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Mechanically induced cyclic glassy-nanocrystalline phase transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys M. Sherif El-Eskandarany
Center of Nanotechnology, Director General’s Office, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885 Kuwait Safat 13109, State of Kuwait Fax: +(965) 24836608 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Cyclic crystalline-glassy-crystalline phase transformations have been investigated during high-energy ball milling of tetragonal-Zr2Ni alloy powders, using mechanical disordering (MD) method. The results show that the metastable fcc-Zr2Ni alloy powders, which is obtained after 173 ks of MD time, transforms into a new metastable phase of nanocrystalline big cube-Zr2Ni upon milling for 360 ks. The lattice parameters, a0 for the metastable-fcc and big cube phases were calculated and found to be 0.451 nm and 1.226 nm, respectively. The obtained big-cube phase subsequently transforms to a single glassy phase after 540 ks of MD time. This obtained glassy phase, however, devitrificated into the same metastable big-cube phase upon increasing the MD time to 720 ks. As the MD time increases (806 ks to 900 ks), the obtained nanocrystalline big-cube phase transforms into the pervious metastable fcc-Zr2Ni phase, indicating a cyclic-phase transformations between the three obtained metastable phases. Such cyclic phase transformations are observed several times during the milling procedure. On the basis of our results, the destabilising effect of the defects created by the milling media (balls) is responsible for such mechanically induced solid-state devitrification (MISSD) that leads to the cyclic transformations. Keywords: mechanical alloying; MA; high-energy ball milling; lattice defects; microstructure; crystal structure; phase transformations; thermal stability; metallic glasses; big-cube phase; metastable phase. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: El-Eskandarany, M.S. (xxxx) ‘Mechanically induced cyclic glassy-nanocrystalline phase transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys’, Int. J. Nanoparticles, Vol. X, No. Y, pp.000–000. Biographical notes: M. Sherif El-Eskandarany is a Visiting Professor of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology at IMR, Tohoku University, Japan and is working now as a Senior Research Scientist at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. He obtained his Master and Doctorate degrees from Tohoku University, Japan. He was a former Vice-President of the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology in Egypt and one of the nanotechnology founders in Egypt. He has published 120 peer-reviewed international journals, 130 international conference articles and three international books. He received the Golden Medal of Excellence in Scientific Research from H.E. the President of Egypt and the Golden Medal of Technology from JSPM, Japan.
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2006a. 2003).. extensive studies have been made and reported on the crystallisation and kinetics of this system. However.g.. Hence. %) and Ni (99.67 K/s and under flow of a purified argon gas. The MD experiments were performed two or three times under the same experimental conditions to confirm the reproducibility of the results. using high energy ball mill. Kato et al. The ball milling was stopped after selected milling times and a small amount (about 500 mg) of powders were taken from the vials in the glove box. The as-milled samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) employing CuKα radiation. Consolidation of these powders within their supercooled liquid regions leads to the formation of fully dense objects (El-Eskandarany and Inoue. which can be made amorphous by several techniques over a wide range of composition. Inoue and Nishiyama. the possibility of mechanically-induced solid-state devitrifications (MISSD) could be investigated.8 ks and then halted for 1. 1991) crystalline powders of tetragonal-Zr2Ni. 2007) that are not found when the same alloys are in their stable crystalline states. including those systems that cannot be synthesised by the conventional melting and casting techniques (El-Eskandarany et al. 2006a) due to their unique properties (Yavari et al. The ground particles were then screened to obtain finer powders (50 μm to 60 μm in diameter) and used as the starting materials for the MD process. El-Eskandarany et al. El-Eskandarany and Inoue. using . 2001.. 1999). 2 Experimental procedure An ingot of Zr67Ni33. The stability of the obtained nano-metastable powders against the shear and impact forces that are generated by the milling media and the subsequent devitrifications was demonstrated by subjecting the powders to longer MD times. glassy alloys can be obtained by several ways of fabrications (Inoue. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using 15 kV field emission electron microscope. The ball-to-powder weight ratio was maintained as 14:1. 2007). El-Eskandarany 1 Introduction Metallic glasses (Duwez. High resolution transmission electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (HRTEM/EDS).S. Thus. mechanical alloying (MA) method. 1960) have attracted many materials scientists from different international schools (Greer and Ma. 2006b). The present study has been undertaken to investigate the structural changes that take place upon room temperature mechanical disordering (MD) (El-Eskandarany et al.. Bai et al. 2001. Zr-Ni binary system is the best known metal-metal glassy former. obtained by arc-melting a mixture of Zr (99. 2006b) for the fabrication of wide varieties of glassy powders (e. the milling procedure was periodically interrupted every 1.9 at. 2002.8 ks under a continuous flow of air.. 2008. transmission electron microscopy (TEM).1 s–1. The MD process was performed in a planetary ball mill (Fritsch P5) at a rotation speed of 2. differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at a constant heating rate of 0. In order to avoid an increase in the vial temperature.. metallic glasses have been considered as promising candidates for several technical applications (El-Eskandarany. was crushed down into particles. %) metals. using a 300 kV field emission microscope. 2008). The starting powders were charged into tempered chrome steel vials (250 ml in volume) and sealed together with 50 tempered chrome steel balls (10 mm in diameter) in an argon atmosphere glove box. 2007.. using ball-milling technique has been considered as a powerful tool (El-Eskandarany and Inoue. using a tempered chrome steel mortar and pestle.9 at. Huang et al.2 M.
was calculated and found to be 0. These Bragg peaks are no longer appeared in the sample that milled for 173 ks of MD and a new set of broad Bragg-lines corresponding to fcc structure. As soon as the annealing procedure is achieved. indicated by the presence of sharp indexed Bragg peaks of the starting ordered phase [Figure 1(a)].5 ml. Figure 1 XRD patterns of ball-milled Zr2Ni powders after.s–1) of purified argon (99. This obtained fcc-Zr2Ni . 2002) and its lattice parameter. Annealing the powder samples was performed at the desired temperatures in sealed copper DSC cells under continuous flow (2. appeared in Figure 1(b). (a) 0 ks (b) 173 ks (c) 360 ks (d) 540 ks of MD (e) 720 ks (f) 806 ks (g) 900 ks of MD time The sample at the starting stage of MD (0 ks) is a single phase of polycrystalline tetragonal-Zr2Ni and does not show the existence of any other phases. The analysis of the Bragg peaks for this new obtained phase confirmed the formation of a metastable fcc-Zr2Ni (fcc-Zr2Cu structure.451 nm. In addition. the DSC was rapidly cooled and the samples were subsequently removed from the DSC heating chamber. and the degree of iron contamination in the milled powders. which come from the reflections of (111). (220) and (311) planes.Transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys 3 an electron beam of 5 nm has been employed for analysing the concentration of Zr and Ni. the oxygen content was determined by the helium carrier fusion-thermal conductivity method. (200).. 3 Results and discussions The XRD patterns of the ball-milled powders after selected MD times are displayed together in Figure 1.999 wt. a0. Mann et al. %) flow. The as-annealed samples were structurally analysed by means of XRD and TEM/EDS techniques.
S. The EDS technique was employed to ensure the local composition of the obtained sample at this stage of MD. implying the precipitation of a crystalline phase in the residual amorphous matrix. The EDS analytical results (not shown here) of the Regions IX and X could not detect any sharp compositional fluctuations between those selected neighbour regions. the nano beam diffraction pattern (NBDP) that taken from Region IX in Figure 2(c) shows a halo-diffraction pattern coexisted with several spots [Figure 2(d)]. . which are embedded in the amorphous matrix. the HRTEM image of this sample [Figure 2(c)] shows obvious nano fringes of local ordered regions with different contrast (see. the SADP displays a typical halo-diffraction (diffuse halo) of an amorphous phase [Figure 2(b)]. Although the XRD pattern of the sample that milled for 576 ks (not presented here) indicates that the obtained powder maintains its unique random structure. which appears featureless and homogeneous in its internal structure. as far as indicated by broad primary and secondary diffraction maxima. the sample. The absence of any crystalline contrast [Figure 2(a)] and the hardly vision of sharp rings or spots [Figure 2(b)] would indicate the formation of fully amorphous phase. SADP [Figure 2(b)]. for example. the indicated arrows). The lattice constant.4 M. all of the Bragg peaks corresponding to the formed big-cube phase have already disappeared and clear broad diffuse haloes appear. implying the homogeneity in structure within the nanoscale Moreover. implying the formation of a single amorphous phase with no indication of precipitation of any residual crystalline phases [Figure 1(d)]. Overall. Careful analysis of the diffracted peaks in Figure 1(c) suggests that the powders at this stage of MD reveal polycrystalline structure corresponding to Zr2Ni structure (E93 structure. shows a maze contrast with no indication of precipitations of any crystalline phases [Figure 2(a)]. These analyses (not presented here) that taken from the different regions of the milled powder do not show any serious compositional gradient and the average composition is being very close to the starting nominal composition of Zr67Ni33. When the MD time is increased to 540 ks. implying the homogeneity of the obtained product at this stage of MD. a0 of this crystalline phase was calculated to be 1. The image of the HRTEM of the sample after 540 ks of MD time is shown in Figure 2(a) together with the corresponding selected area diffraction pattern. El-Eskandarany metastable phase is not capable enough to withstand against the mechanical imperfections that came from the milling media and surprisingly transformed into a new crystalline phase after 360 ks of MD time [Figure 1(c)]. space group Fd3m). Furthermore.226 nm.
Transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys Figure 2 5 HRTEM images (a. indicating that the MISSD takes place in a typical polymorphous reaction. d) of ball-milled Zr2Ni powders after 540 ks (a. as presented in the dark field image (DFI) of Figure 3(a). c) refer to the EDS examined regions. The XRD pattern of the sample that was obtained after continuous ball milling for 720 ks of MD time is displayed in Figure 1(e). The appearance of sharp-ring fashion at the corresponding SADP [Figure 3(b)] with the absence of spot-like patterns suggests the formation of fine-grain structure and the disappearance of the previously formed amorphous phase. Surprising came from when the analysis of the diffracted lines in Figure 1(e) indicates that the yielded crystalline phase is a big-cube Zr2Ni that has a0 similar to that one. b) and 576 ks of the MD time Notes: The indexed circles in images (a. . which are embedded in the glassy matrix in image (c) belong to the big-cube Zr2Ni metastable phase. c) and the corresponding SADP (b. characterised by the disappearance of the halo-diffraction peaks and the appearance of Bragg lines of a crystalline phase. The formed metastable big cube-phase of this stage of milling consists of spherical nanocrystalline grains ranging from 20 nm to 75 nm in diameter. which was previously formed after 360 ks of MD time [Figure 1(b)]. It is worth noting that the local EDS analyses that taken from several regions in Figure 3(a) does not show any surprising compositional differences. The fringes. Obviously. the amorphous phase is devitrificated into a nanocrystalline phase.
The DSC scan of the sample that obtained after 173 ks of MD time reveals a single exothermic peak at 941 K [Figure 4(a)]. as displayed in the XRD pattern in Figure 1(g). Increasing the MD time to 900 ks does not lead to any further phase transformations and the end-product still maintains its fcc-structure. In addition. which corresponding to an fcc-Zr2Ni metastable phase. the indexed NBDP of a selected region indicates the presence of a single fcc phase in the milled powders with the absence of any other metastable phases (amorphous and/or big-cube phases). The enthalpy change of crystallisation. This would suggest cyclic-metastable-metastable-phase transformations.6 Figure 3 M. which was firstly demonstrated by El-Eskandarany et al. The obvious broadening in the Bragg lines of this metastable phase indicates the formation of a nanocrystalline phase. The bright field image (BFI) of the powders at this stage of milling indicates the formation of nanomaterials that do not show any dramatic changes in composition and have uniform nano-structure with spherical grains of less than 10 nm in diameter [Figure 3(c)]. The X-ray analysis of the sample taken after this DSC run shows the formation of tetragonal-Zr2Ni phase. ΔH xfcc→ordered is calculated from the area under the . The thermal stabilities of the three metastable products (glassy. and BFI (c) and its SADP of ball-milled Zr2Ni powders after ball milling for 720 ks (a.S. this phase was transformed to a different metastable phase. The stability of the yielded big-cube phase against the mechanical deformation during ball milling procedure has been realised so that the powders were furthered milled to 806 ks. (1997). As it is expected. respectively Note: The indexed circles in the images refer to the EDS examined regions. which obtained after milling for 173 ks [see Figure 1(b)]. More precise information about the local structure and composition of the powder of the end-product (900 ks) powders could be obtained by TEM/EDS analyses. El-Eskandarany DFI (a) and the corresponding SADP (b). big-cube and fcc-Zr2Ni alloys) that are yielded cyclically during the ball milling process were examined by DSC. indicated by the shown Bragg peaks in Figure 1(f). b) and 900 ks. The DSC thermograms of these products are displayed in Figure 4 after selected MD times. This fcc-metastable phase has almost the same a0 of that phase.
Thus. respectively).28 kJ/mol. the ΔH x −cube→ fcc is considered as the heat of formation of metastable fcc-Zr2Ni alloy. c and d. is calculated to be –2. the total enthalpy change of crystallisation. b. which is considered as ΔH xfcc→ordered . This implies an increase in the volume fraction of the formed glassy phase. These two opposite reactions became more pronounced for those samples that obtained after 470 ks [Figure 4(d)] and 540 ks [Figure 4(e)] of MD time. which is an endothermic type and refers to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the formed glassy powders can be seen hardly at 691 K. Here.Transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys 7 exothermic peak in Figure 4(a) and found to be –2. (a) 173 ks (b) 360 ks (c) 432 ks (d) 470 ks (e) 540 ks (f) 576 ks (g) 630 ks (h) 720 ks (k) 900 ks of MD time Note: The XRD patterns of the annealed samples at I. the second peak.86 kJ/mol. Both peaks tend to disappear and becoming hardly visible when the MD time increases to 432 ks [Figure 4(c)]. However. The XRD pattern of the sample that taken after the first exothermic reaction (850 K) shows the formation of metastable fcc-Zr2Ni phase. However. as shown in Figure 4(c).99 kJ/mol. whereas new peaks appear at this DSC scan. the general feature of the thermograms is changed. the first reaction. The X-ray analysis of the sample that obtained after completing this DSC run (750 K) shows the formation of . Figure 4 DSC thermograms of ball-milled Zr2Ni powders after. II. characterised by the appearance of a low-temperature broad exothermic reaction that took place at 806 K. In this DSC scan [Figure 4(b)] the area under the second exothermic reaction. ΔH x −cube→ fcc that realised due to this exothermic reaction is calculated big and found to be –0. ΔH xfcc→ordered here is considered as the heat of formation of tetragonal-Zr2Ni alloy. The enthalpy change of big crystallisation.13 kJ/mol. III and IV are shown in Figure 5 (a. which is an exothermic reaction and results due to the crystallisation (Tx) of the glassy phase is obvious and takes place at 736 K (onset temperature). this exothermic reaction still appears in the DSC curve of the sample that milled for 360 ks of MD time [Figure 4(b)]. big big big ΔH x cube→fcc→ordered (Δ H x cube→fcc→ordered = Δ H x cube→ fcc + Δ H xfcc→ordered ) is –2.
8 M. which are grown and becoming more visible for the sample that milled for 630 ks of MD time [Figure 4(g)]. It is worth noting that this formed metastable fcc-phase has almost the same a0 of those products. . suggested by the clear broad diffused halos that are visible in Figure 5(a). 737 K. respectively].S. It is worth noting that the onset temperature of both reactions does not change markedly. which was milled for 540 ks of MD time and each sample was checked carefully by X-ray analysis. similar to that one obtained after 360 ks and 720 ks of MD times [see Figures 1(c) and 1(e). Tx and ΔTx does not change. These samples [#I. The XRD pattern of the sample powder [#IV in Figure 4(g)]. implying the absence of any compositional changes. indicates that this exothermic reaction takes place due to transformation of the metastable fcc-Zr2Ni into a the most-stable phase of tetragonal-Zr2Ni [Figure 5(d)]. It is worth mentioned that the thermal characterisation of the residual glassy phase. the enthalpy change of crystallisation. the crystallisation process takes place throughout several stages. suggesting that a glassy-ordered phase transformation at the observed Tx. four individual heating runs were achieved for the sample. #II. ΔTx (ΔTx. The sample (#I). Figure 4(g)] were individually post-annealed at temperatures 662 K. 790 K and 987 K. Moreover. which was annealed after achieving the last exothermic peak (987 K). All of these events suggest a drastic decreasing of the formed glassy phase and a grown of new phase(s). respectively]. El-Eskandarany tertragonal-Zr2Ni phase. Annealing of this glassy phase at 737 K [#II in Figure 4(g)] (after its crystallisation peak) leads to a devitrification into a metastable big-cube phase [Figure 5(b)]. This formed metastable big-cube Zr2Ni phase does not maintain its unique crystalline structure and transformed into another metastable phase of fcc-Zr2Ni upon post-annealing the powders at 790 K [#III in Figure 4(g)]. equal to Tx – Tg at 46 K) for a binary metallic system. respectively for 300 s in the DSC under flow of pure argon. which was annealed at 662 K maintains its original characterisations of having a random structure without any devitrifications to any metastable phase(s). The wide value of the supercooled liquid region. which yielded after 173 ks and 806 ks of MD times [Figures 1(b) and 1(f). as was confirmed by the XRD pattern in Figure 5(c). ΔH x of the glassy phase that is calculated from the area under the exothermic reaction in Figure 4(e) and is found to be –9. as high as 850 K. suggesting the absence of any compositional changes during the MD procedure. indicated by a series of exothermic reactions. The last reaction of this DSC scan. In addition. In order to explore the origin of the above mentioned reactions. takes place at higher temperature. Contrary to the first exothermic reaction that appeared in the scan of Figure 4(g). #III and #IV. the second exothermic peak is taking place widely at 756 K. The DSC scan for the sample that obtained after 576 ks of MD time [Figure 4(f)] shows a different feature in respect to the intensity of the exothermic reaction that becoming weak. suggests that the ball-milled Zr2Ni alloy has a good glassy → ordered glass-forming ability. however. characterised by Tg.2 kJ/mol. in good agreement with that XRD pattern of the starting (before milling) powders of Zr2Ni [Figure 1(a)].
ΔH ordered . the calculated area under the second exothermic peak in Figure 4(g)] is found to be –0. (a) 662 K (b) 737 K (c) 790 K (d) 987 K 9 Note: The annealing procedure was performed in a DSC under purified (99. The area under the first exothermic reaction in Figure 4(g) presents the heat formation of big-cube Zr2Ni phase upon annealing the Zr2Ni glassy phase that is obtained after 630 ks for glassy →big cube of MD time (Δ H x or Δ H big cube ). ΔH ordered (ΔH x for Here.65 kJ/mol has a very close value to the for ΔH ordered (–9.9995 wt. for glassy →big cube→ fcc→ ordered ) = ΔH xglassy→big cube + ΔH xbig cube→ fcc + ΔH xfcc→ordered . which is calculated to be –8.Transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys Figure 5 The XRD patterns of ball-milled Zr2Ni powders after ball milling for 630 ks of MD time plus annealing at. The ΔH xfcc→ordered [the area under that last exothermic peak in Figure for 4(h)] or so called the heat formation of ordered-Zr2Ni alloy ΔH ordered is calculated and found to be –1. .93 kJ/mol.89 kJ/mol. The for big ΔH x cube→ fcc or the heat formation of metastable fcc-Zr2Ni alloy [ ΔH fcc .74 kJ/mol. Thus. and found to be –5.%) Ar gas flow for 180s.2 kJ/mol). which obtained upon single phase transformation of glassy-ordered phase transformation for the sample that milled for 540 ks of MD time. the total heat formation of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloy can be calculated as.
this big-cube Zr2Ni phase transformed into a more stable phase of fcc-Zr2Ni.S. the iron and oxygen contents in several milled samples were chemically analysed and plotted in Figure 6 as a function of MD times. One can notify the disappearance of the endothermic reaction. Finally. we have examined the thermal stability of the metastable fcc-Zr2Ni powders that were obtained after 900 ks of MD time. monotonically increased with increasing MD time and saturated at a level of 0. Whereas the second exothermic peak in Figure 4(g) was vanished.%.24 at. The DSC curve of this alloy is shown in Figure 4(k). El-Eskandarany The DSC scan of the powders. MD time on iron and oxygen contamination contents in the ball-milled Zr2Ni powders .10 M. which was taken after annealing the powders at 985 K for 300 s (not shown here). implies that this exothermic reaction takes place by the transformation of the metastable fcc-Zr2Ni into the most-stable phases of tetragonal-Zr2Ni.19 at. The iron. At the final stage of milling (173 ks to 900 ks). which indicates the absence of the glassy phase [Figure 4(h)]. as examined by the X-ray analysis. which were milled for 720 ks (originally metastable big-cube phase) is displayed in Figure 4(h). which comes from the stainless steel milling tools.% after 540 ks of MD time. Likewise. the oxygen contamination increases significantly during the first kiloseconds of milling to a value of 0.57 at. At a temperature well above this broad exothermic peak (832 K). The XRD pattern of the sample. Figure 6 Effect of MD time.% after 86 ks of the MA time. In order to explore the influence of contaminations on the phase transformations of Zr2Ni powders during the different stages of MD. the high-temperature exothermic reaction still appears at a peak temperature of 900 K. the oxygen content saturates at a value of 0. The disappearance of the glassy phase is also indicated by the absence of the sharp exothermic reaction. which was replaced by a broad exothermic peak that took place at 731 K [Figure 4(h)].
and Bormann.229–244. 70. J...S. respectively. A. R. being dependant on the milling time. This glassy phase that has Tg. M..S. El-Eskandarany. using high-energy ball mill. Mater. This big-cube Zr2Ni transforms to fcc-Zr2Ni at 850 K with ΔH big −cube→ fcc of –0. A.S. Res. Alloys Compounds.2725– 2736. El-Eskandarany.. Tx and ∆Tx of 691 K.869–870. and Suzuki. Saida. using the same milling conditions. 37. Let. We have attributed these transformations. J. Aoki.2231–2238. M. 1st ed. K.S.2 kJ/mol.. Michaelsen.064202–064211. M. M. K. El-Eskandarany. Aoki. 21. (1991) ‘Difference between mechanical alloying and mechanical disordering in the amorphization reaction of Al50Ta50 in a rod mill’. when the milling time increased to 806 ks. glassy →ordered transforms into ordered-Zr2Ni with ΔH x of –9. and Inoue.S. Increasing the ball milling time (720 ks) leads to the devitrification of the obtained glassy phase and the formation of nanocrystalline big-cube Zr2Ni powders. P.1679–1681. Sumiyama. A single glassy phase of Zr2Ni is obtained as a result of further milling for 540 ks. Phys. A. C. and Suzuki. pp. After 173 ks of milling time. and Inoue. USA. Vol. 187.. Acta Mater. 736 K and 41 K. K. ΔH fcc→ordered was found to be –2. pp. (1997) ‘Cyclic crystalline-amorphous transformations of mechanically alloyed Co75Ti25’. pp. pp.Transformations of tetragonal Zr2Ni alloys 11 4 Conclusions Our results demonstrated cyclic metastable phase transformations during MD of tetragonal-Zr2Ni intermetallic powders. which took place in the ball mill to the disability of the formed metastable phases to withstand against the impact and shear forces that are generated by the milling media (balls). pp. (1960) ‘Non-crystalline structure in solidified gold–silicon alloys’. This fcc phase transforms into another metastable phase (big-cube Zr2Ni) upon milling to 360 ks. pp. (2006b) ‘Hot pressing and characterizations of mechanically alloyed Zr52Al6Ni8Cu14W20 glassy powders’. The enthalpy change of transformation. Vol. 63. H. Vol. Phys. New York. and transformed into the same metastable phase of fcc-Zr2Ni that was early obtained after 173 ks of the time. (2001) Mechanical Alloying for Fabrication of Advanced Engineering Materials.976–987. M. K. When the milling time is increased. J. This big-cube phase is no longer in the milled powders. . (2001) ‘Amorphization by mechanical alloying in metallic systems with positive Gibbs energy of formation’. Vol. Our results cannot be explained by the concept of the local temperature rise during milling because the obtained metastable phases are periodically transformed to each other upon further milling time and under the same milling conditions. Met.. M. pp. (2002) ‘Amorphization and crystallization behaviors of glassy Zr70Pd30 alloys prepared by different techniques’. Duwez.86 kJ/mol..S. 177. El-Eskandarany. William Andrew Publishing. Vol. Vol. an fcc-Zr2Ni metastable phase is obtained and transformed into ordered-Zr2Ni upon heating to 941 K. the formed metastable phase is subjected to crystalline defects (points and lattice defects) that rise or lowers the free energy of the formed phases. El-Eskandarany. Trans. References Bai. Rev.Y. A. El-Eskandarany. Gente. K. Appl. Vol.. and Inoue..28 kJ/mol. B. Nature. (2006a) ‘Synthesis of new bulk metallic glassy Ti60Al15Cu10W10Ni5 alloy by hot-pressing the mechanically alloyed powders at the supercooled liquid region’. C. 50.
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