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(MINI dpr) project report:

pv solar generation plant

ON 84,000 SQ. METER
with value added
AGRI. BASE rose flower production

Worldwide machinery solutions (P) Ltd.
opposite kishangarh kothi, jaipur road,
ajmer - 305001 (rajasthan), india
+91-145-5100253/54/55, fax +91-145-2424235
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Serial Description Page Note
1. Salient Features for this 3.5MW AC project 3-8
2. History of Pushkar (Nearest Town) 10
3. 3.5MW project site village Majhewla, Block: 11-14
Kadel, Pushkar, Rajasthan
4. Indian Energy Scenario 15-17
5. Current Policy and Regulations 18
6. Brief Site Introduction 19
7. General Technical description with technical and 20-23
commercial feasibility reports for project
8. The Grid connected PV system 23-26
9. SPV Modules 27-31
11. Module Specification 38-47
12. Inverter with Charge Controller 48-68
13. Solar Cable Specification 68-71
14. String Monitoring Box 72-73
15. SCADA 74-78
16. Weathering Station 79-80
17. Relevant IEC Standarization 81-85
18. Suggestive List of Manufacturers 86-89
19 The Financial Pillers Of Solar Projects 90-94
20 O & M for 25 years 95-102
21. Safety and Precautions 102-105
22. Recommendations and Conclusion 106-108

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For this 3.5 MW AC, Solar project

(1) lOCATION: ABOUT 5 km from Devnagar (pushkar) ON BASSI -AJMER


(2) land mark: Village majhwela, ht line POLE NO. RE-17 OF RSEB

Block kadel, town PUSHKAR, Tehsil AJMER, District AJMER, State

rajasthan, india

(3) area: 84,000 Sq Mtr. OR 20.7567 Acres

(4) latitude: 26 54' 624" N

(5) Longitude: 74 57' 291" E

(6) elevation: 415 meters ABOVE SEA LEVAL

(7) capacity of solar plant: 3.5MW AC/4MWP WITH SEASONAL


(8) plant life span: 25 years

(9) Estimated generation/year: 72.28 lakh kwh (units)

(10) Modules: 320 Watt POLY - Tier-1

polycrystalline Module

13,129 Numbers approx.

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with +tolerance & pid free


(specification given below)

(a) total area of modules; 25,192 sq mtr

(b) total cell area; 23008 sq. mtr

(11) inverter: 500 kw inverter with MPPT

AIR/water cooled--- 7Nos.

ABB-PVS-800-57-0500 MODEL

(specification given below)

(a) capacity/make of each inverter: 500 Kva abb make

(b) number of inverters: 7 numbers

(c) specific production: 1720kwh/kw/year

(12) mountings: 25 years lasting best quality

G.I. Structure mounting with

seasonal tILT as per INDUSTY

specification given IN REPORT

(13) cables: solar cables of specified

assorted size and quality

iec-60811 & iec-60216



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(14) electrical power frequency: 50 HZ, 3phase-neutral

(15) code followed: electrical - is 7 iec

structural - ibc 2011 & IS



(16) value added product: rose cut flower for export ,

rose water, perfume, scent

and oil as per market demand


(18) Meteo Data: NASA data

(19) Transmission & wheeling losses: 4% of power INJECTED AT 33KV

no wheeling charges assumed

(20) estimation criteria: As per is codes from bis and iec


electrotechnical commission)

(21) safety level: ip 65 and nfpa

(22) dni: 5.5 kwh/m2/day

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(23) wind speed: 2.9 m/s

(24) height from sea level: 415 mtr

(25) earthing & lightening protection: Ieee standard-80 & iec62305

(26) protective devices: DC disconnects - string to

inverter, switch gears, mccbs

(inverter to busbar), circuit

breakers(busbar to trafos)

& Trafos to evacuating ht line

(27) performance ratio: 77.3%

(28) transformer: outdoor type 3500 KVa

output at 33kv or 11kv volts

as per design

(29) scada/monitoring system: web based and integrated

with remote monitoring system

(30) Isolator: 33KV/11kv as per design but

heavy duty type only


r, s, e, b,

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(32) design optimization software: retscreen, meteonorm, pvsyst

(33) sale of power open access market/third

party sale or captive use/iex


(34) power banking allowed for captive

consumption on monthly basis

(35) DC to AC RATIO (PNOM): 1.200

(36) NASA data accuracy Variation: 11% to 15%

(37) evacuation voltage: 33kv/11kv as per sanction

from transmission/distribution

company OF R.S.E.B.(33 KV

preferred )


A. dc side interwiRng loss 1.50%

B. ac side interwiring loss 1.40%

C. soiling loss factor 3.00%

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D. pv loss due to temperatuRE 9.70%

E. module arrey degradation

loss 1st year 2.00%

F. lid loss 2.00%


(40) EQUITY IRR 16%

(41) pROJECT irr 11%



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Prepared by:-
Solar Energy Of India,
102/C, Transpresidency Bldg-1,
MIDC, Subhash Nagar, Andheri (East),
Mumbai 400093, India.

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(Premium Variety Rose Cut Flower)

HISTORY OF PUSHKAR (Nearest Town to site)

Pushkar has a rich historical and cultural heritage. The history of Pushkar cites its
importance and significance down the ages of the history of India.

Pushkar is situated in the state of Rajasthan in India. Famous for the annual cattle fair,
which draws an enormous amount of traders and tourists, Pushkar is a great place for
travel. The Pushkar lake and the temples of Pushkar are revered among religious

Legend has it that the lake in Pushkar was created from the petals of a lotus flower
which fell from the hand of Lord Brahma. Brahma is the residing deity in Pushkar and
has a temple dedicated to him. The Brahma Temple in Pushkar is one of its kind in
India. The legendary significance makes the lake of Pushkar an immensely holy place
for pilgrims.

The city of Pushkar is also closely associated with the times of the Ramayana and the
Mahabharata. In later times, Pushkar was an important place of rule during the reign of
the Mughal empire in India. It was the favored place of residence of many important
Mughal rulers. Later Pushkar was annexed by the British empire, and it became one of
the very few states in Rajasthan to be ruled directly by the British, the rest being

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princely states.

Therefore, the history of Pushkar speaks of its consistent importance and significance.
It still is an important place in Rajasthan, India, and receives a large number of tourists
and religious pilgrims every year.



Pushkar is a city in Rajasthan, India. It is an important city and has a great historical and
cultural tradition. Pushkar location is important as the city is most well known for its
lake, and the annual cattle fair held in Pushkar which brings a huge number of cattle
traders and tourists to the city. International tourist visit in large numbers during this
fair, usually held in November every year.

Pushkar is situated in Rajasthan, in the western regions of India. The region is mainly
dry and arid, with deserts dominating the landscape. Pushkar and the surrounding
areas are calm and tranquil. The lake in Pushkar has many legendary and historical
events associated with it. The place hosts an annual cattle fair, which is a great
attraction for both traders and tourists, both of whom flock into Pushkar in large

Pushkar is situated at the latitude of 26.5 north and the longitude of 74.55 east. The
average elevation of Pushkar is around 500 meters above sea level.

The location of Pushkar is strategically placed. It lies 11 kilometers to the north west of
another important city in Rajasthan, Ajmer. This proximity makes for easy access for
tourists and pilgrims. Since tourism is an important activity in Pushkar, the accessibility
is taken care of, with a good network of roads and fast and efficient transportation

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The site is near Pushkar town at Majhewla village code 2503800( neighbor village and
block is Kadel code 2503700 and pin code is 305021 ) is in close proximity to two other
cities like Pushkar about 6 KM and Ajmer 16 Km, with two more known town like
Nasirabad - 28 Km, Kishangarh - 33 Km. Postal Pin code of the site is 305021 for all
postal contact. There are two airport nearby to site (1) Jaipur International Airport 131
Km and (2) Jodhpur Airport - 152 Km.

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Indian Energy Scenario

As on December 31,2016 Indias power system had an installed generating capacity of

around 1,80,500 MW and thermal power plant powered by coal, gas, naphtha or
oil accounted for approximately 63% of total power generation capacity.
Renewable sources of energy account for around 10% of the total installed
capacity with Wind power having a major share of the same. Central government
controlled entities (the Central Sector) accounted for approximately 34% of
total power generation capacity, the various State Electricity Boards (SEBs)
accounted for approximately 52% while private sector utilities (the Private
Sector) accounted for approximately 14%.

The total power generation capacity addition planned for the XIth and XIIth Five
Year Plan (2007-2017) is around 1,90,000 MW of which 10% (i.e. 19,000 MW)
has been aimed as the share of renewable such as Wind, Solar, Biomass and
Small Hydro.

However, based on the shortfall in targets achieved in the past five year plans,
the gap between demand and supply is expected to widen in coming years.
Hence generation of electricity from any source is welcome in the country. Due
to environmental constraints and risk associated with high dependence on fossil
fuel based energy in general, further capacity addition need to the conventional
centralized methods of generation would be questionable. However as a result of
the increased attention directed towards alternative forms of energy and
methods of conversion, the significance of renewable energy devices operating
in the dispersed decentralized mode as serious components of modern energy
supply have grown worldwide.
As a part of the long term energy policy, Government of India and the Ministry of
New and renewable Energy (MNRE) is actively encouraging and supporting
renewable energy in the country.

India is a tropical country and has abundant Solar Insolation throughout the
country for most part of the year. Since the seasonal variation is marginal solar
energy can be harnessed economically throughout the year. Taking the above
factors into consideration, Government of India had formulated a policy frame
work for enhancing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of the
country. The Electricity Act, 2003 is intended to consolidate the laws relating to
the Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Trading and Use of electricity and
generally for taking

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measures conducive to the development of electricity industry promoting
competition therein, protecting interest of consumers and supply of electricity to
all areas. Under paragraph 5 of part 2 National Electricity Policy and Plan of
the Electricity Act, 2003, it is provided that, the Central Governments and the
State Commissions for rural electrification and for bulk purchase of power and
management of local distribution in rural areas through Panchayat Institutions,
users associations, co-operative societies, non-governmental organizations or

Under paragraph 6.3 of the Tariff Policy of The Electricity Act 2003, it is
provided that Captive generation is an important means to making competitive
power available. Appropriate commission should create an enabling
environment that encourages captive power plants to be connected to the grid.
Such captive plants could inject surplus power into the grid subject to the same
regulation as applicable to generating companies.

Under paragraph 6.4 Non-Conventional sources of energy generation including

co-generation of the Tariff Policy it is provided that, Pursuant to provisions of
section 86(i) (e) of the Act, the Appropriate Commission shall fix a minimum
percentage for purchase of energy from such sources taking into account
availability of such resources in the region and its impact on retail tariffs. Such
percentage for purchase of energy should be made applicable for the tariffs to be
determined by the SERCs latest by April 1, 2006.

It will take some time before non-conventional technologies can compete with
conventional sources in terms of cost of electricity. Therefore, procurement by
distribution companies shall be done at preferential tariffs determined by the
Appropriate Commission. Furthermore, it is also defined that Appropriate
Commission means the Central Regulatory Commission referred to in subsection
1 of section 76 or the State Regulatory Commission referred to in section 82 or
the line joint commission referred to in section 83, as the case may be.

Major benefits of grid connected solar power plants are furnished below:

Power from the sun is clean, silent, limitless and free

Photovoltaic process release no CO2, SO2 or NO2 gases which are
normally associated with burning finite fossil fuel reserves and do not
contribute to global warming.
Photovoltaic is now a proven technology which is inherently safe as
opposed to other fossil fuel based electricity generating technologies.
Reduces or avoids the necessity to build new transmission/ distribution
lines or upgrade existing ones.
Solar power shall augment the needs of peak power needs.
Increase the grid reliability (i.e. voltage and frequency)
Reduce the transmission line losses.

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Solar Powered Grid Connect Plants can act as tail-end energizers, which
in turn reduces the transmission and distribution losses.
Provides a potential revenue source in a diverse energy portfolio.
Assists in meeting renewable portfolio standards.

The Government of India has announced the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar
Mission (JNNSM) as part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with
the primary target to install 100GW of solar power generation in India in a
phased approach by 2022. It is a breakthrough program that will not only
mitigate the impact of climate change but will also promote rural development,
energy security and facilitate India becoming a global solar hub.

At the end of each plan and mid-term during the 12th and 13th Plans, there will
be an evaluation of progress, review of capacity and targets for subsequent
phases based on emerging cost and technology trends both domestic and global.
The aim would be to protect Government from subsidy exposure in case
expected cost reduction does not materialize or is more rapid than expected. The
immediate aim of the

Mission is to focus on setting up an enabling environment for solar technology

penetration in the country both at a centralized and decentralized level. The
second phase will focus on capturing of the low hanging options in solar thermal
on promoting off-grid system to serve population without access to commercial
energy and modest capacity addition in grid-based systems. In the third phase
after taking into account the experience of the initial years capacity will be
aggressively ramped up to create conditions for up scaled and competitive solar
energy penetration in the country.

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Current Policy and regulations

In terms of all renewable energy, currently India is ranked fifth in the world with
16,000 MW grid-connected and 400 MW off-grid renewable energy based power
capacity. Development of alternate energy is administered through India's
Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), National Thermal Power
Corporation Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd., (NVVNL) Energy development agencies
in the various States and the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency
Limited (IREDA). In terms of solar, the amount of solar energy produced in India
is less than 1% of the total energy produced, it is almost entirely based on PV
technology, and about 20% of the capacity is being used for off-grid applications.

The Government of India's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

released in mid-2008, by the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change
identifies eight critical missions, including Nation Solar Mission, National
Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency and National Mission for Green India.
Among these, the Solar Mission would be implemented in 3 stages, finally
deploying 60,000 MW Grid Connected Power Plants, and generating 40,000 MW
of off- grid and rooftop solar power by the year 2022.

The NAPCC notes that as much as 15% of India's energy could come from
renewable sources by 2022. Accordingly, the NAPCC has presently set a target of
5% of power purchase from renewable, which will be increased by 1% each year
to reach 15% by 2022.

In addition to the above, the Sanction 6(1) (c) of the Indian Electricity Act, 2003
(EA, 2003) also provide promotion of generation from renewable sources of
energy and purchase of electricity from such sources. As per the provision of EA,
2003 and National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy, the Forum of Regulators
constituted by the notification dated February 16, 2003 has finalized its
recommendation on various issues which includes guidelines for specifying
percentage for renewable energy procurement, share of different renewable
energy sources within overall renewal procurement obligation (RPO)
percentage, competitive procurement of renewable energy, introducing of
Renewal Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism. The REC mechanism is aimed at
addressing the mismatch between availability of renewable energy resources in
state and the requirement of the obligated entities to meet the Renewal
Procurement Obligation (RPO) in other states.

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Brief site Introduction

Our country is densely populated, and has high solar insolation, specially the
area selected at Pushkar is an ideal site for harnessing solar power. Ground of this site
has multi task, on one hand it is holding solar panel structure firmly and generating
renewable energy and on other hand it is also producing good quality say world class
quality PINK/RED rose flower for making best perfume, rose water and rose extract.
This is making whole project a viable entity and attractive too from investment point of

As said above The Electricity Act 2003 paved way for an innovative approach to
solve our country's power problems. It has lead for a competitive environment; open
access to existing transmissions and distribution network to transmit electricity across
the Pushkar/Ajmer regions, de-licensing of generation, captive power and dedicated
transmission lines, licensing of distribution and supply companies etc. The main
advantage of this solar energy generation is to produce power without producing
carbon - based warming and polluting agents into atmosphere, thus saving this planet.
The financial cost of system is not always cheap but if the environmental cost of using
equivalent fossil are accounted for, solar energy generation wins hands-down. There
are also indirect savings on health and it's costs as there are no harmful emissions from
this project at Pushkar area. The greenery will remain green.

In the above back drop M/S Worldwide Machinery Solutions Pvt Ltd, Opposite
Kishangarh Kothi, Jaipur Road, Ajmer, Pin 305-001, Rajasthan has decided to prepare
the feasibility for setting up 3.5 MW or 3500KW solar Power Plant. The project report
brings out all technical details and over all cost of utilizing the land for generation as
well cultivation purposes. Rose oil, rose perfume, rose water and rose extract are all
cash crop. This is helping to bring the feasibility within reasonable and attractive time
period and fully justifies the selection. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies,
fixation of tariff, finalizing power purchase agreement as well document needed to
financial institutions for obtaining funding are very relevent. The total project cost is
expected to Rs. 5.60Crs and average cost of generation(LCOE) is estimated to be INR

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General Technical Description with Technical feasibility
assessment report and commercial feasibility report for project:
Photovoltaic (PV) is the direct conversion of light into electricity. Silicon, main
raw material naturally release electrons when they are exposed to light, and these
electrons are harnessed to produce an electric current. Several thin wafers of silicon
are wired together and enclosed in a rugged protective casing called panel. PV panels
produce direct current (DC) electricity, and this is converted to alternating current (AC)
electricity. An inverter is used to convert this DC into AC. The amount of electricity
produced is measured in watts (W). One Kilowatt (KW) is equal to 1000 watts. One
MW is equal to 1000 KW. The amount of electricity used over a given period of time is
measured in Kilowatt-hours (KWH). Energy production from this PV system at
Majhewla, on Devnagar Kadel Road(Pushkar) in a land parcel of 20.7567 Acres is a
function of several factors including the following:

Factor Assumption
1. System Configuration Non - battery type
2. Shading Due to 11000/33000 volts transmission
line passing thru the field (Choice is there)
3. Temperature STC is 25 degree C., calm wind
4. Soiling or contamination Road side panel is more effected due to
of the pv panel regular dust/exhaust of passing vehicles
5. Solar Resources As per NASA data
6. PV energy delivered 95%
as per manufacturer rating
7. Wiring losses 09% (91% delivered)
8. Inverter Efficiency 90%
Total Energy Delivered 95%x91%x90% = 78%

The arid landscape at site will made project execution a logistically and
topographically demanding task. Due to poor road condition thus a high risk of
damages to the materials. Loose sand at site has to be leveled and freed from wild
vegetation by local farmers. Foundation has to be made thru ramming or piling. Some
times as per design data and to withstand wind load under-reamed foundations may be
needed. To counter the increased costs caused by special foundations, modules will
have to be mounted horizontally so that fewer rows are needed which reduces the
necessary foundation and it's cost.
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Quality is key factor in achieving technical bankability; this implies state of the
art system design and standardization. Appropriate quality assurance measures such
as plant's each component certification, reduce the technical risk of component or
system failure, as well as validating performance with a higher degree of certainty.
Thus quality provides a clearer picture of the financial returns of the system we are
planning to proceed at Pushkar for solar generation with rose cut flower
commercialization. For component suppliers and system integrators quality can help to
achieve differentiation in this competitive market to help the investor of the project as
well as to the lending bank.

This is also an indicator of attractiveness of the project from the prospective of

the financing institution. Hence it is said that technically and commercially this project
is viable. A list of all standard quality make of each product and their specification is
given for reference in this report.

Solar Cells and Modules:

Solar cells come in two major forms based on the nature of material used in their
production. The two main forms are

1. Crystalline solar cells

2. Thin film solar cells

Among the two crystalline solar cells have the highest conversion efficiency when it
comes to pv cells and their main type is monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells. We
have chosen polycrystalline cells (of 3rd generation being the latest with PERC) for our
purpose because of several +ve reasons and 99% of total consumption is out of this
product in this world. The PV system are grouped into following

A. Grid connected system

B. Non grid connected or independent/mini-grid system

Ours is grid connected system for connectivity at 11000/33000 Volts with

Utilities (R.S.E.B.) at Pushkar either at Distribution Sub Station or 132/33 KV grid sub
station. Government of Rajasthan has also promoted grid connected system in follow
up of JNSM and their policy is favorable in this respect. JNSM has also published Indian
Solar Resource map of India as per detail given below.

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The location of site near Pushkar is favorably located having DNI of 5.5-6

MAJHEWLA (Kadel) Rajasthan

The grid connected PV system under our consideration comprises following

salient components/system

(A)(1) Solar PV modules: These convert sun light directly to DC electricity


(A)(2) Inverter: Converts above DC electricity generated by sun light to AC

current with MPPT etc

(A)(3) String combiner box with protective gear arrangement

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(A)(4) Structure for PV modules

(A)(5) Transformers out door type, oil cooled etc

(A)(6) Different size of solar and HT/LT cables as per design criteria

(A)(7) SCADA system and meters for measurement of generation for utility

(A)(8) Balance of Processing material like AJB, String monitoring Box etc

(A)(9) Utility grid with synchronization particulars for evacuation

The parameter for PV system include the total energy yield, the yield factor, the
performance ratio and the capacity factor. Total energy yield is the total amount of
energy generated here in the system and injected to the utility grid. At this project near
Pushkar as per resource assessment and NASA data each MW of the plant will generate
and inject 1900 MWH/year with seasonal tilt FOR THREE SEASON. We have decided to
set up 3.5 MW ac or 4.00 MWP solar plant (with SEASONAL TILT FOR THREE
SEASONS) depending upon design criteria. The guiding factor may run between these

Land Selection

Our land is already selected. The grid sub station is about 5 Km and distribution sub
station is 5.5 Km away from our site. It is recommended to select the project site with
in 2 km of a Power Substation to reduce the power excavation loss as well as
corresponding charges. It is preferred to connect evacuation at grid sub station because
it is nearer and there are less chance of shut down by the utilities. Our performance
will be best in this case.

State Nodal Agency Process

Submit Solar Application Form

Submit Solar Connectivity Application Form

Get the Sanction Letter

DISCOM Department Process For <= 10 MW

DISCOM evaluates the Solar project application form and provides feasibility report to
the developer for projects less than 10 MW capacity after the application is approved by
State Nodal Agency

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Developer provide Bank guarantees, signed MOU and other documents, Please see
document checklist for list of required documents

DISCOM provides evacuation estimation report to Developer


1. All above process will apply but TRANSCO will give special permission for
connectivity due to fact that this is less than their criteria of generation which is
minimum 10 MW.

Developer Registration Documents

Copy of Permanent Account Number (PAN) (Mandatory).

Copy of Director Identification Number (DIN).

Copy of Tax Information Number (TIN).

Copy of Central Sales Tax (CST).

Copy of Service Tax .

Copy of Value Added Tax (VAT).

In case of New Entrepreneur, a Copy of Fulfillment Certificate Obtained From

Chartered Accountant.

Court Cases(if any).

Solar Power Application Documents:

Solar Power Project Registration

A Certified Copy of the Memorandum & Article Association of the Company .

Certified Copy of Registration Certificate.

Certified Copy of the Authority Confirming Powers on the Person(s) Who are
Competent to Execute the MOU/the Agreement with DISCOM .

Certificate from the Chartered Accountant Showing the Net Worth of the

Copy of Possessed Certificate of Land.

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Hard Copy of Filled Solar Registration Form.

Solar Connectivity Documents:

Solar Connectivity Form

Certified Copy of the Memorandum & Article Association of the Company.

Certified Copy of Registration Certificate.

Certified Copy of Partnership Deed.

Certified Copy of Authority Confirming Powers on the Person(s) Who are

Competent to Execute the MOU/the Agreement with DISCOM.

Certificate From the Chartered Accountant Showing the Net Worth of the

Copy of Certificate for SPV Panels as per the MNRE Guidelines.

Copy of Transmission of Power & Evacuation Plan/ Interconnection Facility for the
Proposed Plan.

Hard Copy of Filled Solar Connectivity Form.

Developer Evacuation Documents:

Developer Evacuation

Consent Form.

Under Taking for Acceptance Terms and Conditions Form.

Bank Guarantee Form.

Memorandum of Understanding Form (MOU).

Bank Challan (DD)

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(A)(1) Solar Photovoltaic {PV} modules

The power output 0f a single cell is about 0.5 - 0.6 volts regardless of the surface
area of the cell. This voltage remains fairly constant with changing light intensity.
However, the current in a cell is almost directly proportional to light intensity and size.
Therefore many cells are connected in series to increase the voltage. Several series of
cells can also be interconnected in parallels to increase the power output. The modules
consists of several cell connected in series and parallel as per specified power, voltage
and current. The cell has following detail:

Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconductor
material silicon.

Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms, allowing
them to flow through the material to produce electricity. Due to special
composition of solar cell, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single

An array of the solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct
current (DC) electricity.

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The working of cell is described below:

Block diagram of basic PV Block is given below:

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Solar cells are extremely fragile. To protect them from damage, they are
hermetically sealed between a top layer of glass or clear plastic, and bottom layer of
plastic or combination of plastic and metal. An outer frame is attached to increase the
strength, and this whole package is called a PV module. At the back of the module, a
junction box is provided to extract electricity. Depending upon the load and battery
requirements, the modules are connected in series/parallel combinations and mounted
on a metallic frame. Such aggregates of PV modules form a PV array. In our country
majority of modules are polycrystalline silicon type. In general they are robust, reliable
and weatherproof.

We have selected PERC or PERC+ type Polycrystalline cell module. Perc stands
for Passivated Emitter Rear Cell. With a passivation layer on the rear side of a PERC
cell, unabsorbed light is reflected by the additional layer back to solar cell for a second
absorption attempt. This gives higher efficiency to the cell. PERC modules have a
higher energy density/Sq. mtr. and perform well under low light condition and high
temperatures like at Pushkar. These are highly cost effective and top performer in
hotter climates so selected for our project at Majhewla (Kadel), Pushkar. Following
figure shows the upper edge of standard module Vs PERC module.

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Above diagram shows that there is minor difference in construction of cell of two
types described above but gives great benefit in performance.

However, we have also considered production of cut rose flowers and rose water and
rose perfume production so this may need a second thought. Further economic analysis
will show all about these in this report.
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Different Activities Of
Project shown on left

Main Issue of Implimentation

1. Connectivity Norms

2. Metering Norms

3. Business Model - Tariff and

PPA etc

4. Performance

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. Average area required by such module per KWp is 8 Sq. Mtr. Our area is located
very near to town and real estate is expensive so also this is selected as compared to
thin film. Thin film requires 40% to 70% more area for each KWp.

Standard Test condition is 1000watts/Sq. Mtr of sunlight with typical

temperature at 25 C and 1Mtr/second of wind speed. We here by recommend module
of 300-400 watt PERC type with other specifications given in the table. As per NASA
data average solar insolation is 5.5-6 KWH/M2/day at Majhewla (Kadel), Pushkar, Raj.

Following factors needs full attention due to fact that it will try to reduce the
power output from our plant like

a. Peak watt rating of the module - larger modules yield more power than the small
modules so we have taken the range from 300 watt to 350 watt

b. Intensity of solar radiation - more power is produced under bright sunlight than
when it is cloudy but there should be no shading on modules and it must be
clean from dust, shit, HT line, building etc.

c. Time of year - it also brings down the solar output, for example, at Pushkar the
solar intensity is reduced in winter.

d. Hours of available sunlight - time of the year has a definite effect on the duration
of light available to a module.

In this case typical Canadian solar module is taken for the project. Each module is
320 watt capacity. All other detail of Canadian Solar module is given here under:-

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(A)(2) INVERTERS with Charge Controller

Photovoltaic systems work more efficiently with DC loads (as there are no
conversion efficiency losses)and for AC loads this inverter is used because this converts
DC to AC. These are electronic components converting DC power generated by a solar
array into AC compatible with the local distribution net work. DC has current flow in
one direction while AC rapidly switches the directions of current flow back and forth.
In a typical PV system, inverters are placed before the load/transformer.

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Inverters are produced in different ranges of power categories ranging from a few
hundred watts through the widely used range of few KW or even few MW. These
inverters when designed for few watts are called Micro-inverter, in a similar way in few
KW like 10-50 or so are string inverter and for MW scale project from 500 KW to
3000KW are Central inverter. The two most common types of inverters are known as
modified sine wave and sine wave types. Modified sine wave based inverters are
cheaper in comparison to pure sine wave. The latter type is generally used for grid
interfaced application like ours at Majhewla, (Kadel). In totality, the main function of an
inverters is to transform the low voltage DC generated by the solar module into mains
voltage AC.

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(Technical Feasibility assessment and Commercial Feasibility assessment is
based on Third Party sale of electricity to existing user in near by areas as per above
with evolution of business model)

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Inverter configuration of all types is shown below and we have selected

centralized inverter as per figure in the middle below:

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3.5 MW

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Relevant IEC/EN/IS
Standardization for
3.5 MW
project near Pushkar,

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Suggestive list of
Manufacturer of
Salient item
& project Component
3.5 MW

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The Financial Pillars Of Solar Project

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Cost Per Watt
for 3500 kW Ground Mounted Project at Pushkar Rajasthan

MODULES = 33 / Wp
for 330 Wp


6.00 / Wp

CABLES 1.00 / Wp

1.00 / Wp


0.25 / Wp

8.25 / Wp

56.00 / Wp

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To determine how much one would make or save over the 25 years lifetime of a
typical solar project involves a number of factors such as location, sunlight available,
technology, incentives, ETC

Evaluating a solar project from a financial feasibility point of view requires

understanding a few important measurements which we call the Financial pillars as

Net Present Value (NPV)
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)

The proposed solar PV power project at Pushkar is of 3.5 MW AC capacity along

with rose cut/rose water production below module where ever possible in this 20
Acres land. Power generation has been arrived thru PV SYST at 7228 MWH or 72.28
lakh KWH per year. It is to say that in this case 33 KV transmission line is passing thru
the field and two pole of this line may shed the panel to some extant hence actual power
may go to slightly lower side until this line is shifted away. This power is reduced to
90% at the end of 10th year and 80% at the end of next 15th year. Thus 25 year life
span is completed.

The rose flower production for about 20 acres will contribute around 15 to 18
lakh net revenue per year. This will help for operation and maintenance of solar plant
for 25 years.

It was also informed that power generated from this project will be sold to
tourism industry hotels situated at Pushkar under open access system. This be easily
done as the solar policy of Government Of Rajasthan promotes all such activities. PPA
with prospective buyers for 25 years will help to complete the necessary
documentation part.

Basis for Cost Estimation:

a. The capital cost of the plant has been estimated taking into account the cost of
civil, electrical, mechanical, structural works, transportation, erection, testing
and commissioning charges including contingencies as per standard practice.

b. Land cost not considered as land is already available.

c. The cost of all materials and equipments has been estimated based on best
industry norms and budgeting quotations as well previous recent quotations for
similar other comparable projects etc.
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d. Excise duty is exempted as per MNRE directives.

e. Electricity duty on solar generated units are totally exempted for Rajasthan as
per circular issued by RERC, Jaipur, Raj.

f. AD for 80% for first year considered.

g. Packing, forwarding, inland transportation and insurance @ 2.5% to 3% for all

equipments and system including spares have been considered.

h. Erection, testing and commissioning charges are considered as 8% of supply cost

for mechanical and electrical equipments.

i. Civil work cost is also based on CPWD schedule of rates and Raj PWD rates

j. Salvage value after 25 years or plant life is taken as 10% of total cost owing to
copper, and MS structure and aluminium and other such items.

k. Project is expected to be financed on debt equity ratio of 70:30

l. Rate of interest on loan from IREDA is considered 6.5% PA

m. As per rule and act rate of depreciation for first 12 years is 5.83% and for
remaining period of 12 years is 1.54%, while life is calculated for 25 years.

This proposed project of 3.5 MWAC is expected to be implemented as grid

connected PV Multi Csi solar power project under open access policy. The sale price of
energy would be as determined by the market.

1. Total energy generated during plant life after accounting for degradation of
module on standard basis =1662.44 lakh

2. Total cost of plant including all expenses = 26 Cr

3. O & M with inverter replacement = 7 Cr

4. Levalised cost of energy is = Rs. 5.00/KWH

5. Price per MW = 5.60 Cr

6. Equity Capital = 30% of project cost

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7. Debt from Financial supporter = 70% of project cost

8. Interest rate = 10% to 13% depending upon negotiation

9. Average DSCR = 1.44

10. Minimum DSCR = 1.28

11. SLM depreciation = 5.83% for 12 years

12. Depreciation for remaining period = 1.54%

13. I.T. rate, Minimum Alternate tax, Education cess and S.I.T. as applicable.

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Operation & Maintenence
25 years
for 3.5 MW
Solar Plant

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Operation & Maintenance:-

As every plant needs a regular maintenance work to make it functional and in well
condition, so in this case also, a PV power plant also requires a sound and efficient
operation and management team to perform all the work after solar plant commissioning.

A detailed structure of Operation and Maintenance team has been provided here
in hierarchy model to demonstrate in a simpler way. In many cases drones are now
being used at regular interval to reduce manpower and gain economy. Outsourcing the
complete job and make it proportional to performance for revenue is very successful.

Now stand alone operation and maintenance sector for PV has emerged to cater
for the solar assets. They follow best practice in the industry and gives healthy
competition. Operation and maintenance team works with full responsibility and
accountability for 25 years to maintain good health of project and there is innovative
process now to go for optimization for enhancement of revenue. Benefits of granular
monitoring under Operation and Maintenance is shown here UNDER IN A TABULATED
FORM which is specialty of it's own.

Operation and Maintenance team has to follow grid code compliance for
synchronization of power. They need to keep minimum list of spares parts for 24x7. A
maintenance, corrective maintenance and extraordinary maintenance is done to keep
key performance indicator under the due limits. All above results for satisfactory
operation and successful running of solar PV plant.

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Activity Continuous Annually 10 Maintenance action
Remote monitoring
1. Check the amount of
units generated
Daily system with critical
alarms based on
comparing sets of data

More substantial, on-

2. Review array output,
current and voltage to
verify proper operation
Daily site check in a random
pattern to verify
computer output

Particularly for
3. Watch for shading by Daily ground-mounted
trees, weeds, other
obstructions Twice
systems, vegetation
growth can vary from
year to year.

If rainfall is not
expected to remove
4. Inspect the PV array
any accumulation, the
surface for excessive dirt
or debris (bird droppings,
Daily surface will be cleaned
with a gentie rinse
leaves, etc.)
with plain water or
mild detergent.

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Activity Continuous Annually 10 Maintenance action

5. Inspect the PV modules

for cracks/damage
By Weekly Preventative
maintenance check

6. Inspect the PV modules

for discoloration/
Weekly Preventative
maintenance check

7. Inspect the entire Preventative

system for loose or
damaged wiring
Monthly maintenance check,
easy to repair on site

8. Inspect inverter and

clean any filters or vents
to ensure unrestricted air
Monthly maintenance check,
easy to repair on site

As per Budgeted to have

9. Repair inverter As Required site major overhauls once
condition every 10 years.

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(1) This project is technically feasible provided ground grading required

due to undulations may be done prior to start of erection of project.

(2) There is over head line passing thru site creating unwanted shade.
This be shifted to reduce shading loss and related future problem.

(3) There is power evacuation procedure at 11KV from distribution

substation of Pushkar. This is highly problem creative and not
recommended. Our engineer collected the data and found that 50% of time
this line is shut down without any reason recorded. To avoid this 33 KV
evacuation at 132/33 KV grid substation is highly recommended. Special

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permission is required for this. There are many such precedent for such

(4) Evacuation permission and bay construction is longest time taking

activity as per bar chart of project. This be done in a way to match with
time line of project.

(5) The resistivity of soil is high as suggested by 132/33 KV transmission

sub station local employee of R.S.E.B. so earth station be preciously located.

(6) Our criteria is for PERC+ module with high efficiency for best result,
this be looked into while planning the project.

(7) This project is commercially feasible and sale of electricity is thru open
access so ppa for 25 years from purchaser is desired to easy the situation

(8) The agriculture produce i.e. rose flower is cash and seasonal crop. This
is possible jointly in this area by raising the panel structure height by 0.75-
1.00 meter than normal ground clearance. With this addition viability is
further increased. Special structural design will be required for such
construction. As per SWOT analysis this is highly recommended. The
proper design of this mounting structure is important to power plant
performance as the power output from the pv plant will not be maximized
if the mountings buckle due to any reason and panels are not optimally
oriented towards the sun.

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(9) Areas for rose flower storing and inverter room may be kept with good
difference and properly fenced for safety.

(10) Weather station be installed almost at the central point of the land
parcel for realistic weather recording.

(11) Venture capitalist and investor are sure to come in this project
provided this is always linked with agriculture base value added item of
rose cut flower production etc.

(12) During rainy season in last five year that area is recorded with storm
water and flood water for few days so precaution is necessary for creation
of storm water drain to save the property and installation etc.

(13) The renewable market at present is not steady but power situation at
Pushkar is poor so this is going to support the price and customer for this
project but in any case a panel of customer be kept on record for healthy
running of business.

(14) This 3.5 MWAC system cuts CO2 emission in the atmosphere by 5,200
tons / year. It also saves entire planet from 1.5 e-6C rise in temperature.
This planet earth is very much obliged with this effort.


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