexamples.

(e)Dictionariesofparonymsgiveparonymsinthelanguage.

(f)Grammaticaldictionariesarepreparedtoserveasguideorhelpbookfortheunderstandingof(correct)grammaticalsystemofthelanguage.Thisismorehelpful,
whenthegrammaticalsystemofthelanguageisverydifficultandcomplex.Inagrammaticaldictionary,thewholegrammaticalstructureofthelanguageisgivenin
theintroduction.Thedifferentgrammaticalcategoriesandparadigmsarenumbered.Thesenumbersaregivenforgender,typeofdeclensionetc.Thesedictionaries
areveryusefulforteachersofthelanguage.

(g) In Reverse dictionaries the entry words are arranged in the alphabetical order of their final letters. Their earlier counterparts are the Rhyming dictionaries which
werepreparedastoolsofaidforthepoetsforcomposingpoemsasrhymingwasveryimportantforthepurpose.Thescopeofthesedictionarieshasbecomevery
wideatpresent.Inthesedictionarieswordswithsimilarendingsappearatoneplacewhichgiveasortofgrammaticalspecification.Indenticalwordformingsuffixes
andindenticalcompoundformingcomponentsareputatoneplace.Theseareveryusefulforpreparingteachingmaterialsandmanuals.

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(h)Dictionariesofabbreviationsandacronyms:theypresenttheabbreviationsandacronymscommonlyusedinalanguage.Manydictionariesgivelistofcommon
abbreviationsasappendices.

3.Thedictionariesclassifiedonthebasisoftheirsemanticaspectandtheirrelationalvalueinthelexicalstockofthelanguagearethefollowing:
(a)Dictionaryofsynonyms,
(b)Dictionaryofantonyms,
(c)Ideographicalorideologicaldictionary,
(d)Dictionaryoffrequencycounts.

(a) The dictionaries of synonyms give the list of synonyms (near synonyms to be more specific). Sometimes this dictionary simply enumerates the different
synonyms of particular lexical items but sometimes they are accompanied by illustrative examples of the occurrence of the synonyms. Needless to say that the
second process is more useful. These dictionaries help in finding the finer distinctions of meaning of a particular lexical unit in terms of its relation to the other
members of the group. They are useful for the writers to find out a proper word in writing. For learners these dictionaries are useful as they provide information on
relationofwords.

Indianlanguageshavearichtraditionofthedictionariesofsynonyms.Startingformnighan?u,throughAmarakosa,HalayudhaandHemacandratothepresenttimes
thereislonghistoryofthecompilationofdictionariesofsynonymsinIndia.MostoftheIndianlanguageshaveanumberofdictionariesofsynonyms.

(b)Thedictionariesofantonymsgiveantonymsofalanguageandcanbeusefulinfindingoutfinersensedistinctionsofpolysemousandsynonymouswords.

(c) The Ideographic or ideological also called systemic dictionaries present words which are semantically related. They are grouped according to concept words or
content words. "Lexical items in Ideographic Dictionaries are grouped into families where each one of them stands for one particular psychological dimension"
(Srivastava1968,124).DictionariesofsynonymsareinonesenseoneofthesubtypesofIdeographicalDictionaries.

(d)Thedictionariesoffrequencycountypresentsthefrequencyofthelexicalunitsinalanguage.Theyusuallyrepresentaspecialcorpusofreadingmaterialandare
usefulforthepreparationofchildren'sdictionaries,learner'sdictionaries,teachingmaterialetc.,

4.Specialdictionariesclassifiedonthebasisoftheircollocationalvaluearethefollowing:

a.Dictionariesofcollocations:thesedictionariesgiveusualcollocationsofthelexicalunits.Theygivelistofallthewordsthatcanbecollocatedwiththehead word.
Butsuchdictionariesareusuallylimitedintheirscopeandpresentonlywordsofafewgrammaticalcategoriesviz.nouns,verbsandadjectivesetc.Theyareuseful
forlanguageteaching.
b.DictionariesofUsages:thesedictionariesgenerallyaimatprovidingguidelinesforthecorrectandstandarduseofwordsandarenormativeincharacter.

5.Dictionariesofspeciallexicalunitsaregenerallythefollowing:

(a) Dictionaries of phrases or phraseological dictionaries: these dictionaries present the phraseological units of the language and are usually accompanied with
illustrativeexamples.

(b)Dictionariesofproverbsandidioms:theydealwithproverbsandidiomsofalanguage.

(c) Dictionaries of neologism: such dictionaries present new words introduced in the language and the new meanings acquired by the existing words. They provide
goodmaterialfortherevisionofthedictionaries.Theaddendagiveninsomedictionariesisverymuchnearertothistypeofdictionaries.

(d)Dictionaries of borrowed words: these dictionaries deal with words which are borrowed in the language from time to time. These dictionaries, in a limited sense,
comeundertheclassofetymologicaldictionaries.

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Otherdictionariesofthisclassaredictionariesofsurname,toponyms,dictionaryoffalsefriends,commonvocabularies,etc.

OthertypesofSpecialDictionaries:

1.Exegetic dictionaries: they deal with the text of some author or many authors and are prepared in different ways. A dictionary f this type may cover a particular
workofanauthore.g.PadmaavataKosa,ofJayasi,MaanasakosaofTulasi,DictionaryoftheAutobiographyofGorky.Suchdictionariesalsocoveralltheworksofa
particularauthor.e.g.DictionaryofShakespeare,Tulasikosa,TheDictionaryofPushkinetc.,

This dictionary contains all the words available in the text or texts. All the meanings of a lexical unit are given with illustrations and the actual places of their
occurrence.Sometimesthetotalnumberoftheoccurrencesofthelexicalunitarealsogiventoshowthefrequencyofthelexicalunit.Insomedictionariesonly the
first and the last occurrences are noted. They not only give the lexicographic definitions but also encyclopaedic information and include proper names also. These
dictionariesprovideguidanceforunderstandingthespecialusagesofthelexicalunitsbydifferentauthors.Theyalsohelpinknowingthenewwordsusedby writers
asalsothenewmeaningsattachedtothepresentlexicalunits.Theyareusefulinpreparationofthehistoricaldictionaryofalanguage.

(2)Similartoexegeticdictionariesarewhatwecallconcordenceswhereinalltheoccurrencesofaparticularlexicalunitarequotedsystematicallybygivingtheactual
placeofoccurrence.

(3)Learner'sDictionaries:oflatethistypeofdictionaryhasbeenattractingtheattentionofthelexicographersallovertheworld.Thesedictionariesaredesignedto
actasanaidforthelearnersoflanguages,bothnativeandforeign,fromvariousangles.Thesedictionariesare broadly of two types: (1) dictionaries meant for the
foreignlearners,(2)Dictionariesmeantfornativelearners.Generally,butnotexclusively,thenameisusedforthefirsttypeoflearners.

Thesedictionariesdifferformgeneraldictionariesandwordbooksforthenativespeakers.Thedifferenceliesintheunderstandingoftheproblemsandneedsofthe
learners.Anadultlearnerofaforeignlanguagemightfindtheuseofmanyverycommonandsimplewordsdifficult.Manywordsformostcommonlyusedthingsin
daily life are not known to the foreign learners. The native speaker does not face this problem because although his word stock may be poor his language
competenceisquitesufficient.
TheCompileroflearners'dictionaryhasthefollowingtwotypesofusers:
(1)Thenativespeakers,whoalthoughhavingcommandofthelanguage,needguidanceaboutthecorrectusageofdifferentwords.
(2)Thespeakeroftheotherlanguagewhosewordstockislimitedandthelanguagecompetenceisveryweak.Inthiscasetheinterferenceofthenativelanguageis
keptinmindwhilepreparingthedictionaries.

Thechiefcharacteristicfeaturesofthedictionariesmarkingthemdifferentfromotherdictionariesarethefollowing:
(1)Thevocabularyisverylimited.Theselectionofvocabularyitemsisverycarefullydoneondifferentscientificprinciples.

(2)Theemphasisisnotongivingallthepossiblemeaningsofalexicalunitbutitsfunctionandusageinthelanguage.

Thesedictionariesmayagainbeofdifferenttypesdependinguponthescopeofthewordlistscontainedinthemandthenatureofinformationwitheachlexicalitem.
Accordingtothescopeofthewordlistthedictionariescanbegeneralandspecial.Thegeneraldictionarycontainsallthegeneralwordstobeusedbythelearnerofa
language,e.g.Hornby'sAdvancedLearner'sDictionary.

Tothesecondtypebelongthedictionariesofselectedlexicalitemspresentingapartofthetotalvocabulary,e.g.Dictionaryofadjectives,verbs,nouns,etc.

Asforthenatureoftheinformationgiveninthesedictionariestheymaybeofdifferenttypes,e.g.presentingsemanticorsyntacticorgrammaticalinformationand
emphasizinganyoftheseaspects.Notableamongthemarethecollocationdictionariesindifferentlanguages.

Thesedictionariesdealwiththecurrentandthecommonusage.Obsolete,archaicanddialectalwordsarenotincludedinthem.Thesedictionariesdonotgivecertain
derivatives which can be easily predictable. Variations in spelling and pronunciation are avoided as far as possible. The entries are selected on the principle of
frequency.Usuallymorefrequentlyusedwordsareincludedinthesedictionaries.Theorderofmeaningsinthelearner'sdictionaryisempiric.Theprimarymeaningis
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given first, the secondary meanings afterwards. The number of meanings is restricted to only very important ones. All possible meanings are not given. The
emphasisismoreonusageandcollocations.

Thelanguageofthedefinitioniskeptassimpleaspossible.Forthiscommonandmorefamiliarwordsareusedfordefiningthewords.

The learner's dictionaries give illustrative examples for all types of collocations. Illustrative pictures find greater place in the learner's dictionaries than general
dictionaries.

GeneralDictionaries:
the general dictionary, as stated earlier, covers the total language. The dictionary of any size may be a general dictionary. It contains words from all spheres of
humanactivitiesandallareasofthelifeofthespeakersofthelanguage.

Thegeneraldictionariesareoftwotypes:
(a)Academicornormativedictionary,
(b)Referentialoroveralldescriptivedictionary.

Theacademicdictionarygivesthelexicalstockofthestandardlanguage.Theaimofthisdictionaryistopresentthelanguageasitisexpectedtobeandstopitfrom
decay. It has an eye on the future usage of the language. The selection of entries is done from the works of the creative writers, may be both earlier and
contemporary, literature of science, arts etc., newspapers, magazines and other materials which are considered representative of the standard language. These
dictionariesdonotcontainwordsoflocalorregionalvariation.Suchwordsareincludedinthedictionariesonlywhentheyhavebeenusedbysomewritersand have
beenstandardizedinthelanguage.Archaicandobsoletewordsusedbycreativewritersarealsoincludedinthem.Thewholedatainthedictionaryrepresentsa self
containedandhomogenoussystem.Thechieffeatureofsuchdictionariesistheirinclusionofprofuseillustrativeexamplesformthecorpuswithorwithoutcitations.
Differenttypesofdictionariesincludingdictionariesoftechnicalterms,grammaticaldictionary,thespellingdictionaryetc.,comeunderthisgroup.

Thereferentialoroveralldescriptivedictionarydoesnothaveanynormativeaim.Thewordstockofthisdictionaryisselectedfromdifferentheterogeneousspeech
groups.Thecorpusincludesnotonlyliterarytextsbutalsooralliterature.Itcontainswordsofregional,socialandstylisticvariations.

According to Shcherba a reference dictionary is "one behind which does not lie any unified language consciousness. The collected words may belong to
heterogeneousspeechgroupsofdifferentperiodsandwhichdonotintheleastformasystem'(Srivastaba1968.120).

From the point of view of coverage of languages dictionaries can be monolingual (or explanatory), bilingual and multilingual. But any type of dictionary described
earliercanbeeithermonolingualorbilingual.

Inamonolingualdictionaryboththeentrywordsandtheirdefinitionsormeaningsaregiveninthesamelanguage.Theymayalsobecalledexplanatorydictionaries,
although the latter term has assumed a special signification. The term monolingual refers to the language only irrespective of the information given in it. Some
dictionariesmayjustgivewordlistsandtheirmeaningsandmaybemonolingualdictionary.Theexplanatorydictionary,onthecontrary,givesmoreinformationabout
differentaspectsofthelexicalunitscript,pronunciation,grammar,meaning,etymologyandprofuseillustrations.Thesedictionariesaremeantforthenativespeakers
and "the target set for creating Explanatory Dictionary aims at native speakers with a view to explain one or the other lexical items which might be half known or
totallyunknowntothem"(Srivastava1968.124)Mostofthebiggerdictionariesinallthewellknownlanguagesareexplanatoryinnature.

Inabilingualdictionary,theaimofwhichistomakeaforeignspeakerunderstandthelanguage,wordsofonelanguageareexplainedordefinedinanotherlanguage7

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NOTES

1.TheTamilwordakaqraati,meaninginalphabeticalorderofa,aaetc.fordictionary,isquitesignificanthere.

2.BasedonMalkiel1967withslightmodification.

3.Whitney,W.D.ed.TheCenturyDictionary,thearticlesonencyclopaediaandencyclopaedic.

4.SeeAnEncyclopaedicDictionaryofSanskritp.XIfordifficultiesinthefield.

5.ThisistheviewofShcherba(Srivastava1968,126).

6.Term:Anywordorwordgroupusedtonameanotioncharacteristicofsomespecialfieldofknowledge.

7.Fordetailsseechapter8.

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